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Supermarine Seafire

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Supermarine Seafire - an overview version[/heading:aaaaaa]

Label the Design of the aeroplane - a description
Supermarine Hooked Spitfire emergency modification of a ground fighter, Spitfire Mk.VB
Supermarine Seafire Mk.IB remodeling Spitfrů Mk.In fixed wing type B
Supermarine Seafire Mk.IIC production on the basis of Spitfire Mk.VC, fixed wings remained.
Supermarine Seafire L Mk.IIC engine Merlin 32, short wings, a fighter for the small height.
Supermarine Seafire LR Mk.IIC reconnaissance version, a small number of
Supermarine Seafire L Mk.IIC Hybrid the first 32 machines Seafiru Mk.III even with fixed wings.
Supermarine Seafire Mk.III a full-fledged naval fighter already has folding wings.
Supermarine Seafire L Mk.III engine Merlin 55M and shortened the wings - the most widely used version.
Supermarine Seafire LR Mk.III reconnaissance variant of the previous version.
Supermarine Seafire Mk.XV the first version, powered by a Rolls-Royce Griffon VI
Supermarine Seafire Mk.XVII kapkovitá cab and enhanced chassis, engine Griffon VI remained
Supermarine Seafire FR Mk.17 reconnaissance version, a small number of
Supermarine Seafire Mk.45 engine Rolls-Royce Griffon 61, navalizovaný Spitfire Mk.21
Supermarine Seafire Mk.46 slightly navalizovaná version of the Spitfire Mk.22 fixed-wing
Supermarine Seafire FR Mk.46 reconnaissance variant of the previous version, a small number of
Supermarine Seafire Mk.47 engine Rolls-Royce Griffon 88 with fuel injection, counterrotating propellers, hydraulic control tipping of the wings
Supermarine Seafire FR Mk.47 reconnaissance variant of the previous version, most of the built Seafirů Mk.47 was included as an exploratory

Used springs:
Cyril R. Russell, Spitfire Odyssey My Life At Supermarines 1936-1957, Kingfisher Railway Productions, UK, 1985, ISBN: 0 946184 186
Richard Ward, Supermarine Spitfire Mk. XII-24, Supermarine Seafire Mk.-47., Aircam Aviation Series No.8, Arco Pub, 1969, ISBN-13: 978-0668021098
PeterCaygill, Combat legend, Spitfire Mk.VI-F.24, published by Jan Vašut s. r. o., Prague 8, 2005, ISBN 80-7236-396-4
author archive
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Supermarine Seafire with engines Rolls-Royce Merlin[/heading:aaaaaa]
First we recall why and under what circumstances, actually originated on-board fighter aircraft Supermarine Seafire. The year was 1941 and the Royal Navy for the second year blamed heavy fighting in the battle of the Atlantic, fought with the German fleet with aircraft of the Luftwaffe. Germany led against Britain to unrestricted submarine warfare, German submarines began to operate further away from England in the north Atlantic, the submarine of your objectives sought with the support of long-haul aircraft Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor and Britain threatened to blockade. The next battleground was the Mediterranean, where the british fleet fought against the fleet of the Italian, but also against the Italian ground the air force. The advantage on the side of the Royal Navy, its aircraft carriers, for example, in the night from 11. 12. November 1940 planted the Italian navy admiral Cunningham hit hard by the twenty-four load dvouplošníků Fairey Swordfish. It was, however, great happiness, that against this union hit the Italian air force, because the cover on the on-board bombers provide 14 fighter Fairey Fulmarů and 4 Sea Theatres. British carrier-based fighter, the air force was at that time consists of a few powerful types of aircraft, said two types of complementary several tower jets Blackburn Roc. It was the plane, which is not even remotely couldn't build a modern ground fighters. The Royal Navy at this response and tried to struggle to deploy all effective means.

As the first powerful fighter, who got on the decks of aircraft carriers, was the Hawker Sea Hurricane, were it made an emergency landscaped ground Hurricanes, which carried only the most necessary naval equipment, but even these machines meant for the Royal Navy a welcome backup. The admiralty, however, was well aware of the fact that the RAF has in its arsenal even more powerful fighter aircraft - Supermarine Spitfire, at that time it was a version of Mk.VB. Technical officers of the Royal Navy, although they had concerns from higher takeoff and landing speeds, and also the chassis of the Spitfire did not inspire their confidence, but in the end the Royal Navy ordered the adjustment of one of the serial of the Spitfire MK.VB (Sn. AB205). The adjustment consisted in partial thickening of the trunk, assembling the landing of the hook, and in the installation of the usual marine equipment. This modified Spitfire began at the end of the year 1941 with the tests on the deck of an aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious. The test went well and the Royal Navy commissioned in fy Vickers Supermarine the construction of 250 new Spitfires Mk.In, adjusted according to maritime standards. Unfortunately, the production capacity of aircraft factories on a contract like that wasn't enough, and so the Royal Navy had to be content with the adjustment of 166 Spitfire Mk.VB, that it has been handed over to the royal air force.

Hooked Spitfire - 45 older Spitfire Mk.VB was simply adapted for naval purposes, under the fuselage was installed a landing hook, from the instrumentation was installed in the naval radio station, the identification transponder, the adjustment took place at the Air Service Training Limited Hamble, these machines were designed and used only for training and for tests on the decks of aircraft carriers.

Seafire Mk.IB - (Supermarine Type 340) was marked with these 118 converted Spitfires, Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft Limited Eastleigh and in the Maintenance Unit of the RAF. The remodel included a complete overhaul of the aeroplane, because often it was already quite olétané machines, was further amplified by the fuselage, the aircraft was equipped with landing hook, lifting points for handling the airplane with a crane, to the equipment belonged also inflatable life raft dinghy. On-board devices have been supplemented by a receiver of the beacon of the lighthouse Type 72, identification transponder, and maritime radio. Rebuilding these aircraft were often quite time-consuming, and their completion is wearisome. The first unit, which was armed with Seafiry Mk.IB was 801. squadron FAA HMS Furious, it happened in June 1942. These Seafiry did not have folding wings, but if operated from the decks of older aircraft carriers, didn't mean too great a limitation, because the on-board lift in the shape of the letter "T". The wings match the ground type "B" and in each half there was one gun Hispano Mk.II with a stock of 60 grenades and two machine guns Browning Mk.II, each with 350 rounds of ammunition, later made aircraft received no cannons Hispano Mk.II 120 grenades stored in strips. Power unit the engine was a Rolls-Royce Merlin 45 or Merlin 46. The arrival of these aircraft meant that in the arsenal of the FAA discovered the high quality and powerful aircraft, with their performances completely level and enemy ground fighters. Royal Navy, this fighter was considered only for the intermediate type and soon is pulling to the training units.

Seafire Mk.IIC (Supermarine Type 357 ) - the following version, it was not already on the redevelopment of older aircraft, but the construction of totally new machines, the navy, the aircraft was considered to be full-fledged on-board fighters. This machine was derived from the ground Spitfire Mk.VC, compared to but convert it Seafirům Mk.IB, these machines are equipped with hinges for fastening the ropes of on-board catapult, the vicinity of these curtains, it was logically reinforced, and also the undercarriage legs were mirno extended. Seafiry Mk.IIC carried also more armor protection for the pilot area. Thanks to these corrections, however, the increased weight of the aircraft and reciprocally to the increase in weight decreased the maximum speed of the airplane about 26 km/h. The wing was a universal type, "C", theoretically it was possible to install in each half of the wings two cannons Hispano Mk.II, but in practice this never happened. For shortening or for any facilitate the take-off was possible on every side Seafiru to hang under the two auxiliary starter solid rocket fuel. These rocket motors have been marked with RATOG (Rocket Assistted Take Off Gear), burned for approximately four seconds and the length of the take-off shortened to 200 ft (61 m). However, in practice, used not, because Seafiry vzlétaly already at the speed of the headwind 8ft/s (about 8.5 km/h) and could easily achieve an appropriate maneuvering of ships. The engines of these Seafirů were the type of the RR Merlin 45 or Merlin 46. The units began arriving at the same time as konverzované Seafiry Mk.IB, the first unit that had these machines in its arsenal, 807. squadron FAA. Coincidentally, it was this unit located on the deck of HMS Furious and operated here, together with the 801. squadronou, armed with Seafiry Mk.IB. Other units were the 880. squadron HMS Argus and 885. squadron HMS Formidable. Seafiry this version produced factory Vickers Armstrong Supermarine (262 aircraft) and Westland Aircraft Limited in Yeovilu (110 aircraft). The wings remained still nesklopná.

Seafire L Mk.IIC (Supermarine Type 375) - this version was produced only fa Westland Aircraft Ltd., the production was started in march 1943 and the main difference was the installation of a more powerful engine Rolls-Royce Merlin 32, this engine was more powerful especially in small operational altitudes up to 2500 ft (760 m), the impeller of the compressor had a reduced diameter on the 9.5 in (241,3 mm). English it referred to as a cropped - cut. Visually, this version distinguishes, using čtyřlisté propeller Rotol Hydraulic, type In.P RF/4F5/4 diameter 3 280 mm (the previous version had a propeller trojlisté). Performances thanks to the propulsion unit up, fight naval fighters took place mostly at altitudes to 3,000 meters and then followed the adjustment - shortening of the wingspan of the trailing arcs of 32ft 2in (9,804 m), the pilots as the modified engines they clipped (truncated). This finish earned Seafire L Mk.IIC better rate of climb and speed in small to medium-sized operational altitudes, and these performances he lengthened operational service until the end of 1944. The exact number of steps made aircraft managed to figure out.

Seafire LR Mk.IIC (Seafire FR Mk.IIC) - several Seafirů L Mk.IIC was by Heston Aircraft modified for photo-reconnaissance variant. Modification consisted of the installation of two cameras of the type F-24. One camera was stored for oblique imagery at the site of the radio station, the lens was on the left side of the fuselage, the second camera was in the vertical position before landing the left hook. Is not known the exact number of such modified machines, it was probably about 10-12 machines.

Seafire Mk.III (Seafire L Mk.IIC Hybrid) - thus identified was 30 aircraft built by Westland, and the two aircraft built by Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft Ltd., although it was already a new type of Seafiru Mk.III, the wing was still solid, the new folding wings was the most important design element. At the beginning the production has not yet been new wings available and so a new fuselage with the engine Merlin 55 got old wings. Therefore, these Seafiry retrospectively designated as the Seafire Mk.II Hybrid. The installation of the Merlin engine series 50 we know according to the six exhaust pipes on each side of the engine (older Merliny 45 should be on each side of the three shaped nozzle).

Seafire Mk.III (Supermarine Type 358) - production commenced in April 1943, these aircraft have had folding wings and reinforced landing gear. The tilting of the wings for Seafirů be carried out manually, the thin profile of the wings did not allow the installation of hydraulic or mechanical elements, which would tilt easier. On the composition of the wings was required five members of the cabin crew that the wings folded or unfolded in one minute. The dividing plane of the wings was before cannons, there is a wing sklopilo up and the second time sklopilo before the end arc, this time downward. Thanks to this adjustment, the Seafire walked on the platform of the elevator and was it possible hangárovat on the lower deck, designed for this purpose and the aircraft carrier could carry more of these fighter aircraft. The first time was a folding wing tested on the prototype MA 970 (it was the first serial of the Mk. II), tests were begun in November 1942, serial machines followed in April-may 1943 and the first unit, which had them in its arsenal, 894. squadron FAA, it happened in November 1943. New Seafiry were only slightly more powerful than Seafiry Mk.II, but Seafiry L Mk.IIc with a Merlin engine providing 32 were more powerful. It didn't take long, and also a new Seafre Mk.III got the engine with reduced výškovostí.

Seafire L Mk.III - this type has been powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin 55M, this engine was again modified compressor and its combat performance was 1,585 hp (1 182 kW) at a height of 3,800 feet (1 158 m). The wing was again shortened on the end arches, performances in small to medium altitudes increased again to a decent level. Also the armament of these machines has undergone changes, inappropriate drum magazines were replaced by belt feeder, and the aircraft of the last production runs were cannons Hispano Mk.II replaced by lighter guns Hispano Mk.In, ammunition supply was increased to 120 and later to the 145 shells for each cannon. hinged wing had slightly less strength than the wing fixed, that's why was a bomb load suspended only under the fuselage (one 500 lb puma), later made aircraft could carry under the wings of four unguided rockets caliber 3 in (76.2 mm), each weighing 60 lb (27 kg) on the pylons Mk. VIII. The vast majority of Seafirů Mk.III was made in version with the engine Merlin 55M and with a reduced wingspan. 875 aircraft added Westland and 250 Cunliffe-Owen, with aircraft from the other manufacturer had a higher quality of workmanship. A significant drawback of all Seafirů was their limited range.

Seafire FR Mk.III and Seafire LR Mk.III - represented a reconnaissance version based on Seafirů Mk.III, or Seafirů L Mk.III. The cameras were of the same type and were mounted similarly as in elderly Seafirů LR Mk.IIC.

Seafiry Mk.II and Mk.III have proven themselves especially on the large aircraft carriers as were, for example, HMS Formidable, HMS Indefatigable and HMS Furious, on the decks of escort carriers (e.g. HMS Attacker, HMS Battler, HMS Stalker and HMS Unicorn) is more proven Grummanovy Marlety. British Seafiry intervened in the fighting on the Palermo, to further flying during the landing of the north of France, accompanied by the on-board bombers during the attack on the German battleship, Tirpitz. In 1944, underwent also the combat deployment against Japan, intervened in the fighting in the Indian ocean and the pacific battlefield. The Royal Navy these Seafiry soon after the war was replaced by more powerful versions, which were powered by engines Griffon. Excess Seafiry Mk.III were delivered to the French, it was a total of 141 aircraft. The French is in the years 1948-1949 operationally deployed in Indochina. French Seafiry then vzlétaly from the deck of the aircraft carrier Arromanches. Another foreign user was Ireland, which in its air force has included a total of twelve Seafirů. These machines, however, have been deprived of all marine equipment and have become so of them, actually a sort of modernized Spitfires Mk.In.

Used springs:
Jon Freeman Supermarine Seafire Mk.Ib - Mk.47, Wantage, Oxfordshire, UK, The Aviation Workshop Publications Ltd., 2004, ISBN 1-904643-07-8.
Len Bachelor, Supermarine Seafires (Merlins), Windsor, Berkshire, UK, Profile Publications Ltd., 1971.
Miroslav Šnajdr, on-Board fighters of his majesty, part 2., Votobia, Olomouc 1997, ISBN 80-7198-280-6
Miroslav Šnajdr, on-Board fighters of his majesty, volume 3., Jota, Brno 2003, ISBN 80-7217-230-1
Miroslav Šnajdr, on-Board fighters of his majesty, volume 4., Jota, Brno 2004, ISBN 80-7217-251-4
Aviation and astronautics, volume LXVI, no. 15/ 1990, str.30-32/ 590-592, Ing. Vlastimil Ehrman, Monograph Vickers Supermarine Seafire,the Publishing Magnet-Press, a. s. p., ISSN 0024-1156
Aeronautics and astronautics, year LXVI, no. 16/ 1990, str.30-32/ 630-632, Ing. Vlastimil Ehrman, Monograph Vickers Supermarine Seafire,the Publishing Magnet-Press, a. s. p., ISSN 0024-1156
Of aeronautics and astronautics no. 18/1978, Václav Němeček, Aircraft 39-45, Supermarine Seafire MK.III
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