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... and the last was Javoricko

Author : 🕔19.04.2005 📕89.209
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motto: "When in the world will violence and injustice be eradicated forever, when the humiliation of the powerful will be prevented and their desire to reach for the freedom of those who want to enjoy work, sun and life?
When will a strong and victorious justice finally drive all the rapists to hell, from any camp? "

KB Michalov: Destruction of Javoříčko, Olomouc 1945


Javoříčko before burning

Javoříčko, a settlement surrounded by forests and located near the romantic castle of Bouzov, did not enter the subconscious of people only thanks to caves, which were known before 1839, but whose larger spaces began to be explored only in 1937. He participated in their discovery and exploration forest manager Vilém Švec, who had moved to Javoříčko a year before that ( 1936 ). The caves were opened to the public on May 15, 1938. Unfortunately, the hopes that the inhabitants placed in the growing tourism were interrupted by the war.

Already after the Munich dictatorship, Javoříčko found himself near the border with the Sudetenland, which reached as far as Lostice, and after the fateful March 15, 1939, the settlement as well as Bouzov Castle came under the direct administration of the SS Wirtschafts Administrative management ). The castle was entrusted to the so-called Society for the Support and Care of German Cultural Monuments ( Gesellschaft zur Förderung und Pflege deutscher Kulturdenkmäler ), an organization focused on the plundering of cultural monuments and other valuables throughout occupied Europe. Bouzov was probably transformed into a warehouse of valuables obtained in this way. The fate of Javoříček from the administrators of the castle and the Bouzov forest administration was significantly affected by SS oberscharführer Othmar Victor, who joined Bouzov in 1942 and in the autumn of 1944 settled permanently in Javoříčská hájenka with his family.

A guerrilla journey to tragedy

Unfortunately, it is difficult today to faithfully map guerrilla activity in the Konicko and Litovelská regions, but this can be attempted, at least in part.

The fate of Javoříček was most influenced by the Soviet guerrilla group Jermak. This was planted on October 1, 1944 near Račice in the Vyškov region. It was originally a 15-member group under the command of M. Dimitrijev with Commissioner L. Železňak and Chief of Staff M. Petrovsky. Intelligence composed of Commander Andrei Jegrovich Fursenko of Nikolaev, Grigory Semyovich Litvisko and Nadezhda Vasilyevna Ivanov of Leningrad operated in the Konicka region. This intelligence service first operated in the area of Hluchov and Přemyslovice and their main task was to gain new members from the ranks of fugitive Soviet prisoners hiding in Konicko. In mid-October 1944, this group recruited a group of former prisoners led by Pavel Volkov and, among other individuals, Captain Viktor Petrovich Kruzilin and Leonid Nikolayevich Glucharev. At the beginning of 1945, the group, now under the command of VP Kružilina, was organized into two companies under the command of L. Glucharev and the Czech Vladimír Blehta. She worked mainly in the municipalities of Stará and Nová Roveň. Based on the analysis of the actions of this group, it can be concluded that in the first months of 1945 their area of activity moved from the area northwest of Konice to the east to the Bouzov area and the main railway and road connection between Olomouc and Mohelnice and further to Prague. A total of 18 guerrilla actions were recorded in the Javoříčko area ( one in January and February, three in March and thirteen in April ). Most of them were supply and armament actions, but very often the Yermak-Kruzilin division carried out actions of so-called individual terror, ie actions aimed at punishing and intimidating collaborators and persons of German nationality.

Of course, other guerrilla groups also operated in the area - it was mainly the Ritikan group, whose activities, however, were concentrated more in the area of Loštice and the Czech-Yugoslav group called the brigade " Marshal Tito ", but its activities can not be more accurately documented.According to sources, it appears as a group that appeared until the end of the war.

Javoříčko itself formed one of the important bases, now the Jermak-Fursenko group ( Kružilin fell into captivity and was executed by the Gestapo in Brno ), since mid-February 1945, when A. Fursenko turned to J. Zapletal for the possibility of using the local caves as a hiding place , after a tour of the caves, however, they temporarily left Javoříčko. About a week later, they found permanent refuge in the families of J. Zapletal and V. Vlček. O. Victory's hunting lodge served as another shelter for them. However, on 15 February 1945 he left Javoříčko for Thuringia and nothing more precise is known about his other travels, he allegedly also took part in training for diverse units such as Werwolf. He left his wife Hilda and children Hennelore and Malfred in the village. Unlike her husband, who maintained friendly relations with members of the Olomouc Gestapo, H. Victorová tried to help her new fellow citizens where she could, even by intervening with her husband's Gestapo friends. On the night of March 19 to 20, the partisans carried out an intimidation action directly in Javoříčko. It was a beating of several residents who talked too much about the guerrillas, and this event became one of the reasons for fear and resistance against the presence of the guerrillas. The very controversial hanging of the gamekeeper B. Švec in nearby Kadeřín also contributed to the increase in tension. These, but also other events, personal aversions and alcoholism, especially of G. Litvišek, led to an event that became a prelude to tragedy.

At the beginning of April, the village housed a large group of guerrillas under the command of A. Fursenko. However, they were not accommodated in Javoříčko at the same time, but they were divided into several smaller groups. One consisted of A. Fursenko, A. Hňoupek, Václav Vlček, the wounded Aloisie Zapletalová, L. Glucharev, V. Blehta and former prisoners Miško, Nikolaj and Petr. These were hiding in the hunting lodge with H. Victorová and in the house of Alois Pospíšil. The second group temporarily housed in Pěčíkov consisted of G. Litvišek, N. Ivanovová and V. Blažek and probably arrived in Javoříčko only on the fateful April 9 evening. At the turn of March and April 1945, contacts were established with the Armenian Engineer Division, based in Litovel and involved in the protection of the warehouse there, and with Wehrmacht Lieutenant Hugo Heresh, who decided to join the guerrillas. Former hotelier Adolf Pospíšil played a significant role in establishing these two contacts. A. Fursenko, unfortunately coincidentally, on the night of April 9-10, 1945, accompanied by A. Hňoupek and Václav Dostál, who for a fee offered to provide transport to the already mentioned section of Armenians from Litovel (it is not clear whether the whole section was to go to the guerrillas or whether it was only the transfer of armaments associated with the transition of part of the section ). Even before his departure from Javoříček, A. Fursenko promised to return by midnight, but the whole event was significantly delayed due to circumstances, so the group was in Nasobůrky at midnight and instead of the Armenian unit brought to Javoříček only two (the rest of the unit was meanwhile armed by the Germans and so it was not possible to procure even the promised weapons ). Meanwhile, in Javoříčko, G. Litviško, who was constantly under the influence of alcohol, accompanied by N. Ivanov, arrived at the gamekeeper's lodge with Victorová, where they found only a part of the Fursenko group. Litviško gave Victor an ultimatum, stating that if Fursenko did not return by midnight on April 9, Victor would be shot ( Litviško was supported by N. Ivanov, who hated Victor ). Since Fursenko did not return until midnight, Victor's three shots were killed, and her two children were met with the same fate. After these unnecessary murders, the gamekeeper's lodge was set on fire, but it did not burn completely. Around one o'clock in the morning, Fursenko's group returned to Javoříčko with the Armenians. Fursenko condemned Litvišek's actions, but did not punish the actor himself - on the contrary, he handed him over to the Armenians and, accompanied by A. Pospíšil and A. Hňoupek, went to Hvozdeček. After the commander left, Litviško interrogated the Armenians, which he eventually shot with Václav Dostál (who defended them).After that, he started shelling firefighters involved in extinguishing the gamekeeper's lodge and fatally wounded the mayor of Veselíčko, František Malík. Litovish was never punished by the command of the Yermak-Fursenko group for his actions. Thanks to this tragedy, the partisans were forced to leave Javoříčko and no longer use it as a permanent base, although occasional visits, especially at Vlčková's, continued.

The Nazi path to tragedy

After the outbreak of the SNP ( August 29, 1944 ), units intended for the liquidation of guerrilla activity began to appear in Moravia. There were mainly three types of units:
- SS Intervention Teams ( Einsatzkommando )
- Riot Police Fighter Divisions ( Jagdkommando )
- Special Police Detention Units (Zur besonderen Verwendungskommando - ZbV )

In addition to these units, the SS Police Regiment No. 21 operated here, whose headquarters were located in Brno.

To coordinate the activities of these units, by order of KH Frank on 15 April 1944, the so-called Command Staff for Combating Bands was established. In addition to these special units, the Gestapo offices in Brno and Olomouc also took part in the anti-guerrilla struggle, mainly through an extensive network of confidants and provocateurs, consisting mainly of former Soviet prisoners and domestic helpers. Thanks to these provocateurs, on March 16, 1945, Captain Victor Kružilin, the commander of the Jermak-Kružilin (Fursenko ) group, was captured and, as already mentioned, later executed in Kounice dormitories in Brno. The Olomouc service sent its confidant Vladimír Brázda to the forest administration in Bouzov, but thanks to the disclosure, it was no longer usable for the Gestapo in February 1945, and therefore he was transferred to Germany, where he continued his treacherous activities. As another article of the anti-guerrilla struggle, of course, protectorate gendarmerie stations were also used - near Javoříček, these were stations in Bouzov and Hvozdno.

By order of KH Frank from April 21, 1945, the districts of Olomouc, Litovel and Prostějov fell into the so-called combat zone of the Mitte Army Group and thus into the competence of military commanders. At the same time, this order enabled far sharper interventions both against the guerrillas and against the Czech resistance and, last but not least, against the population as such. To this end, it is necessary to mention the decree issued on 3 May 1945, valid for the Litovel district, which announced that for every dead German soldier, 10 people from the local population would be shot.

But let's go back for a moment to the 9th and 10th April 1945, respectively, and to the shooting of Victorová, her children, the Armenians, V. Dostál and F. Malík. On the morning of April 10, an extensive investigation took place in the presence of members of the SS and the then "master" of Bouz's SS Obersturmbannführer Emil Büchs. Based on a report from the gendarmerie station in Bouzov, the Olomouc Gestapo, whose investigation group was led by F. Langr, also began its investigation. Since then, the movement of an unspecified unit of provocateurs composed of " Vlasovci " has been recorded in the vicinity of Javoříček, posing as partisans and most likely subject to E. Büchs. Near Javoříček there were also the following anti-guerrilla units: jagdkommando of about 120 men housed in the economic and kindergarten in Konica - it was probably part of the police regiment SS 21 from Brno, ZbV No. 28 under the command of SS Obersturmführer H. Kuka - whose the headquarters were located in Letovice - this unit had as its main objective the liquidation of the Jermak group and a smaller unspecified SS unit with headquarters in Ludmirov. It should be noted that after the liberation of Brno ( April 26, 1945 ), Olomouc became the main center of all Nazi armed units, including the Gestapo and anti-guerrilla units.

In the second half of April, the gradual migration of valuables from Bouzov to Germany and Austria ends, and so its inhabitants disappear in the same way.Subsequently, there is a fairly rapid change of inhabitants of the castle, which is very difficult to map today. What is certain is that the temporary accommodation included an anti-guerrilla commando under the command of untersturmführer SS Hoffmann with a strength of 12 to 22 men, but this unit left the castle on May 2, 1945. On May 4, it was replaced by an anti- guerrilla unit in the castle, part of ZbV no. .43 - Commando under the command of Untersturmführer Criminal Commissioner Egon Lüdemann and a force of between 60 and 80 men. During its retreat from the Beskydy Mountains, this unit also stopped at the Olomouc Gestapo, where an action against guerrillas in the Javoříčko area was probably planned.

Javoricko 4.-5. 5. 1945

On the evening of 4 May, part of Lüdemann's commando set out on a reconnaissance in the vicinity of Bouzov, and it was during this reconnaissance that a collision with the guerrillas took place at around 10 pm near the bridge in Javoříčko. Unfortunately, the statements about this incident are quite contradictory, but on their basis it can be deduced that the guerrillas and part of Lüdemann's commando, consisting mainly of the so-called Vlasovci, ie originally Russian prisoners of war, fought here. About five members of this unit were captured here and shot in the morning near the mill Věžnice near Hartíkov. This clash was probably the last stimulus for action against the village. On the night of the 4th to the 5th, E. Lüdemann requested reinforcements from both Konice and Litovel, and probably also from Olomouc. According to the post-war statements, it most likely seems that the reinforcements that took part in this action came only from Konice, but even so, one can quite rightly assume information about the subsequent action at the headquarters of ZbV No. 43 in Litovel ( Commander Sturmbannführer SS W. Brandt ) and the Gestapo in Olomouc.

The next day ( May 5, 1945 ) at 8 o'clock in the morning, Lüdemann's commando gathered in the courtyard of Bouzov Castle, and from there part of the unit went to Javoříčko by field and forest. Another part of the commando arrived via Střemeníčko and Veselíčko - this is how Javoříčko was surrounded.

The course of the event itself can be mapped based on the use of the testimony of the only member of Lüdemann's commando, who was brought before our court after the war - Willi Kunz, post-war report of the SNB station in Bouzov, testimony of Jaroslav Dokoupil - the only eyewitness .

Let us now give the floor to those who survived this tragedy:

Marie Zapletalová ( she lost her husband that day ): “... The husband came home from Březina that tragic day around nine o'clock in the morning. He said that he saw several German soldiers go to the neighbor, ie to Mr. Václav Vlček, and to the hunting lodge. To verify his statement myself, I went to look over the fence, where it was clear to see in that direction. I really saw German soldiers right next to Vlčky and in the hunting lodge.

In the meantime, however, by the time I returned, they had already arrived at our house. There was no one outside of us. They began to smash outdoor windows themselves. The husband went to court to find out the cause. They immediately began questioning him about how many guerrillas there were from Friday to Saturday. At the same time, they acted cruelly - beating him. I already went out and begged them to leave us alone that the partisans were not with us and that we knew nothing about them. During this statement, one of the soldiers (he spoke Czech) poked me so hard that I and my child overturned. I had to follow him to the kitchen. Here again, his husband tried to prove our utter innocence. But even that didn't help. One of the soldiers took a match from the stove himself, his husband had to go to the ground with it, where the soldier started a fire. Then he ordered my husband to untie the cattle and leave the house with the children immediately.

The man also wanted to come with us, but he returned for his hat. Before he could leave the house, the children and I had to go up the village (I could only take a pram with me).I saw my husband for the last time, as he was led by soldiers to Mlčochy, where he was then shot dead with two neighbors. Their bodies were not found until the next day in the incinerator. We recognized him by his cigarette case.

Along the way we met soldiers from Střemeníček, Habří, ie the forest from the north side, they were surrounded by chains. Beyond the village, we headed through the valley of the stream to Veselíčko, where other fugitive women with children and some men were already there. Here we survived all the horrors of exploding individual armored fists and grenades and shooting from machine guns and machine guns, fearing for the lives of their men. It was not until after two o'clock in the afternoon that the farmer Dokoupil, who had been left in the world, came with the news that all the men who remained in the village were shot and all the houses burned down.

Marie Šlucarová ( she had a father and two brothers among those shot): “… I went with my mother, sister and little boy along the road to Střemeníček. I saw the soldiers smiling when they saw us running frightened from their homes. As we walked down the road, they started firing at us, we had to run down the creek and hide there. There were about thirty of us there. No one spoke, for those terrible wounds had stabbed us right in the heart, and we did not yet know that our loved ones were falling beneath them. When the shooting subsided, we saw SS-men carrying cattle and bicycles. Two of them saw us. They went straight to us. Everyone stood on one side with the machine gun aimed. We didn't even breathe in fear and waited for the morning to come. They stood over us for a while, and then one asked, "Are there partisans among you?" When we said no, we were Czechs, he threatened us and said, "Woe to the partisans!" They left. Everything stopped, only smoke rolled from the village. "

Anna Brosinger (lost her son): “… I saw them through the window, walking away from Březina. "Do they want to?" I ask Oldrich, and then the two of us were with us. Oldřich, like my son, went out and they went to him to show them the granary immediately. He had to take a ladder and walk back. Then the other SS-men came and shouted, "Everybody out!" I was terribly scared, I didn't even take my coat and I was running in front of the house. I saw Oldřich carrying a ladder, and that was the last time I saw him. It never occurred to me that I shouldn't see him! He was such a good boy ...

They yelled at me to go untie the cows. I call Oldřich, but he didn't answer, so I ran for my coat. I didn't know what I was upset about. Dolfík, my brother-in-law, held my cows before the soldiers also drove him away and shot him. The soldiers had already started firing and were throwing something inside that exploded. We were driven by women to Klepár. I was upset that I didn't even remember how I got to Klepár. SS-mani also came there and started firing, but then left. There were more of us women at Klepár who were driven here. Others were in a ditch on the road near Střemeníček or fled even further. We at Klepár knelt and prayed. We heard gunfire ...

… I didn't find Oldřich right away and I always thought that he somehow saved himself as well. It wasn't until the next day that they found him burned in the granary. They shot him there, poor thing, when he showed them upstairs… "

Jaroslav Dokoupil: “… We observed everything from home. However, when it was seen that several houses were burning at the bottom of the village from the hunting lodge, we sensed something terrible. Fleeing women and children fleeing around our building also proved it, shouting, "It's bad, men are shooting and all houses are burning to the ground!" So we left everything at home by fate and we all fled the garden behind the others. It has already been shot in our yard. Missiles flew around us. At the end of the village, German soldiers also patrolled towards Střemeníček. They ordered, "Men go back and women go further!" So I had to go back. After a while, several other men from the village came to see me, who originally wanted to flee with their wives and children…. "

"They led us back to school.There the soldier still offered everyone a cigarette. Then the interrogation began again. Both citizens of Olomouc were released. They were probably liberated by the fact that they arrived in Javoříčko, one on Friday evening and the other on Saturday morning. They both spoke German during the interrogation. They were all investigated, but one by one, in front of some military dignitaries. I don't know what questions they asked, as I sat away. After each interrogation, two soldiers took each individual a short distance from the interrogation site, and there one of them shot him from behind with a pistol. Those who did not want to go alone forced him by poking and pushing. In particular, they kept asking about Mr. Pecin. They left him last, after his son Milan. They shot him with two shots. All that was left was myself, who had to look at the horrible last moments of life of all his known neighbors. They told me, "We'll leave you, old man, tell everyone that we did it here because the guerrillas shot 20 German soldiers here. When the others come back to the village, let them remove the corpses. ”Then they prepared to leave. At our farm, they also killed a pig, which they loaded on their wagon and took to Bouzov. I waited for everyone to leave, and then I went for the women to come back so they could save something from the fire. It was about two o'clock in the afternoon. "

At the end of the testimonies cite the tragedy of the postwar reporting stations SNB in Bouzov: "... All the men from fifteen years to those who managed to escape the creek, hide, or who have to work outside the settlement were shot. Some had to lie on the ground and were shot in the back. Others were shot while standing by the wall. Many were beaten in burning houses where their corpses were found. Those who wanted to escape by escape were either shot outside the settlement by patrols or returned and only brutally killed.

Women and children had to leave the settlement, drive the cattle out of the stables. Several pieces of cattle were shot, other pieces were taken to an unknown location.

A total of 38 men were shot, the youngest was 15 years old, the oldest 76. This fate befell even those men who happened to be in Javoříčko, or passing through the village and its surroundings.

After 1 p.m., the horde drove from Javoříčko back to Bouzov and cars to Olomouc, from where they arrived as reinforcements for the event. During the killings and burning, thorough inspections were carried out by other groups in the village of Střemeníček.

When asked about the burial of corpses, I was sharply cut off by the commander of the murder group that the guerrillas do not deserve a funeral. "

The whole event lasted approximately 5 hours ( since the morning training camp in Bouzov ), but still meant the liquidation of the village. Out of the total number of 34 houses, only a school, one residential house, a chapel and one barn have been preserved. The houses were destroyed with grenades and armored fists or were only set on fire. The cattle were partly stolen and towed to Bouzov, partly scattered, and partly burned in buildings.

The women and their children were forced to leave the village either through the valley of the stream towards Veselíčko or along the roads towards Střemeníčko and Veselíčko. But the worst fate befell the men here, those who, for whatever reason, were in the village were shot. Only Jaroslav Vysloužil managed to escape, passing through with the women. Severely injured Jaroslav Mlčoch hid in the toilet in the yard of Jaroslav Vysloužil's house. Václav Vlček also managed to hide in the manure pit near his house. Stepbrothers Václav Vlček and Ladislav Kryl were in the Jermak-Fursenko group. Miroslav Čulík, who, after seeing his father being shot, ran across the house through the garden. Blacksmith František Brosinger and Josef Štefan were caught and later released during a raid in Střemeníček.Three residents of Olomouc, who legitimized the Nazis and the already mentioned Jaroslav Dokoupil, were released directly in Javoříčko.

The murder of Javoříč and other inhabitants began with the approaches to Javoříčko. The first to be shot that day was a farmer from Veselíčko, Josef Natr (50) *, who went to the local forest for firewood. Josef Vlček (15), Alois Mrňka (74), Vojtěch Poles (37), butcher František Vaňák (24) from Veselíček and Josef Slavíček (44) from Vojtěchov were shot at a bridge at the confluence of the Špraňka and Javoříčka streams. František Vlček (65) and Jan Šlusar (43) died in the vicinity of this group. At the wall of František Čulík's house, located at the lower end of the village, they found the death of Jan Eliáš st. (51), Jan Eliáš ml. (24), Alois Zapletal st. (49), Alois Zapletal Jr. (18) and his brother František (21). Augustýn Zapletal (45) and František Čulík (49) were burned at the stake in the neighboring house belonging to Alois Mlčoch. Rudolf Vyroubal (57) from Olomouc, František Eliáš (21), Ladislav Dolínek (22) from Olomouc and František Skácel (23) from Olomouc were killed in the hotel. František Linert (26) from Ježov was found dead in one of the houses. The Nazis killed Oldřich Brosinger (24) in the smithy. Josef Beneš (55) was shot in the garden, where he was burying the most important needs. The mayor of the village Miroslav Vlček (48), František Dostál (45), teacher Josef Pecina (47) and his son Milan (18), Ludvík Vlček (52) and František Šlusar (43) were executed near the school in the manner described by Jaroslav Dokoupil. Adolf Brosinger (48), Miroslav Nepustil (17) from Olomouc, Josef Maňátko (69), Karel Zajonc (75) and Leopold Vlček (36) from Vojtěchov were shot dead lying near Klepára's solitude (towards Veselíčko). Waiter Alfons Leibner (35) was also murdered on the run near Klepár. Rostislav Konečný (19) from Olomouc and Jan Vlček (62) found death under the Habří forest, and another member of the Vlček family - Josef Vlček st. (45). The last to be deprived of life on that day was the gamekeeper Jindřich Mrňka (60).

A wooden cross over the common grave of Nazi victims

On Monday, May 7, 1945, a joint funeral of all Nazi victims took place near the hotel. Families from Javoříček found temporary refuge with relatives and families of people who offered them help. Fear of a similar fate spread in the surrounding villages, as all Czech villages in the area at that time maintained contact with the guerrillas. This fear was ended by the liberation, which the Bouzov area did not experience until around noon on 9 May 1945 with the arrival of members of the 60th Army of the 4th Ukrainian Front of the Red Army.

After leaving Javoříček, Lüdemann's commando again withdrew to Bouzov Castle, where he continued to demolish the castle's inventory and feast, accompanied by drinking, which lasted until Sunday afternoon, when previously detained persons were released, with the exception of Stanislav Sedláček, who was shot near the castle. Around eight o'clock in the evening ( May 6) , after the carriages were confiscated (they were hastily procured under pressure from the mayor of Bouzov ), part of the commando, together with a magnifying glass from Javoříčko and Bouzov, headed towards Loštice, Mohelnice, Moravská Třebová and Svitavy. The second part of the commando left in a column of several cars and trucks almost immediately after it. Both parts of the commando met in the village of Janov near Litomyšl, where the loot was transferred to trucks and the wagons returned to Bouzov. Lüdemann's unit then continued to retreat towards Chrudim. The trail to Lüdemann and his unit ends on May 10, 1945 in Čáslav, where she was detained by our gendarmes. Despite this, only one member of the commando - Willi Kunz - managed to be tracked out of the entire unit after the war, and he was sentenced to death by an extraordinary people's court in Uherské Hradiště. Egon Lüdemann was never traced, as was the commander of ZbV No. 43 W. Brandt. In connection with the Javoříč incident, O. Victor was also brought before our judiciary, but as his participation in the event was not proven, he was sentenced to three years in prison for membership in SS units.

On September 23In 1945, at the national pilgrimage in Javoříčko with the participation of approximately 25,000 visitors, it was decided to restore the village. The village was actually restored, but somewhat higher above the valley of the stream on a hillside below the Habří forest. The wooden cross above the grave of the victims was replaced in 1951 by a monument to the academic sculptor Jan Tříska from Prostějov.

You can find a complete list of victims on the forum in the Crimes Against Humanity section

Comment:
* the number in parentheses indicates the age.

Resources:
KBMichalov: Destruction of Javoříček - Olomouc-Týneček, 1945
Javoricko, Moravske Lidice - Litovel 1951
Josef Bartoš: Javoříčko (Truth and Legends) - Danal Olomouc, 1995
Internet

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Author : 🕔19.04.2005 📕89.209