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Hiro G2H1 Daiko

Hiro G2H1 Daiko / 広廠 G2H1・九五式陸上攻撃機

Hiro G2H1
Originální název:
Original Name:
bombardovací letoun
DD.MM.1933-DD.MM.193R Hiro Naval Arsenal, Hiro /
DD.MM.1936-DD.MM.1936 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagoya /
Období výroby:
Production Period:
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
Hiro - 6
Mitsubishi - 2
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
Vzlet a přistání:
Take-off and Landing:
CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání
Uspořádání křídla:
Arrangement of Wing:
Uspořádání letounu:
Aircraft Concept:
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost prázdného letounu:
Empty Weight:
7567 kg
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
11000 kg
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
? kg
31,680 m
20,150 m
6,280 m
Plocha křídla:
Wing Area:
140,00 m2
Plošné zatížení:
Wing Loading:
78,57 kg/m2
Počet motorů:
Number of Engines:
Hiro typ 94 model 1, kapalinou chlazený osmnáctiválec s válci do W o výkonu 802-868 kW (1090-1180 k).
Vrtule čtyřlisté dřevěné s pevným úhlem náběhu.
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
244 km/h v 1000 m
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
167 km/h v ? m
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
? m/s
Čas výstupu na výšku:
Time to Climb to:
9,5 min do 3000 m
Operační dostup:
Service Ceiling:
5130 m
1557 km
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
2880 km
4x pohyblivý kulomet Type 92 ráže 7,7 mm
1x v předním střelišti,
1x zdvojený ve hřbetním střelišti a
1x ve výsuvném střelišti pod trupem
Pumový náklad do hmotnosti: 1 600 kg (4x 400 kg nebo 6x 250 kg aj.)
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
九五式陸上攻撃機 / Kjūgošiki rikudžō kōgeki-ki / Námořní útočný torpédový bombardér typu 95 model 1

Dai-ko = velký bombardér (jap.)
Rene J. Francillion Ph.D., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Naval Institute Press, rok 1987, ISBN-13: 978-0870213137
Robert C. Mikesh a Shorzoe Abe, Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, Putnam Aeronautical Books, str. 100-101, rok 1990, ISBN-13: 978-1557505637
Tadeusz Januszewski a Kryzysztof Zalewski, Japońskie samoloty marynarski 1912-1945, tiel 2, Lampart, rok 2000, ISBN 83-86776-00-05
archiv autora
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Hiro G2H1
机 式 陆上 攻击 机/-/naval attack torpedo bomber Type 95 Model 1


Shortly after the end of the First World War, the naval powers launched races in the construction of massive battleships, increasing displacement, armor strength and caliber cannons. The Washington Treaty of 1922 limited the numbers and total displacement of large warships of all major naval powers, this contract was later supplemented by another treaty, which was negotiated in London in 1930. The Treaty of London already limited the displacement for individual categories of ships, and this restriction also applied to smaller units, including aircraft carriers and cruisers.

The Japanese navy had great ambitions to become a decisive naval power, and these treaties put them at a considerable disadvantage so that it could not compete with the US or British fleets. This situation was one of the reasons why the staff of the Japanese Navy (Kaigun Koku Hombu) decided to strengthen one of the components of weapons that were not subject to restrictions - attack aircraft operating from ground bases.

From the very beginning of the 1930s, the Japanese naval air force tried to obtain an effective heavy bomber for its bomber units. The main initiator of the development of the long-range bomber (whether heavy or medium) was the then Chief of the Technical Administration of the Naval Air Force Rear Admiral (Shosho - 少将) Isoroku Yamamoto. This educated senior officer estimated in advance the destructive potential of bombers operating from ground bases and demanded that the new heavy bomber carry 2,000 kg of bombs at a distance of 2,000 nautical miles.

In this spirit, the technical requirements for the new long-range bomber were subsequently formulated and handed over to the Hir Maritime Arsenal in the form of Shizaku (Shizaku) 7-Shi specifications. The naval arsenal in Hiro was chosen by the Navy because the designers already had experience with the construction of all-metal aircraft, Mitsubishi Jukugyo K. K. was also sent to design a four-engine aircraft, which was rejected by the Navy.

The construction work was undertaken by the chief designer corvette captain (šósa - 少佐) Jun Okamura, this experienced designer was very busy at that time with other work, at the same time working on a flying boat type 91 (H4H1). Designer Jun Okamura designed a really large wing for the new bomber, which contrasted with a relatively narrow hull, at the end of which were double rudders, not unlike the rudders of a flying boat. A hot news in Japan was a retractable cylindrical turret with one machine gun Type 92, later it was this turret is also used in a smaller but more modern bomber Mitsubishi G3M1 Nell. This retractable turret was installed in the lower part of the fuselage, the shooter after its extension could shoot space under the aircraft in a 360 ° circle, the disadvantage was a very limited view and high aerodynamic drag, which slowed the aircraft when it needed space to collide with enemy fighters. leave as soon as possible. The power units used were also of some interest, Jun Okamura suggested using powerful engines Hiro typ 94 . These engines were created by our own development of French engines Lorraine-Dietrich series 12. The Japanese bought licensing rights for the production of twelve-cylinder engines and tried to improve them. The new eighteen-cylinder was developed by the Arsenal in Hiro, unlike the French eighteen-cylinder Lorraine, the Japanese engine clearly failed, the engine was unreliable, suffered from vibrations and had a tendency to overheat.The engine cylinders were arranged in a W-shape (three rows of six cylinders), this arrangement of cylinders also carried a greater frontal resistance, but on the other hand at the time represented the most powerful engines produced in Japan. The engines spun four-bladed wooden propellers, the blades had a fixed angle of attack.

The first prototype was completed on April 19, 1933 and the ship was transported to the naval base in Yokosuka. It was really a large aircraft, it was at that time the largest aircraft in the naval air force and the second largest in Japan (it was surpassed only by an army bomber type 92, in the system Kitai Ki-20) . The first flight took place in mid-May of that year in the presence of Admiral Yamamoto, in the cabin of the prototype sat naval pilots Shinnosuke Muneyuki and Toshihiko Odahara. Due to its size, the demonstration of the aircraft was effective, the bomber flew over the heads of the naval officers present and flew to the Kasumigaura base, where it later landed safely.
The results of naval tests flown in Kasumigura, in which the plane crashed, were not encouraging at all, the new bomber was quite powerful at the time, but devalued by unreliable and immature engines, the unpleasant phenomenon was strong vibration of the tail surfaces and fluttering ailerons. subsequently required quite large adjustments.

The bomber was accepted into the Japanese naval air force only in June 1936 under the designation abbreviated G2H1, at the same time with this bomber was accepted more modern G3M1. Unofficially, G2H1 was called Dai-Ko (large) and G3M1 Chu-Ko (medium). Both aircraft were to be produced in parallel, serial production of the G2H1 was also to take place at the Mitsubishi factory, but only two aircraft were built there. This was followed by an order from Kaigun Koku Hombu, according to which further production of heavy bombers was stopped in favor of the smaller but much more reliable G3M1, the large bomber was already becoming obsolete.

All eight manufactured bombers had in service since April 1, 1936 Kisarazu Kokutai, but for their low performance and small engine reliability, these machines were never considered fully combat-ready and were used more to train crews during long flights over the ocean. However, this situation was to change, in August 1937, at a time when the bombers G3M1 and G3M2 suffered tangible losses on Chinese battlefield. The Japanese navy got into a difficult situation at the time, so it was decided to deploy its heavy bombers type 95. Already during the flight to the airport in Korea, one bomber was lost, the plane crashed nearby Tokyo.

The first combat mission was a raid on Shanghai on September 30, 1937. Heavy bombers operated under the 1st Rengo Kokutai. Surprisingly, their first combat operations were successful and went without losses! The truth is that by that time, the activity of the Chinese fighter air force had declined significantly. Fatal losses came on October 24, 1937, in preparation for takeoff, one bomber fired an engine, the fire quickly spread to the entire aircraft, the subsequent explosion of three two hundred and fifty kilograms, five sixty and five fifty kilogram bombs completely destroyed four more bombers and the fifth was severely damaged. This explosion thus meant the end of combat flights of heavy bombers type 95.

I could no longer determine the fate of the remaining two aircraft.
The aircraft was also the last completed bomber in the naval arsenal in Hiru, other ongoing projects were handed over to Mitsubishi Jukugyo KK and the Navy subsequently made changes in the organization of its development sites, the arsenal in Hiru was designated the 11th Naval Arsenal and focused primarily on research and development new technologies.

Sources used:
Robert C.Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe, Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, Naval Institute Press, London, 1990, ISBN: 1-155750-563-2.
Tadeusz Januszewski and Kryzysztof Zalewski, Japońskie samoloty marynarski 1912-1945, tiel 2, Lampart, rok 2000, ISBN 83-86776-00-05.
Jaroslav Hrbek, The Great War at Sea. Part 5 Year 1918. Prague, Libri, 2002. ISBN 80-7277-102-7.
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Hiro G2H1 Daiko -

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Hiro G2H1 Daiko -

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