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Armstrong Whitworth A.W.38 Whitley

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ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH AND.W.38 WHITLEY - track version[/heading:aaaaaa]

Label the Design of the aeroplane - a description
Armstrong Whitworth And.W.38 Whitley Mk.I 34 aircraft, engines Armstrong Siddeley Tiger XI
Armstrong Whitworth And.W.38 Whitley Mk.II 46 aircraft engines Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VIII.
Armstrong Whitworth And.W.38 Whitley Mk.III 80 aircraft engines Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VIII, bomb load increased to 2 495 kg
Armstrong Whitworth And.W.38 Whitley Mk.IV 33 aircraft engines Rolls-Royce Merlin IV
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley And.W.38 Mk.IVa 7 aircraft engines Rolls-Royce Merlin X, the carrying capacity of bombs up to 3 175 kg,
Armstrong Whitworth And.W.38 Whitley Mk.In 1 466 aircraft, engines Rolls-Royce Merlin X, in the tower Frazer-Nash čtyřče Brovningů Mk.II
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley And.W.38 Mk.VI unrealized version with Pratt & Whitney engines G.R. 1830 Twin Waps
Armstrong Whitworth And.W.38 Whitley GR Mk.VII 166 aircraft anti-submarine version, the radar ASV Mk.II, the increased fuel supply up to 5 000 l.



Used springs:
Profile Publications, Nmber 153, Philip J. R. Moyes, The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1967.
en.wikipedia.org
https://airwar.ru/enc/bww2/waitl.html
.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/prehled-verzi-t15610#531859Version : 0
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ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH AW.38 WHITLEY[/heading:aaaaaa]

History of


United Kingdom in the construction of their bombers in 1932 followed the one officially defunct condition of the geneva disarmament conference, which was supposed to prohibit the construction of new bombers with a payload of bombs higher than 2 725 kg. In 1933 in Germany came to power of Adolf Hitler and the nazis soon began arming. 14. October 1933 Germany left the disarmament of the negotiations, withdrew from the league of nations, have benefited from the inconsistent procedure powers and decided to completely unilaterally for a policy of arms race and did not want to be bound by any international treaty. It was the definitive end of the disarmament conference. Tensions in Europe began to rise also, thanks to fascist Italy and then France and Great Britain were soon forced to reconsider its position. France began upevňvat its relations towards the east of Europe and entered into a contract with the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia. Britain began to care more about the modernization of its air force, in June 1934 the air Ministry drew up specification B.3/34, which requires suppliers of aviation technology, to launch design work on a medium bomber aircraft that was capable of day and night operations. First, this competition came forward four firms, but two firms, there are still in the preparatory stage and then in September 1934 remain in the game just two companies - Armstrong Whitworth Limited (hereinafter AW), where she commissioned the construction of two prototypes of heavier bombers with the designation of AW.38, this aircraft was considered suitable for night bombing. The other company was the fa Handley Page Ltd. with a project of your daily bomber Hampden. These two companies joined in, even the biggest team Vickers Armstrongs Ltd., where already since 1933 has evolved dr. Barnes Neville Wallis the twin-engine bomber with the geodetic construction of the fuselage - later known Wellington.

In the factory AW began to work on this project chief designer John Lloyd, for this project he used his previous prototypes, with which his fa failed. Mainly it was the prototype of a transport/ bomber aircraft AW.23, this aircraft was designed and subsequently built based on the specifications of C.26/31, unsuccessfully took part in the competition with the airplane Bristol Bombay. The second aircraft, which Lloyd's team used was a prototype bomber AW.30, that was offered to our air force, our air force priority to French Blochy MB 200. John Lloyd used the wing of a large supporting surface with a profile of considerable thickness, the beam of this wing was the torsion box, formed by the metallic fins and the corrugated sheet. The corrugated metal was only part of the torsion box, the surface of the wings was formed by the smooth aluminium plates. Unlike dolnoplošného AW.23 was the project of AW.38 designed as all-metal středoplošník, thanks to this concept, originated in the fuselage under the wing area for a shallow bomb bay, another of the bomb bay were in the wing. The spacious hull of the proposed airplane was based on the prototype of the AW.30, had a rectangular cross-section and from the beginning has been calculated with the use of a bomber, also for the transport of airborne infantry troops. A certain design of the attractions was a large angle of setting of wings (8,5°), this angle allowed the wing to maintain great buoyancy even at low flight speeds and during the landing maneuver helped reduce the landing speed. The wing was thus set up, because in the initial preparatory work was not provided with flaps. Thanks to this angle of the pilot had the plane slightly to suppress and so all the machines AW.38 had distinctive years of "nose to the ground". The aircraft was designed for the highest possible flight safety at night and was very stable in all flight modes. The airframe was designed to be conservative and at the time of its inception represented the best of british design schools, unfortunately, this design very soon become obsolete.

The first prototype Sn. K4586 took off with a big lead ahead of the competition, it happened 17. march 1936 at the factory airport, Baginton in Coventry. Maiden flight and test were successful, only the performances of the aircraft were weak. To blame were used the stream of čtrnáctiválcové engines Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX about the performance of 795 hp (593 kW). These engines have a small fuel consumption, these engines could have a new bomber to deliver a full bomb load at a distance of more than 2 400 km, but the aircraft was podmotorovaný and with the suicide of load ploužil speed of 160 mph (257 km/h). The ministry of aviation were aware of the growing danger in Europe and in a significant advance gradually concluded with the company AW the order of 320 aircraft AW.38 with combat on behalf of Whitley, the last of these aircraft should be handed over to the end of 1937! The RAF counted with the bombers Whitley primarily for night raids and for those was also Whitley equipped, long flight pilots to facilitate the autopilot and navigation in turn facilitate the modern direction finding.

The second prototype To 4587 took off up to 24. February of 1937, this prototype was powered by more powerful engines Armstrong Siddeley Tiger XI and in the course of a few days they were delivered the first production aircraft AW.38 Whitley Mk.I. First serial machines were rather dubious combat value, e.g., from the twelfth production aircraft were assembled mechanically operated front turret of the type of Frazer-Nash. These the first production aircraft were still low maximum speed (289 km/h), which still fall behind the original requirements of the Ministry of aviation from 1934. Whitley Mk.And overall, rather lagged behind their contemporaries, for example, the Italian bombers the Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero or the Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 Pipistrello it surpassed in speed, dostupu and range. Version Whitley Mk.I was made in the number of 34 aircraft factory in Bagintonu.

Followed by a version of the AW.38 Whitley Mk.II, she was powered by engines Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VIII, which have been overloaded dvourychlostními compressors, engines should, thanks to this compressor, the better the high-rise characteristics. The defensive armament of one machine gun Vickers in the front and in the rear gun turret, was from this version complemented by a retractable hydraulically controlled gun turrets Frazer-Nash FN 17 with two machine guns, Browning Mk.II (this tower its shape resembles a trash can). A total of were produced 46 aircraft of this version.

The next version, which got into production was a series of 80 aircraft AW.38 Whitley Mk.III. This version could carry through the modified bomb bay 5 500 lbs (2 495 kg) of bombs. The engines remained the same as the previous version - Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VIII. These engines increased weight of the aircraft has already completely failed and it was obvious to everybody that it must be replaced by other, more powerful types of engines. Production was discontinued in march 1939. Because of the relief was very often removed the bottom turret Frazer-Nash FN 17, which weighed 500 kg and its extrusion into the shooting position has drastically reduced the already low speed of the aeroplane Whitley.

5. April 1939 is finally in production receives a series of 33 aircraft AW.38 Whitley Mk.IV, which is driven by the powerful engines Rolls-Royce Merlin IV capacity of 1 030 hp (757 kW). These aircraft were already capable of reaching a maximum speed of 393 km/h, noticeably also improved the rate of climb and altitude. Partly this also helped the exhaust system of such engines, as the exhaust ejectors showed a measurable move. In the spring of 1939, the production got even sedmikusová series another version with the label AW.38 Whitley Mk.IVa, she was powered by engines Rolls-Royce Merlin X with dvourychlostními compressors and this makes these Merliny achieve the performance of 1 145 hp (854 kW in 1 720 m). The armament of these aircraft was the same as the version of the Whitley Mk.III, but the performances were higher. The increased fuel consumption of the Merlin engine to force the installation of additional fuel tanks with a capacity of 186 gallons (846 l), but even though it was in these aircraft can load up to 7 000 lb (3 175 kg) of bombs (2x 2 000 lb in the hull and 12x 250 lb in the wings). The leading edge of the wings were those of the machines equipped with pneumatic odledovacím device.

Just before the outbreak of the second world war - in August 1939 the first aircraft from the most numerous version of the AW.38 Whitley Mk.In, the production of this version was discontinued until the end of June 1943 after completing 1 466 aircraft. The power unit remained consistent with the version of the Whitley Mk.IVa, therefore, Merliny X, the same remained also the carrying capacity of pum, the major difference was the installation of the new turret, Frazer-Nash into the stern of the aircraft, this tower carried four Browning machine guns Mk.II with a total supply of 8 000 rounds of ammunition. The defense of the back sphere so greatly strengthened, unfortunately, but lacked defense from above, from below and from the sides.

Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, however, was not always enough, these great engines propelled the Hurricanes, Spitfires, Defianty and another aircraft, for this reason, the designers of the AW worked out the project of the airplane AW.38 Whitley Mk.VI, which was to be powered by american engines Pratt & Whitney G.R. 1830 Twin Waps capacity of 1 200 hp. This version is finally in production didn't get.

In 1940 was commissioned a specialized adjustment Whitleye for anti-submarine patrol. Whitleye older bomber versions are already in the protiponorkového patrol successfully engaged, but their activity decreased with the absence of radar equipment. New anti-submarine version was marked as AW.38 Whitley GR Mk.VII and was made in the number of 166 aircraft between the years 1941 and 1942. This aircraft was based on Whitleye Mk.In, carrying the same armament and were powered by identical engines. The aircraft could carry (2 820 kg) depth charges, the fuel supply was increased to 970 gallons (4 410 l) and, if necessary, up to 1 100 gallons (5 000 l), in addition to the burden he was carrying in addition a further member of the crew - operator radar ASV Mk.II. Whitleye in this role, have proven their worth so that several bomber Mk.In was converted into a standard GR Mk.VII. From the squadrons of Coastal Command were gradually withdrawn from the spring of 1943 when they were replaced by more modern aircraft.

Used springs:
William Green, Famous Bombers of the Second World War, London, Macdonald and Jane's, third revised edition, 1975, ISBN 0-356-08333-0.
Nicolas Roberts, Aircraft Crash Log No.4: Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, Cedar Green, Leeds, 1978.
Francis To. Mason, The British Bomber since 1914, Putnam Aeronautical Books, London 1994, ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
Bill Gunston, the Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways, Osprey Publishing, Botley 1995, ISBN 1-85532-526-8.
Jaroslav Schmid, Aircraft 1939 - 45, Fighter and bomber aircraft of Great Britain, vol. 1, str. 6 - 9, Nakladatelství Fraus, Plzeň, ISBN: 80-85784-37-8
Of aeronautics and astronautics no. 10/1980, year LXV, Václav Němeček, Aircraft 39-45, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley VII, Publishing Our troops, ISSN 0024-1156
Profile Publications, Nmber 153, Philip J. R. Moyes, The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1967.
en.wikipedia.org
https://airwar.ru/enc/bww2/waitl.html
https://www.airwar.ru/enc/sww2/waitlgr.html
www.flightglobal.com
https://uboat.net/boats/u206.htm
https://uboat.net/boats/u751.htm
author archive
.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/prehled-verzi-t15610#531856Version : 0
MOD

Operational deployment:


The first unit, which was aeroplanes Whitley armed with, was 10. bomber the squadron in Dishforthu, that your aircraft has taken 9. march 1937. At the moment when Great Britain and France have declared war on Germany, was the headquarters of bomber command air force aircraft Whitley armed with a total of eight squadrons, there were actually nine, but 7. squadron was just přezbrojována on the type of Hampden Mk.Also. At that time they were in combat units Whitleye versions of the Mk.III and IV. The older version of the Mk.I and II. were downloaded and were subsequently used for training.

Although he was a Whitley slow, clumsy and poorly armed aircraft, which at that time already quickly be outdated, however, for the bomber force of the RAF an indispensable aircraft and the above-mentioned shortcomings of the balance of reliability and perseverance.

The royal air force of its night bombers had deployed to letákovým raids on Germany and so the aircraft Whitley include several firsts. In the night of the 3rd. September 1939 was overthrown by a load of leaflets on German cities Bremen, Hamburg and on the industrial Ruhr. Whitley Mk.III 53. and 56. squadron thus became the first bomber of the RAF, which during the second world war penetrated over German territory. Your daily dose of flyers got soon Berlin, the raid was conducted on the night of 1. 2. October 1939, carried out by 10. squadron with its aircraft, the Whitley Mk.IV. Must say, that this way of bombing is completely missed with the effect and the morale of the German population did not suffer. Bomber force at that time, these night bombers vyzbrojovalo more and more units, eventually AW.38 Whitley formed a total of one-sixth of all RAF bombers and especially his number as he had for the RAF considerable importance. It is true, however, that after the initiation of the actual bombing raids (may 1940), began to show its obsolescence. Just due to the fact that he was the Whitley only used as a night bomber, did not suffer such losses as a Hampden during the daily air raids. In the initial stage were selected only military targets, but if this is how raids showed the lack of training of the navigators, because only a small part of the aircraft got above the intended target. Over time the goals changed and eventually Bomber Command gave their osádkám command, and began unrestricted bombing of German cities. Of course, left only in the German cities, and so the bombers are the most advanced Whitley Mk.In the reach above the northern Italian city Genoa and Turin, furthermore, bombed Austria and Poland, and also the objectives of the protectorate. Increasingly, however, showed the shortcomings of this bomber, the next weak armament and low performance it was, for example, lack of passive protection and so grew the strength of the German night fighters and anti-aircraft defense, so increased the losses of bombers Whitley. You could say that Bomber Command ended the Whitley his career in the night of 29. 30. April 1942, when it was bombarded the belgian port of Ostend. From this day on they were the bombers the Whitley downloaded from bomber units and were used to transport paratroopers, the transport costs to the training, to the towing truck gliders, to the laying of sea mines and fifteen of them were no one doubts there anymore, adapted for the carriage of passengers and handed over to the airline BOAC. Move to druholiniové unit, however, meant that Whitley has already got over to Germany with a cargo of bombs. Bomber Command at the end of the spring of 1942 changed the tactic of bombing - began with the indiscriminate destruction of German cities and that should help blitz with a thousand aircraft, and for this number of the new commander of Bomber Command Air Chief Marshal sir Arthur Harris borrowed all the appropriate machines from the auxiliary units and Whitley so bombed German cities Cologne, Essen, Bremen, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Stuttgart and Dortmund.

Longer career Whitleye recorded in Coastal Command, royal air force in 1939 transferred several squadrons to the coastal air force. It was a 51., 58., 77. and 102. squadron. Their task was to patrol and escort convoys and their protection from German submarines. Although the crew Whitleyů had to rely only on your eyes, so in this the role of a very proven, therefore, are in the 1940 rearmed on this type of the other two units and it 502. and 612. squadron. In 1942 it was to the coastal air force transferred several tens of Whitleyů from Bomber Command. The successful deployment of bombers Whitley led to the creation of a specialized version of the GR Mk.VII, which was equipped with the first three of these, this standard has been adapted also several converted bombers Mk.In. In Coastal Command endured Whitley in the spring of 1943, when it was replaced by more modern aircraft. Whitleye GR Mk.VII were transferred to training units, where trained operators of radars. You could say that by the end of 1944 was Whitley has already completely taken out of service, perhaps only a few exceptions vlekalo gliders. At 734. the squadron FAA was the last Whitley scrapped in February 1946, but it was probably the last one.


Units:


RAF: 7. squadron, 10. squadron, 51. squadron, 53. squadron, 58. squadron, 76. squadron, 77. squadron, 78. squadron, 97. squadron, 102. squadron, 103. squadron, 109. squadron, 115. squadron, 138. squadron, 161. squadron, 166. squadron, 295. squadron, 296. squadron, 297. squadron, 298. squadron, 299. squadron, 502. squadron, 612. squadron, 619. squadron,
1419. squadron, 1473. squadron, 1481. squadron, 1484. squadron, 1486. squadron,
Training: 1. OTA, 10. OTA, 19. OTTO, 24. OTA, 2. OTU, 58. OTU, 81. OTU and 83. OTA.
Parachute Training School

FAA: 734. squadron
The British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) - a civilian airline


Used springs:
William Green, Famous Bombers of the Second World War, London, Macdonald and Jane's, third revised edition, 1975, ISBN 0-356-08333-0.
Nicolas Roberts, Aircraft Crash Log No.4: Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, Cedar Green, Leeds, 1978.
Francis To. Mason, The British Bomber since 1914, Putnam Aeronautical Books, London 1994, ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
Bill Gunston, the Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways, Osprey Publishing, Botley 1995, ISBN 1-85532-526-8.
Jaroslav Schmid, Aircraft 1939 - 45, Fighter and bomber aircraft of Great Britain, vol. 1, str. 6 - 9, Nakladatelství Fraus, Plzeň, ISBN: 80-85784-37-8
Of aeronautics and astronautics no. 10/1980, year LXV, Václav Němeček, Aircraft 39-45, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley VII, Publishing Our troops, ISSN 0024-1156
Profile Publications, Nmber 153, Philip J. R. Moyes, The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1967.
en.wikipedia.org
https://airwar.ru/enc/bww2/waitl.html
https://www.airwar.ru/enc/sww2/waitlgr.html
www.flightglobal.com
https://uboat.net/boats/u206.htm
https://uboat.net/boats/u751.htm
author archive
.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/prehled-verzi-t15610#531858Version : 0
MOD