Main Menu
User Menu

Military history website

Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant

Přehled verzí

Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant[/heading:aaaaaa]

Label the Design of the aeroplane - a description
Boulton Paul P.82 1st prototype Sn K8310, built on the basis of the specifications F.9/35, engine Rolls-Royce F
Boulton Paul P.82 2nd prototype Sn L6950, match the serial execution, the engine Rolls-Royce Merlin II
Boulton Paul Defiant Mk.I daily fighter engine Rolls-Royce Merlin III
Boulton Paul Defiant NF Mk.I a night fighter, the black paint and the exhausts with silencers flames
Boulton Paul Defiant NF Mk.IA a night fighter, radar AI Mk.IV
Boulton Paul Defiant NF Mk.II a night fighter, radar AI Mk.VI, and the engine Rolls-Royce Merlin XX
Boulton Paul Defiant ASR Mk.I rescue plane, under the wings of 2x dinghy, engine Rolls-Royce Merlin III
Boulton Paul Defiant TT Mk.I production of new trawl Defiantů with an engine Merlin XX
Boulton Paul Defiant TT Mk.II tested version of the tug the Defiant with the engine Merlin 24
Boulton Paul Defiant TT Mk.III adjustment of fighter Mk.Even for towing targets, the engines of the Merlin III.

Used springs:
Michael J. F. Bowyer, The Boulton Paul Defiant Aircraft in Profile, Vol. 5. London, Profile Publications Ltd., 1966.
Mark Ansell, Boulton Paul Defiant, Mushroom Model Publications, Yellow Series 6117, ISBN 83-89450-19-4.
author archive
URL : : 0

the Conditions of

In the british air force used two-seater single-engine fighter aircraft since the time of the first world war, then the most successful representative of this category was apparently Bristol Fighter that their performances did not enter even with jednomístnými fighters. In 1933, served in the british royal air force two-seater fighter biplane Hawker Demon, but this aircraft very quickly become obsolete mainly due to its open booths the pilot and the gunner, he was sitting in the rear cabin, from which he was to lead an effective fire with his machine gun Lewis. There were fundamental problems - the only machine gun caliber 0,303 in (7.7 mm) could not lead to sufficiently effective fire, at least not in the mid-thirties of the last century. The bombers were flying increasingly faster and were also becoming larger and more durable, another problem was open range, because the speed of the own airplane, approaching a value of 185 mph (300 km/h), already the gunners almost made it impossible to keep sufficiently accurate fire in a strong current of air. In 1934 it was the habitat of a shooter equipped with a cover, which its shape resembled a glass shell, the shooter protect, but again restricted his field of fire. The same problem also had the shooters bombers and the bombers are developing a turret, where the shooter is completely protected from the wind and he controls the machine guns most often duplicated.
In Great Britain, such a turret, developed and manufactured mainly company Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd., which has gained considerable experience with missile towers designer de Boyssona. This company designed and built the great hydraulically controlled turret Boulton Paul, And with four powerful machine guns Browning Mk.II.

Specifications F.9/35

In 1935 the british ministry of aviation draws up specifications F.9/35, in which are listed the technical requirements on the considerably unusual fighter aircraft - the tower the fighter, therefore the fighter, which will bear the new čtyřkulometnou tower fy Boulton Paul. Although the Idea was certainly interesting, in theory, could fighter this concept to shell the unions of the enemy bombers after an approach from any direction, the fighter could pass the association even at high velocity, and the shooter could their fire to focus on the chosen target and destroy it, even when confronted with enemy fighters shouldn't be without a chance of victory, because he could shoot from unexpected angles and positions, regardless of the direction of flight of his own aeroplane. Disadvantages, of course, there were - fighter, this concept had to be a two-seater, because besides the pilot there had to be a shooter, the plane had to be larger and especially more massive than the machine one. The crew was separate, and yet has been vitally dependent on mutual communication. Technical officers, however, were convinced that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and a new tower fighter will be successful. Requirements for a new aircraft had been formulated in the above specifications, which in addition to the aforementioned weaponry specifying still such as the maximum speed of the aeroplane, it must be higher than 290 mph (464 km/h) in the operating altitude of 15 000 feet (4 500 meters). Other technical requirements have not been defined and so were the engineers left a considerable margin of discretion. It didn't take long, and the competition attracted a total of fifteen companies are greatly diverse designs of aircraft. Proposed were both single-engine and twin engine aircraft. The ministry of aviation, however, subsequently stated additional requirements, which were often completely contradictory, this led to the fact that some of the companies their projects downloaded.

Project and the prototypes of the Boulton Paul P.82

Out of all the applicants of the projects was the ministry of aviation selected six projects, but at the time it hit even the ministry of finance and so in the game remain only two companies, whose designers were given the instruction to launch the construction of prototypes. At first he was the favourite considered to be the prototype of the Hawker Hotspur (K8309), which was considerably modified light bomber the Hawker Henley with wings Hurricana (of course without the barrel equipment). This aircraft took off 14. June 1938, carried only mock-up turret, but in order to assess its flight characteristics, bore also corresponding to the load. Hotspur during the tests allegedly showed better flight characteristics, but since the company Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Co. Ltd. was at that time overloaded with production of the fighter aircraft Hurricane, was the winner of the competition selected the prototype of the marked P.82 - a product of the company Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd. Aircraft designed by her chief designer, director and chairman of the management board dr. John Dudley North CBE, this machine later got a fighting name the Defiant (Defiant).
the First prototype (K8310) was powered by a Rolls-Royce engine F and with this engine took off on 11. August 1937 for the first time from the airport Pendeford, a fling and a series of first tests will be carried out also without the turret. Steps were made to start tests at the Research institute of aircraft and weaponry in the Martlesham Heath (A&AEA) and, needless to say, that the plane was on the whole positively evaluated. Turret was installed in February 1938 and 18. may the tests involved and the second prototype (L6950), which no longer corresponded to the serial execution, differed only in the engine, the second prototype was powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin II.

Boulton Paul Defiant Mk.I

Serial production of the Defiantů was launched on 30. July 1938. From a design point of view it was about the dolnoplošný all-metal aircraft, curvy shapes. Serial aircraft were powered by a forked dvanáctiválcem Rolls-Royce Merlin III. All hlavňová armament was concentrated in the hydraulically-operated gun turret for better aerodynamics during flight extended aerodynamic deflectors that permit the better to wrap the air around the tower, in the case of the shooting proudnicové covers pneumatically zasunuly to the hull and turret could rotate 360°. Is retracted under deflectors supplied turret Defiantům greatly bojechtivého appearance. Control hitting Browning machine guns was carried out electrically, and an automatic interruption of the stream were protected by their own tail surfaces and the propeller of the aeroplane. The shooter could shoot the tower so that both of a pair of machine guns pointed forward, in this position of them could shoot the pilot, in practice this method of shooting used really rarely, the pilot in his cabin, he did not even sight. Shooter aiming machine guns using the first type gyroscopic sights. One significant fly in the ointment here, however, was too big the weight of the aircraft. Initially it was calculated with the take-off mass of 2 620 kg, but the first serial machines were weight 3 774 kg, and in the course of production changes to expect this weight still further increased, and so if we evaluate the performances featured the Defiant rather weaker average. Dimensionally corresponded to approximately jednomístnému hurricane each, but the weight of the turret, the gunner and the other accessories was much more cumbersome.
The first five of serial machines has been vigorously tested, because it was necessary to determine what the best technique to combat bombers against fighters, here are just looking for a solution, how best to coordinate the activities of the pilot and the gunner. It was also certain, that the plane with this weight will not achieve the agility of single-seater fighters. Interested in this aircraft have shown the Belgians, the British, however, with regard to the tensions in Europe needed for their squadron each of modern aircraft and so the trade happened.
The royal air force officially classified aircraft Boulton Paul Defiant F Mk.Even in your loadout on 8. December 1939, the day took your first two Defianty 264. squadron in Manston. As deliveries continued, so were the other Defianty be included in the arsenal of the other squadrons. Initially it wasn't all right, the problems with the engines and with a chassis led in January 1940, even to the grounding of all Defiantů, in February, managed to defect to remove and so could be Defiant Mk.In April 1940 declared to be capable of fully operating the services. At the end of 1939 it was already available so far, a limited amount of stooktanového gasoline, this fuel could be the engines Merlin III increased filling pressure of the compressor and reciprocally to the increased engine power of 280 hp (209 kW). Factory in Wolverhampton produced from July 1939 to June 1940 a total of 712 aircraft of this version.


The first combat deployment Defiantů dates back to the 12. may 1940, from this day have been operationally deployed, the first two squadrons armed with these machines, to the already mentioned 264. the squadron soon joined 141. squadron. The first encounter went well, the first day, when they were deployed into battle, reaches the crew of the Defiant is destroyed, the victim was a Junkers Ju 88, the next day was even more successful four dive-bombers, Junkers Ju 87. Soon, however, comes the first warning that all is not well in the classic duels with the German fighters Messerschmitt Bf 109 E it was a total of six Defiantů quickly shot down. German pilots initially Defianty wrong with jednomístnými Hurricanes and if an enemy fighter attacked the Defianta classically from behind, fell into the murderous fire from the gun turrets. In the course of the aerial battles taking place over the Dunkirk eventually Defianty did not at all wrong, and their crew have successfully established themselves not only against bombers, but against fighters.
The best day of crews Defiantů was 29. may 1940, when the members 264. wing on your account for a total of 37 kills. Shooters Defiantů contending 1x Ju 88, 19x Ju 87, 9x Bf 110 and 8 Bf 109, all for the price of the loss of a single shooter, who died in an emergency parachute jump from a damaged Defiant. After the end of the war it was found that the Luftwaffe's losses on such a scale by far not suffered, in fact the Germans lost about half of the aircraft. Similar situations have also occurred later in the bombing of the unions, when multiple shooters reported shoot down an enemy fighter as your own, because no shot it just at the time when it exploded. Anyway, it was a great success crews 264. squadron, but at the same time it was the "swan song" Defïantů in the role of the day fighters.
Over the british islands with the full force of the ignited air battle of Britain, the royal air force have needed every fighter capable of fighting, had already in August completely download your Defianty of the daily fighter events and so Defianty since switched exclusively to the prosecution. Not confirmed because the theoretical considerations of the planners of the british ministry of aviation that the German daily the bombers will be on the Uk fly without their own fighter escort. Conversely, the fighter escort was numerous, it consisted of mostly Messerschmitt Bf 109 E and this plane Defianta completely declassed, because the German fighters had already left to trick form Defiantů and Hurricanů and losses Defiantů were unbearable.

the Defiant as a night fighter

The royal air force transferred its Defianty to the night fighter squadrons, it did so from September 1940. These aircraft were delivered to the exhaust pipe the muffler of the flames and the protective coating of matte black paint. It was for the beginning of everything, the crew is in search of bombers had to rely only on your eyes, because the radars have not yet been installed. The first night fighter squadrons was 307. squadron, it was the Polish unit, in November and December followed her 255., 256. and 151. squadron. The poles 16. September, claimed his first night victory, recognized he was up to another one of the the following night, the machine was a Junkers Ju 88.
Defianty in the new role of night fighters performed well. When you perform a night assault showed the advantage of a rotating turret. The gunman could open fire on enemy aircraft from all positions, the Defiant didn't have to attack from behind, as the rest of the night fighters, the crew Defiantů the most commonly attacked from the side or from below, the gunner had a fairly good chance to fire at the most vulnerable places of the German bomber. Defianty of all four squadrons in the period from September 1940 to may 1941 may match with Beaufightery and Blenheimy. Under the impression of these successes were in 1941 Defianty armed with other units of the RAF, and it was these squadron - 96., 125. and 153.
The Defiant has also finally made radar AI Mk.IV, this radar was first installed in already-built machines, its installation betray the antennas on the wings and on the right side of the fuselage. The screen of the radar equipment was located on the left front of the pilot, to the right was a control panel with controls. Royal Air Force these machines deployed from the autumn of 1941 and carry the Defiant NF Mk.IA.
20. June 1941 was a [prototype of a new version, which soon gets into production, this version is no longer directly produced for night fighting with the designation Defiant NF Mk.II. This version powered by a more powerful engine Merlin XX, which was effectively přeplňován new two-speed supercharger, upgrading to see also fuel system. The hull of the new aircraft was slightly longer and a slight adjustment has also affected the rudder. The fighter also has a more modern radar AI Mk.VI. These standing hit to the fighting already at the turn of August and September. Although the new engines were more powerful performances of new Defiantů nestouply not significantly, this was due to the fact that the plane got to its performance peak. Wolverhamptonská the factory has supplied a total of 200 new Defiantů and a few elders of the standard adapted. At the end of 1941 were not combat feats Defiantů even in the role of night fighters, not brilliant, began to show the need of a modern and efficient night fighters. In July of 1942 occurred on the download Defiantů of night fighting. Then formed the armament of a total of thirteen night fighter squadrons, and for the sake of completeness I have to mention that in addition to the british royal air force Defianty in limited quantities was also used by the Australians in their 456. squadron and the Canadians 409. and 410. squadron, two Defianty were delivered to the Americans, who used them for familiarization of crews of night fighter with the operation of radars.

Transition to ancillary services.

After the download Defiantů from the night fighter squadrons přeházejí these machines to the auxiliary units, which subsequently performs the various tasks. For example, at the 515. squadron are Defianty used to the interference of the German coastal radars. Some Defianty were adapted for search and rescue operations over the sea. After this adjustment bore Defiant ASR Mk.I under the wings of the curtains for the two inflatable boats "dinghy", which were dumped airmen the above sea level. The advantage of these modified Defiantů was their preserved machine-gun armament. Credits thanks to it can effectively prevent enemy aircraft, or could shell the German ships.
The last adjustment made by Defianty have passed, the adjustment was allowing the towing of aerial targets for practice shooting (Target Tug). Newly-made Defianty TT Mk.I, were produced from January 1942 to march 1943, and were made, 150, to match the most Defiantům NF Mk.II, but not have to bear the gun turret. In 1947 the last of these aircraft finally left the service in the RAF. There was another version of Defiant TT Mk.III, she wasn't newly made, but it was about the redevelopment of the older no longer used Defiantů Mk.Also.
Missing the us version of the Defiant TT Mk.II, the latter, however, was not produced, it should be a oblehčenou version powered engine Merlin 24 performance 1 620 hp (1 208 kW).

Czech pilots on Defiantech

The fact that on the night fighter Defiantech flew our fighters is relatively little known. In 1941 at the 96. night fighter squadron at the base Cranage serve the pilots Francis Chábera, Josef Keprt, Joseph the Hatter, and Vlastimil Veselý and the on-board archers Karel Bednarik, Rudolf Husár, Oldřich Kaňovský and Jaroslav Kovanda. Crew night fighter Defiant - Stg. Chábera and Stg. Bednarik in the summer of 1941 attributed the damage to the German bomber Heinkel He 111. Shooter Karel Bednarik wrote: "During one of the patrols of the us ground control instructed the enemy aircraft. We were approaching him, we saw him, the headlights picked up. It was the German Heinkel He 111 bomber. We were getting closer to him, but around the plane densely fired anti-aircraft defense. Was such an agreement, that when we call a contact ground control, that will ensure that the antiaircraft defense stopped shooting. But it didn't really work, the gunners after it burned away. It was a great danger that we copped it too. We approached the 300 meters and I began to shoot from the right engine Heinkla began to roll the black smoke, I reported: Got it! Suddenly the German disappeared. If I hit him I or artillery, but we nezjistili." (Quoted from the book: Charles Bednarik - With guardian angel on the ground and in the air)

Used springs:
Alex Brew, The Turret Fighters - Defiant and Roc, Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK, the Crowood Press, 2002. ISBN: 186126-497-6.
Thomas Andrew, the Defiant, Blenheim and Havoc Aces, Oxford, UK, Osprey Publishing, 2012,ISBN 978-1-84908-666-0.
Michael J. F. Bowyer, The Boulton Paul Defiant Aircraft in Profile, Vol. 5. London, Profile Publications Ltd., 1966.
Mark Ansell, Boulton Paul Defiant, Mushroom Model Publications, Yellow Series 6117, ISBN 83-89450-19-4.
Ivo Pejčoch, Boulton Paul Defiant, HPM 2007 no 13 and the HPM 2008 no 1.
Jaroslav Schmid, Fighter and bomber aircraft of Great Britain 1939-45, Pilsen, the Publishing house Fraus, 1995. str. 68. ISBN 80-85784-37-8.
Jiri Rajlich and Jiri Sehnal, Cat eyes, Prague, Modelpres, 1993, str. 92. ISBN 80-901328-2-0.
Václav Němeček, Aircraft 39-45, Boulton Paul Defiant, Aviation and astronautics, no. 22/1190, volume LXVII, Magnet-Press, a. s. p., ISSN 0024-1156
Vaclav Kolesa, Paul German, Jana Horáková, Karel Bednarik - With guardian angel on the ground and in the air, Publisher Vaclav Kolesa, Zlín, 2003, ISBN 80-239-2120-7
author archive
URL : : 0