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Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945]

Guards Armoured Division

     
Název:
Name:
Gardová obrněná divize
Originální název:
Original Name:
Guards Armoured Division
Datum vzniku:
Raised/Formed:
17.06.1941
Předchůdce:
Predecessor:
-
Datum zániku:
Disbanded:
12.06.1945
Nástupce:
Successor:
Gardová divize
Nadřízené velitelství:
Higher Command:
17.06.1941-14.09.1941 Ministerstvo války
15.09.1941-17.03.1943 Jižní velitelství
17.03.1943-19.06.1944 VIII. sbor
19.06.1944-27.06.1944 XII. sbor
27.06.1944-04.07.1944 2. armáda
04.07.1944-13.07.1944 XII. sbor
13.07.1944-23.07.1944 VIII. sbor
24.07.1944-30.07.1944 II. kanadský sbor
30.07.1944-28.08.1944 VIII. sbor
28.08.1944-12.12.1944 XXX. sbor
13.12.1944-20.12.1944 XII. sbor
20.12.1944-17.01.1945 XXX. sbor
18.01.1945-20.01.1945 1. kanadská armáda
21.01.1945-07.03.1945 XXX. sbor
08.03.1945-09.03.1945 II. kanadský sbor
10.03.1945-15.04.1945 XXX. sbor
16.04.1945-27.04.1945 XII. sbor
28.04.1945-12.06.1945 XXX. sbor
Dislokace:
Deployed:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR

Velitel:
Commander:
17.06.1941-12.09.1942 Leese, Oliver ( )
12.09.1942-12.06.1945 Adair, Allan ( )
Náčelník štábu:
Chief of Staff:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR, ( )
Podřízené jednotky:
Subordinated Units:
Čestný název:
Honorary Name:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR
Vyznamenání:
Decorations:
DD.MM.RRRR
Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
en.wikipedia.org
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Gardova-obrnena-divize-1941-1945-t158#425864Version : 0
MOD

INTRODUCTION

in General
The british army deployed in northwest Europe, three panzer division. Between these formations there were several fundamental differences. While the origins of the 7. armored division extending into the interwar period and the unit has been through a variety of combat deployment, 11. armored division and Guards armoured division were set up in the year 1941, and for three years they underwent training in the Uk, and in Normandy so have experienced their baptism of battle. The difference was in the composition of the divisions. Armored brigade in the assembly 7. and 11. the armored division included a unit tank, riding and armored cars. Infantry brigade consisted of light walking, shooting and the territorial battalions. In contrast, almost all the units of the Guards armoured division, whether infantry or armored, had their origin in the guard's infantry battalions Guards brigade. Guards division had also the advantage of continuity of commanders and equipment. The losses of the division were replaced by entirely new guardsmen, which had both advantages and disadvantages. The common history of its battalions allow easier and faster integration of infantry and tank units, thereby better meet the requirements of modern leadership armored warfare.

Creation
Decision to form a Gardovou armoured division was with king the consent of the adopted in the spring of 1941. It was a response to the lack of armored forces in Britain in case of German invasion. To their own establishment occurred in may 1941 under the command of major general Oliver Leese. The officers and men have passed the relevant courses Bovington and Lulworthu and in September the division for the first time gathered at the training area on Salisbury plain. The division at this time consisted of two armored brigades after three armoured regiments and a battalion of motorized infantry and security of the group of artillery, with one battalion of motorized infantry. Initially was the lack of amenities and what was available, it was desperately outdated. Commanders received a middle-aged Covenantry. These machines were very trouble and have required extensive maintenance, which the soldiers accepted with pleasure. It still had no idea that these experiences often take the advantage on the battlefield. A curious problem was vměstnání some of the guards into the restricted space in the tanks. In the case of members 1. battalion of the Guards granátnického regiment was the only solution to the classification between motorized infantry, for them to be in tanks too cramped. But, otherwise, the new role of the guardians rose to the occasion with enthusiasm and their ranks have left only a few members who could not new conditions to adapt. In April 1942 he has advanced training to the point where it was possible to carry out workouts involving the whole division. From the point of view of tactics to deploy is based on the experience in desert fighting, and of the conclusions made at the end of different exercises in England.

Preparation
At the end of 1942 there have been several changes. One armoured brigade was replaced by the infantry brigade and the security group was reorganized on divisional artillery. The division may have lost a regiment of armored cars, which passed into the subordination of the choir, but on the other hand, received an armored reconnaissance regiment, which was equipped with tanks. With minor changes lasted this organizational structure until the end of the existence of the division. The change occurred even in command positions. The new commander of the division became a major general Allan Adair. Armored brigade commanded by brigadier general N. Gwatkin and infantry brigade brigadier general G. Johnson. Even in their case, no changes have been made. In mid-1943, with the Guards armoured division became part of the VIII. corps lieutenant general O'connor. The division had a variety of other exercises in Norfolk and Yorkshire, and in June 1944 was concentrated in the vicinity of Brighton, where waiting to board, and move to Normandy. It occurred two weeks after D-Day.

FRANCE

Normandy
Divisions in France, landed at the end of June. To VIII. the choir belonged to the also 11. armored division and 15. (scottish) infantry division. Corps as such fell under the british 2. army lieutenant-general Dempsey. At a time when division in France landed, dominated the British and Canadians, less than thirty kilometers wide belt of territory between the Caen and the Bayeux tapestry. The foot soldiers of the 32. guards brigade, together with members of some of the divisional units arrived at the destination earlier than their comrades out of 5. guards armoured brigade. To the west of the Caen adopt a static defense and they began to accustom to the benefits of the sniper rifles, mortars and cannons, which they gladly mediate members 12. panzer division SS Hitler youth in the vicinity of the airport Carpiquet. Considerable losses of the Germans here caused 1. the battalion Welsh guards regiment, which came off the other two commanders. After two weeks, these forces have been withdrawn to Bayeux, where they recover a solid enough camembert, calvadosu and cider. Quiet but did not last long. 17. the evening of July the whole division moved into the area northeast of the meanwhile conquered Caen, where she made contact with 7. and 11. armored division and carried out final preparations for the launch of operation GOODWOOD.

Goodwood
The aim of operation GOODWOOD and related the canadian operation ATLANTIC was the cleanup of the southern suburbs of Caen (the part south of the river Orne) and the occupation of the territory south of the city and getting Bourguébuského of the ridge, which would open the way to Falaise. All three british armoured divisions were to move from the area of concentration, around Ranville, ride between emplacements 3. and 51. infantry division and to attack towards the south along Cuverville and Démouville to the railway line Caen-Troarn, for which trip should have divisions divided with the intention to cover the northern part of the ridge, i.e. roughly the area Bourguébus-Vimont-Bretteville. Guards division had to advance on the left flank through Cagny. However, from the very beginning things didn't go according to plan. The division should theoretically proceed in a compact wave immediately after the bombers and with the support of their own artillery. But at the beginning it was necessary to pass a relatively narrow strip in the minefields, a result of which the division marched one after the other, with large spacing, too late for the bombers and vice versa faster than the artillery. Guards armoured division pulled out in the morning 18. July. In front of her to break the way 11. armored division and followed her 7. the armored division. In the first echelon of the division advanced unit 5. guards armoured brigade (Grenadýři, Irish, brigade headquarters and eventually Coldstreamští), followed by the explorers, who, by their Cromwelly protect the wings. This was followed by a walking unit 32. guards brigade. The drivers of their trucks, trying to keep up with the tankers to infantrymen to be able to ensure the occupied territories. At Cagny division ran into determined German resistance. Enemy guns and tanks gardistům have caused no small loss, but commanders eventually broke through and the afternoon Cagny conquered. The evening arrived infantry, which the city occupied and tried to even go forward, but was shortly afterwards forced to bury. It was assumed that the morning will refresh the attack, however he was revoked. The next day saw signs of minor clashes between the guardsmen and members of 1. and 12. panzer division SS. All the extra mess with your frequent rain. After four days was the guards division withdrawn from the front and her position intrigued by the infantry. Battle for Cagny her stood 15 tanks destroyed and 45 damaged. But they succeeded to knock out a number of enemy of the Panthers, Tigers and the older Pz.Kpfw. IV, and even one stray Tiger II.

Bluecoat
The division subsequently took part in operation BLUECOAT, which was tasked to capture the town of Vire, the high ground of Mont Pinçon and prevent the transfer of German 21. panzer division into the area of the american attack as part of operation COBRA. Overall, the British had to protect the left flank of the american breakthrough to the south. The operation began on 30. July and guards armoured division initially advanced in a second sequence 11. armored division, which subsequently 1. August has replaced the head of the procedure. Against the british armour were initially the only 276. and 326. infantry division. It was pretty weak formation, but defend a well-prepared space full of various defensive measures, in addition, in the field, bocage. At a time when the guards division took over the forehead of the attack, began to discover here part 21. panzer division, 1., 9. and 1. panzer division SS and 3. and 5. paradesantní division. The fight went from happen with this distance on a melee at a distance of ten, twenty meters. The germans luckily, your tanks and self-propelled guns used gradually, not in compact formation, so the British had, at least in this regard usnadněnou work. The british procedure is stopped 7. August. Followed a week position, no less hard, fighting, for example, in Chenedolle.

Procedure northwest France
Division nezúčasnila of the battle at Falaise, so its members had time for recovery and maintenance techniques. The liquidation of German troops in the Falaise created in northeastern France vacuum, which wanted the Allies used to advance forward. The americans went on to Paris, while the British and Canadians they turned left and went to free ports on the shores of the English channel and decommission the launch pads of rockets V-1. guards armored division was initially deployed, but when added to the list of objectives Brussels, ended her period of respite. 28. August the division was subordinate to the XXX. corps lieutenant general Horrocks and darted towards the Seine, that of the second day exceeded the near Évreux in a sling for 8. armoured brigade. After crossing the river the division was reinforced by 2. battalion of the Household cavalry regiment, who took over the reconnaissance role after 2. the battalion Welsh guards regiment, which could engage in a system of mixed battle groups (tanks + infantry), together with the other battalions of 5. guards armoured brigade and 32. guards brigade. One group consisted of Grenadiers, the other Coldstreamští, a third Irish and four Welsh people. Grenadiers and the Irish, most were 5. brigade, while Coldstreamští and the Welsh 32. the brigade, which usually has been strengthened Northumberlandskými fyzilíry, which was a separate machine gun company. To 5. brigade anything like that is not assigned to but 1. a battalion of Grenadiers served as the motorized infantry, so already in the assembly had a medium machine guns. Build battle groups were ad-hoc operated during operation BLUECOAT, it has now been more formalised, although still not firmly determined by the assembly and the changes occurred according to the current needs. While the fighting in Normandy is mostly borne in the sign of the large concentration of armored vehicles advancing open country, the road to Brussels was mostly implemented after the roads, usually after one or a few parallel lines and at the highest possible speed. Front advanced 2. battalion of the Household cavalry regiment, who was looking for the most appropriate way, respectively diversionary route in the case of the hardly penetrable barriers. Places of resistance eliminated prvosledové companies, often at the direct air support aircraft the Typhoon. This method of procedure, save in the event that the division or battle group did not encounter resistance, time-saving, however, if the resistance encountered, it meant the delay of the whole column. Fortunately, the resistance was initially weak and uncoordinated, so the division quickly advanced forward and 31. August crossed at Amiens river Somme and the following day, freed Arras. Also losses were not high, in skirmishes it was destroyed a few tanks. Members of the division to enjoy the pleasant sensations of the winners, when the local population greeted as liberators, and that on territories, which had the British recently ignominiously to leave. Valuable services to the Allies gave members of the resistance, who the British warned before nachystanými traps have made them a guide and take from them the security guard prisoners of war. The division moves forward so quickly that 2. September must have at Douai stop to replenish stocks, which was still a bigger problem, since the Allies have so far failed to occupy and work any large port in the English channel, or to fix a major rail line. Supplies so it was necessary to haul down the road. One of the measures was the change in the ratio of supplied inventory - more fuel at the expense of the ammo. The division could afford it, because bumping only into smaller pockets of resistance, but of course quickly progressed, so badly in need of gasoline.

BENELUX

Procedure at Brussels
After replenishment of stocks surged division at 7 o'clock in the morning at Brussels, which was located approximately about 120 miles. According to the original plan should the procedure division to facilitate the aerial bombardment and the dropping of paratroopers, who were to secure the bridges. Due to bad weather were air operations canceled, but on the other hand, could division out a little earlier. Around seven in the morning rozburácely engines Shermans, Cromwellů and other machinery and division surged forward in two streams. On the left, progressed 5. brigade and on the left 32. brigade. In the second sequence then the rest of the infantry and the belgian brigade. Around eight o'clock at night came the british tanks into the belgian capital city and liberated it. Procedure claimed relatively few casualties, while part of them was caused by its own air force. The division undertook in that day more than 100 kilometers. It was an amazing success, but also thanks to the relatively weak resistance. That would soon change.

Journey through the British channel
In the Brussels division to be. The other british armored divisions arrived to Ghent and Antwerp and the Americans advanced on the right wing. Came orders to go to Holland. Between 4. to 6. September, the division issued to the east. Ran Lovaní and crossed the river Dyle. However, the enemy has started to put more and stronger resistance. The swampy terrain, complemented by lots of small towns, forests, rivers and canals prevented the German 1. the airborne army, which was a rather unpleasant opponent. The germans, although they couldn't completely stop the allied advance, but they tried to get him to slow down. The cards they recorded the fact that it managed to liberate Antwerp, but as the port is not used, as the Germans so far, they controlled the mouth of the river Scheldt. 8. September managed to achieve in Beringenu Albert's channel, but the division had big problems to build up and to keep on the opposite shore of the bridgehead, where she had to go to the defense. 9. September had advanced on the right wing 11. armored division, which allowed gardistům gradually move again to attack towards the channel of the Meuse-Scheldt. 10. September, the division managed to find a bridge over this channel at Overpeltu. With the help of the concentrated fire of tanks, anti-tank guns, anti-aircraft guns and machine guns, managed to occupy and open the way to Holland. During the next two days the division doggedly held the bridgehead and dočišťovala pockets of resistance that had previously just picked up. Then, the Guards armored division replaced by the infantry and withdrawn from the queue.

Operation Market Garden
The british were now on the left wing of the allied procedure several options on how to proceed. Probably the most with the offered variant, which envisaged transferring the center of gravity of the offensive from the eastern part of the belgian-Dutch border on its western part, where it was appropriate to clear from the enemy the flow of the river Scheldt from Antwerp to the sea, including the liberation of Walcherenu, thereby to enable the operation of the antwerp port. Field marshal Montgomery but decided for a faster, but significantly more risky option - a quick procedure on the axis of Eidhoven-Nijmegen-Arnhem-Apeldoorn-the IJsselmeer. For the procedure, it was crucial to the american and british airborne division occupying and maintain bridges for the rapidly advancing ground harness. It was Horrocksův XXX. choir. On his forehead should do just Guards armoured division, whose procedure had the support 43. (wessexská) infantry division. The plan had a number of problematic points. For gardovou division was the worst that the division could proceed in essentially only one road that led around the náspech, between bažinatými areas and pine stands. The tanks is so they could not leave, when encountered enemy resistance. Therefore could not maneuver, but they must have had a blast. But it halts the procedure, not to mention that the same communication had to pass through the units of other sequences, supply units and engineer units with the means to overcome water obstacles. While still running the risk of a hostile lunge sideways towards these progressive týlovým units from the area of Kleve, while the right wing of the procedure should cover VIII. choir.

Direction Nijmegen
At noon 17. September 1944, knocked out irish battle group guards division from the bridgehead at Overpeltu towards the Valkensward. The leading tanks were sitting infantrymen with bazookas at the ready in case of need to jump off and support the shooting tanks. In the air cover the forehead procedure seven squadrons Typhoonů armed with unguided rockets. Before the tanks went, přeryly space procedure projectiles fired eleven field and six medium artillery regiments. Your dose of high explosives in the area of providing all available heavy mortars of both divisions. Despite these measures began to the front of the unit soon face a determined resistance, mainly in the form of well-camouflaged self-propelled and towed guns. The tanks could not continue forward, retreat backward, or move to the side. Had to stop and try to eliminate targets, in which they tried to help the soldiers running into the side of the forests and the Typhoons attacking these targets. The resistance managed to dispose of, but the column has lost valuable time. Valkensward so he was freed up in the evening. The following day the division went to Eidhoven - one part directly, the second through Geldorp, where, however, she had to soon go back to the main road. An unpleasant surprise was the presence of units 9. panzer division SS. Procedure hampered also rickety bridges across a variety of small flows. In the evening, nevertheless the unit they went through the Eidhovenem and stopped at the Vileminina channel, where it was first necessary to repair the bridge. It engineers succeeded in 6 o'clock in the morning of the following day. Right after she fired the division with the grenadier guards in the head toward Veghel and Grave. Followed by the advance on Nijmegen. Here but the american airborne failed to occupy even one bridge. When the evening arrived, guards armoured division, started the British and the Americans pursuit for the conquest of the bridges. But it turns out that it will be first necessary to occupy the whole of the city. This operation was launched the following morning and the whole day was marked by fierce fighting. The evening managed to secure the approaches to the road bridge. Then managed to bridge due to the odváženému charge the Grenadiers to occupy, although he was ready to blow up into the air, but the Germans, for reasons unknown, they didn't blow. The second day they managed to occupy the railway bridge. Now, no one thought of the procedure to Ijsselmeeru, all focused on the liberation of british and Polish paratroopers at Arnhem. From Nijmegen to Arnhem it was some fifteen, twenty miles. But the situation wasn't good. The enemy placed a stiff resistance, was running out of supplies of ammunition and for support to be available to only one medium artillery regiment and several Typhoonů, which is due to connection problems or it was not possible to agree on the choice of the objectives. The germans in addition to the south of nimwegen, killing her outright made counterattacks into the flank of the allied units. Failed to more than hold the beachhead and evacuate the part of the paratroopers.

Time-out
Maintaining a bridgehead north of the nijmegenského the bridge was quite challenging and brought the guards division considerable losses. 6. October, therefore, the division was withdrawn to the area south of the Waalu, where she rested for a period of approximately one month. Subsequently, in November the division moved to the area Sittardu on the netherlands-German border, to perform a guard function for a period of five months. Deployed on these tasks were mainly infantry elements of the division. Followed the various movements in the area southeast of the Brussels - soon as possible due to preparations for the next operation, then as a backup response to the German offensive in the Ardennes. In January 1945, they got members of the division an opportunity to draw a holiday in the Uk and the unit was strengthened by 2. battalion of the Scottish guards regiment, which had gradually replace 1. the battalion Welsh guards regiment, as the Welsh people had significant problems with replenishment of losses.

GERMANY

Fighting in Reichswaldu
Guards armoured division was the only one armored division to participate in the fighting in operation VERITABLE. Available have been just a stand-alone 6. guards tank brigade and various smaller formations of special machines. But the Germans managed to flood the territory in the area of the Reich forest, which prevent the deployment of tanks in the greater extent. The machine so had to stay as a backup in Tilburg and operations participated in the divisional infantry. First, on the northern edge of the forest in the direction of Cleve, and then in subordination to 51. walking divze around Gochu. It's been a hard fight, that brought division to many dead and wounded. Thanks to the american breakthrough in the south could subsequently occur the procedure even in the british area. The division was once again the compact, however, the attack again led, primarily infantry battalions. To 4. march was made the attempt to deploy 5. brigade in area of operations 3. infantry division with the aim of conquest of the elevations at the approaches to the Rhine. After several days of heavy fighting with German paratroopers and tankers are finally able to the Germans drive out of the bridgehead on the left bank of the Rhine. Now began to blend the plans for the crossing of the Rhine, and the division had time to rest, which she spent in the area of Nijmegen. Now the division finally left 1. battalion the Welsh guards regiment.

Operation PLUNDER
The division as such was not involved in the initial phase of the transition of the Rhine, it was a task for the paratroops and infantry, who had to establish a beachhead. The tanks should enter the scene only after the position of the pontoon bridges. Deployed it was just the divisional artillery, which participated in the artillery coverage of the transition. Tanks engage up to 30. on the morning of march, when the -- through the pontoons. While in the south laid the enemy is relatively weak resistance, the face of the unit XXX. the ward with the Gardovou armored division in the forefront of the more committed members of 1. airborne of the army, especially those of the 7. and 8. paradesantní division. Guardsmen battled on to the north towards the netherlands-German border in Lingenu on the river Ems. This has been achieved with the support of a regiment of medium guns and Typhoonů in the early morning of day 3. April. The success was the fact that the defenders managed to dispose of the bridge over the river. The rangers but managed to discover a few kilometers on the other. This was a heavily protected, but otherwise he was fine. He was therefore prepared and implemented the plan, when the defenders of the bridge had to bear the barrage of artillery, tank cannons and missiles odpalovanýhch of the carriers on the tanks. To follow was a quick swipe infantry company supported by a section of tanks. Everything went smoothly and the bridge was quickly cast.

Direction Bremen
The yeoman of the Ems too long didn't stay, because they had to go in a northeast direction, to Brémám. Contrary to expectation, not members of a problem with the hostility of the German population, nor were unfounded fears of attacks werwolfů. Conversely, the stiff resistance put members 15. a division of panzer grenadiers. Even so, but the guardsmen proceeded smoothly forward. 16. April, the division was transferred to the subordination of the XII. ward, across the river Weser to occupy the area between Bremen and Hamburg. Here you had members of the division to contend with infantry units of the navy, which used slightly different tactics and some, gardistům yet unknown pitfalls - be naval mines in the role of anti-tank.

CONCLUSION

Between Bremen and Hamburg
The rest of April, spent the yeoman of the occasional, but a stiff fight between the Elbe and the Weser. They freed one prisoner of war camp, in which they found one
his comrade in arms, who was captured in 1940, and the concentration camp in Sandbostelu. At the end of April and beginning of may, already the resistance is very weak. When the truce was signed, there was division on the river Oste, in the halfway between Bremen and Hamburg. The division then moved to Cuxhavenu, where accepted the surrender of 7. paradesantní division. One company of the battalion of the Scottish guards regiment participated in the cast of the island of Heligoland.

Farewell to the tanks
Command of ground troops was decided that with the termination of combat operations in Europe, it is possible to Gardovou armoured division, along with 6. gardovou armoured brigade, to reorganize back to a walking harness. 9. June 1945 was held with the participation of field marshal Montgomery's last "tank" show and to 12. June 1945 was renamed the division on Gardovou division. Thus ended the history of the Guards armoured division. In conclusion, it is belongs to state, that the guardsmen, those most traditional of british soldiers, have demonstrated a large degree of adaptability, when they were able to refocus on a different style of warfare, which was destined more for the former members of the cavalry.



Sources:
Sandars, John, British Guards Armoured Division 1941-1945, Osprey Publishing, London 1979
en.wikipedia.org.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Gardova-obrnena-divize-1941-1945-t158#492413Version : 0
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Shermans of the Guards Armored Division
Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945] - © IWM (BU 266), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205206815
Shermany Gardové obrněné divize vstupují do okrajových částí Arrasu, 1. září 1944

© IWM (BU 266), www.iwm.org.uk
Shermany Gardové obrněné divize vstupují do okrajových částí Arrasu, 1. září 1944

Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945] - © IWM (BU 3584), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205207092
Shermany 1. praporu pluku Coldstream Guards ostřelují nepřátelské pozice, Německo, 13. duben 1945

© IWM (BU 3584), www.iwm.org.uk
Shermany 1. praporu pluku Coldstream Guards ostřelují nepřátelské pozice, Německo, 13. duben 1945

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Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945] - © IWM (H 17570), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205198267
Covenanter

© IWM (H 17570), www.iwm.org.uk
Covenanter

Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945] - © IWM (BU 3169), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205207051
V textu zmíněný most přes Emži

© IWM (BU 3169), www.iwm.org.uk
V textu zmíněný most přes Emži

Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945] - © IWM (BU 294), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205206823
Cromwell 2. praporu Velšského gardového pluku na konci srpna ve Francii

© IWM (BU 294), www.iwm.org.uk
Cromwell 2. praporu Velšského gardového pluku na konci srpna ve Francii

Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945] - © IWM (BU 9488), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205399
Starosta Bruselu při přehlídce na oslavu osvobození města

© IWM (BU 9488), www.iwm.org.uk
Starosta Bruselu při přehlídce na oslavu osvobození města

Gardová obrněná divize [1941-1945] -  © IWM (B 10131), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205202520
Cromwelly směřují k Nijmegenu

© IWM (B 10131), www.iwm.org.uk
Cromwelly směřují k Nijmegenu

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