Greco-Persian Wars [500-449BC]
The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, which began in 499 BC and lasted until 448 BC. Their cause was the effort of the Persian grand-kings Darius I and especially Xerxes I to conquer Ancient Greece by military force. However, despite all the material and human superiority of Persia, this endeavour ended in a fiasco.
After succeeding in suppressing the uprising of the Ionian Greeks in 495 BC, Darius I realized that if they received support from Greece, they would still be a source of trouble. He therefore decided to conquer Greece, secure the western borders and lay the foundations for further European expansion. He was also angry at the dubious city-state of Athens, which had the audacity to help drive the Persians out of Sard, the capital of Ionia, during the Ionian Rebel. He swore revenge on them. Darius tried to penetrate Greece by sea and by land as early as 492 BC. Unfortunately, the storm destroyed his fleet.