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Adolf Hitler

As part of his expansionist program based on the principle of the supremacy of the Germanic race, he invaded the Rhineland (1936), occupied Austria, the Sudetenland (1938) and Czechoslovakia (1939). He started World War II on September 1, 1939. When he lost it, he committed suicide on April 30, 1945 in Berlin.

Beer coup 1923

After the defeat in World War I , Germany ceased to be a monarchy. The so-called Weimar Republic was created. It was in a huge crisis in the early 1920s.
As always, the unhappy economic situation was used by extreme forces. The importance of the extreme left represented by the communists has grown enormously. Sharply nationalist forces were formed against them. The struggle between the communists and the so-called Freikorps was a daily phenomenon on the German streets.

Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte

Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte became a legend of the German airborne troops. During World War II, he fought on all European battlefields and in North Africa. He was nicknamed the "paratrooper with the rosary" for his strong Catholic convictions.

Fritz Haber

German physical chemist, "father of chemical weapons"

Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Himmler was the SS-ReichsfΓΌhrer, Geheime Staatspolizei, commander of the SS Waffen-SS, Minister of the Interior from 1943 to 1945, and organizer of the mass extermination of Jews in the Third Reich and German-occupied territories.

Hitler in Obersalzberg to sign the German-Soviet Pact on August 24, 1939

The decision to attack Poland was made in the spring. Originally, there were fears that due to the political situation we would have to strike at the same time against England, France, Russia and Poland. We could not afford such a risk. GΓΆring showed us that his four-year plan would fail and that we would be on the brink of strength if we did not win in the coming war.

Lieutenant General Hyazinth Count Strachwitz von Grossgauch-Gamnitz

He was wounded fourteen times. He operated with ten tanks 150 km behind the Soviet front and returned to base without loss. In the north of the Eastern Front, Tukumi seized it, a city of great importance for further operations and considered almost impregnable. Strachwitz deceived the enemy, bypassed the city and attacked in a flash. His tanks rumbled through the streets, with 50 T-34 and SU-85 tanks with barrels facing west. In a few minutes they stood in one flame. He was undoubtedly the most imaginative tank commander, a master of " small combat ", in which he achieved incredible success on his fist with a few tanks.

SS-ObergruppenfΓΌhrer Reinhard Heydrich

The effect of the assassination was great. Everyone was stopped by streams of blood that the Germans shed, but it was these that caused Britain to annul the Munich Agreement. After this bloodshed, no one could have imagined that the Czechs and Germans could live peacefully in one state, and this has an effect, for example, on the post-war expulsion of the Germans. The assassination of Lidice and LeΕΎΓ‘ky affected the whole world opinion, a wave of sympathy arose for our entire nation. In this respect, I must evaluate the assassination unequivocally positively. Heydrich was a criminal who received a well-deserved punishment.

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

1. Definition of Fascism and Nazism The word fascism is derived from the Latin fasces and is a designation for a bundle of rods tied around an ax, worn in front of ancient officials by ancient officials as a sign of their important social function. We also have the Italian name fascio o otep or bundle, which was used by Italian revolutionaries in the nineteenth century and during the First World War also by many Italian activists engaged in various activities. However, the fascist movement Fasci di Combattimento, which is the subject of this work, originated in Milan on March 23, 1919, when war veterans, futuristic intellectuals and trade unionists, led by Mussolini, met in the Milan Industrial and Trade Union building in Piazza San Sepolcro to "declare the war of socialism because it opposes nationalism ".

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

Introduction The power structure applied after the rise of fascism in Italy is to some extent different from that applied in Nazi Germany. Nevertheless, many social science theorists tend to combine both types of ideology in interpreting fascism. In my bachelor's thesis, I want to try to answer the question which of these two regimes, in practical application, came closer to its ideological conception of the relationship between the leader and the party.

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

2. The concept of the state The Fasci di Combattimento movement originated on March 23, 1919, when about three hundred people gathered to declare war on socialism. However, the path to seizing power was very thorny for the Italian fascists in the following years - yet they managed to take power eleven years earlier than the Nazis in Germany.

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

3. The principle of leadership According to contemporary testimonies, Mussolini had charm, the ability of skilful political compromises and at the same time a refined instinct for self-preservation mixed with good organizational ability and intuition for the effective delegation of competencies. Compared to Hitler, however, he was more of an executive administrative worker than a type of orator who toured mass meetings and enchanted crowds with fiery rhetoric. Hitler lacked precisely that diligence and consistency in carrying out the normal official duties of the head of state, on the other hand, he was a better strategist, a more energetic leader and orator, and, unlike Mussolini, he needed the ability to build absolute authority. He was able to work with the masses through mass public meetings and the terrorization of opponents by Nazi troops.

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

4. The party As stated in the first chapter, the Italian fascists did not strive from the beginning, they even opposed the establishment of fascism through parliament. Fasci di Combattimento originated in its essence as an "anti-party", without a specific political agenda. This character of political formlessness is summed up in Mussolini's article published in a Catholic newspaper in the summer of 1918, which stated "we dare to be revolutionaries and egalitarians, (...) all according to circumstances, time, place and environment."

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

5. The relationship between leader and party According to Nazi and fascist ideology, authority was established, which can be simply described by Joseph Goebbels' famous statement "One nation, one empire, one leader" ("Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein FΓΌhrer"). The will of the leader on the basis of this thesis should merge with the will of the state, it should be ubiquitous, generally binding. Both the Nazis and the fascists justified this with an irrational argument that it is the leader who is best able to interpret the will of the nation. The question of whether the will of the whole nation can be identical with the will of the individual in the form of a duce or a FΓΌhrer remained unanswered.

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

Conclusion Both ideologies examined have developed dynamically since their inception, and within them there has been a constant feud of conflicting ideological elements. This makes it impossible for us to grasp the ideologies objectively, but in any case it was a completely new line of thought. The movement that emerged from these directions was a phenomenon that interwar Europe, influenced by the belief of modernity in unlimited progress, did not anticipate, had no experience with, and was therefore unable to respond adequately to its destructive effects. Fascism and Nazism represented a radical departure from contemporary liberalism, which failed as a social and economic system of modernity as a result of World War II.

The concept of leadership in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

The power structure applied after the rise of fascism in Italy is somewhat different from that applied in Nazi Germany. Nevertheless, many social science theorists tend to combine both types of ideology in interpreting fascism. In my bachelor's thesis, I want to try to answer the question which of these two regimes, in practical application, came closer to its ideological conception of the relationship between the leader and the party.

The Horten Brothers - Part 1

Brothers Walter and Reimar Horten were among the most interesting aviation figures from the time of the Great German Empire. They combined a dose of unadulterated aviation enthusiasm with a rare ability to use to their advantage the specifics of their country's administrative apparatus. Nazi Germany is rightly blamed for the rampant bureaucracy and almost Byzantine ties within the regime, based on a complex web of protectionism and group interests (just to recall the informal "brotherhood" formed by former veterans of the Condor Legion in the early years of the Luftwaffe war). However, this climate helped the Hortens outside the established airlines during their wars in their work. Walter, who maintained good relations at the Reich Ministry of Aviation (RLM) and also with the chief armourer of the Air Force, Ernst Udet (his secretary, Miss von der Groeben, later married in 1943), was a valuable contribution here. Reimar, as a talented self-taught designer, in the pair represented the creative spirit behind the technical solutions of aircraft of a specific concept, which both brothers literally subscribed to the soul - the self-wings.

The Horten Brothers - Part 2

While Oblt. Walter Horten served in 1940 as a technical officer in the ranks of the fighter group I./JG 26 and the eldest sibling Oblt. Wolfram Horten died on May 21 during a Western campaign as a member of the bombing group I./KGr. 126, the youngest Reimar worked in a deep background.

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