1337 - 1453 - Hundred Years´ War
John of Luxembourg was raised according to the best principles of chivalry. No one was born a knight at that time. The title of knight applied only to those who were knighted.
Explaining the causes of the Hundred Years' War would be difficult and time consuming. Suffice it to say that the death of King Charles IV "The beautiful" of France, third son of Philip IV. (his older brothers, kings Louis X and Philip V died childless) , in 1328 the Capetian royal line died out and the crown passed to Philip of Valois, cousin of Charles IV., ie the descendant of the nearest side branch of the Kapet family. During his coronation as King of France, he adopted the name Philip VI.
Then John of Luxembourg turned to the knight by his side: "Young Climber, say briefly, remember that you had a good father whom no one blamed for evil, and he did much good. And you're also a knight bold, young, good, kind of adult. Knowing that thou wilt not lead me away, but I trust that thou shalt lead me, and where I will tempt thy sword ...
So Philip VI returned to Paris, picked up all the troops at hand, and began to pursue the English. Here comes the time of another hypothesis, according to which John of Luxembourg became the commander of the vanguard of the entire French army.
It is believed that the second French company developed to the left of Alençon and more behind him, opposite the Black Prince's company. The theory of this position is supported by two clues.
The names of the Czech knights who perished together with Jan of Luxembourg in the battle of Kresčak are mentioned in a later verse poem, but these names are not confirmed by period sources.
This article briefly describes the conflict between England and France lasting several centuries - from the conquest of England in 1066 by the Norman Duke William, who connected England with Normandy, and thus inevitably led it to conflict with France, until the end of the 15th century, when France gained about today's territorial area - focusing on the period referred to as the Hundred Years' War, but also the internal development in England and France at that time.
The jealousy and growing divisions between feudal England and France reached such a level in the first half of the 14th century that there was an open clash between these countries, the so-called Hundred Years' War. The roots of this war go deep into the past, in fact until the early Middle Ages, when the famous Anglo-French antagonism arose.
The immediate pretext for this conflict was the dispute between the two countries over supremacy in rich Flanders. Before the beginning of the Hundred Years' War, the French had the upper hand and, at the instigation of King Philip VI of France. In 1336, Count Ludvík of Flanders had all the English living in Flanders arrested. This was followed by retaliation by England against all Flemish traders on the island, and a ban on the export of English wool to Flanders and the import of Flemish products into England.
Dauphin Charles ascended the French throne as Charles V called the Wise, and in a few years the French resumed fighting. Now, however, they had changed tactics and, under the leadership of the capable Brittany soldier Bertrand de Guescelin, were waging a petty war, defending the cities and avoiding major battles.
Henry ruled all of Normandy, and in 1420 he made a treaty in Troyes with Queen Isabella of France and Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy. According to her, Jindřich was to marry the daughter of Charles VI. Catherine and after his father-in-law's death sit on the French throne. At that time, the English also found a powerful ally in the Duke of Burgundy.
After the expulsion of the English, the whole revival of France began. Charles VII he chose counselors from among the petty nobility and burghers, with the help of which he rid the country of marauding gangs of former mercenaries. He built a permanent army, a powerful weapon against the nobility and the external enemy. Towards the end of his reign he had to contend with the revolt of his masters, on whose side was also his son dauphin Ludvík , who after his father's death in 1461 ascended the throne as Louis XI .
Overview of significant events of the Hundred Years' War.