Immelmann, Max

Immelmann Immelmann
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Max Max
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Max Immelmann
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21.09.1890 Dresden [img_6 comment = Germany (DEU)][/img_6]/ [img_6 comment = Německé císařství (1871-1918 )][/img_6]
21.09.1890 Dresden [img_6 comment = Germany (DEU)] https: // www.[/img_6]/ [img_6 comment = Německé císařství (1871-1918)] https: //[/img_6]
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18.06.1916 Sallaumines [img_6 comment = Francie (FRA)] fra.gif[/img_6]/ [img_6 comment = French Republic (1870–1940)] flags/fra.gif[/img_6]
18.06.1916 Sallaumines [img_6 comment = France (FRA)][/img_6 ]/ [img_6 comment = French Republic (1870–1940)] [/img_6]
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fighter ace, known as "Eagle of Lille" (Der Adler von Lille)
one of the creators of fighter combat tactics
killed in battle
Fighter ace, known as "The Eagle of Lille" (Der Adler von Lille)
One of founder of fighter planes tactics
Killed in action
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Immelmann Immelmann
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Max Max
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Max Immelmann
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04.04.1911 praporčík
14.07.1915 poručík
01.04.1916 nadporučík
04.04.1911 Ensign
14.07.1915 Lieutenant
01.04.1916 Senior Lieutenant
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This article originated as a polemic to my own earlier post in this forum. That was the time when I was based only on Czech documents, which then was very little and very inaccurate. This post aims to these inaccuracies place on the right. In the original post were so many bugs, that I decided to remove it.

the Eagle of Lille

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About Max immelmann in the course of time has formed a number of myths. Between the two most common are that he was the first German pilot, who flew the first German fighter Fokker with a synchronized machine gun and, furthermore, it was also the first letcem, which on this machine he shot down a hostile aircraft. Hard to say how such a legend actually arose, maybe it was because of Max Immelmann relatively soon died and so around him began to rapidly take shape a sort of halo of extraordinary heroes. Yet really one primate has obtained, was the first German ace on the single a fighter jet.

Beginning career

Immelmann was Sas, he was born in 1890 in Dresden, as the son of the owner of the factory in cardboard boxes. Perhaps because he had from youth a positive relationship to technology and engineering.

In 1911, he was 21 years old. Then began his military service in the railway troops, specifically for EisenbahnRegiment Nr. 2. In march of the following year the army left, because they began studying
mechanical engineering in Dresden. The school remained until the outbreak of the war, then was called up as an officer in the reserve, and was included Eisenbahn Regt Nr. 1.

Immelmann, however, soon made an application to the převelení to the air force, and in November 1914 was detached to the FEA 1 (Flieger Ersatz Abteilung - Air refill section, or a training unit) Idflieg. The pilot training took place in flight school in Johannisthalu. Flew here like most German pilots of that time on the types of Taube, Albatros and LVG. Information about his study is different, according to some he was a pilot in the wrong, according to other gifted. The fact remains that he passed on excellent: climbing to a height of 2 600 m, while the minimum was set at 2000 m, sailing within a distance of 2 200 m (the minimum was 80 m), stayed in air for 90 min. (the minimum was 30 min.). In march 1915 and received his pilot qualification and was sent to AFP 3 (Armee Flugpark, aerial resupply stock) in Rethelu in France.

From there Immelmann switched to FFA 10 in Vrizy, where piloted LVG B.And on reconnaissance missions, and observation years for the management of artillery fire with an observer Ltn. Bissmeyerem. He was soon, however, sent to the FFA 62.

3. June 1915 experienced the unwelcome stroke, when he was shot down on its LVG French Farmanem. However, his machine safely brought them to the emergency landing, and for his rescue, he was awarded the Iron cross II. class.


The story of Max immelmann is inherently linked with the story of Anthony Fokker and his jednoplošných fighter aircraft. He was the first German letcem, who flew fighter Fokker.

The emergence of these machines is again obscured by the legends. In April 1915 he had behind German lines crash land the French pilot Roland Garross, flying the first fighter aircraft of the world Morane L equipped to a machine-gun with deflectory, to allow a shooting range for the spinning propeller.

After ukořistění his aircraft was the German command stunned by the simplicity and the effectiveness of its armament and issued an order to its that. Then, according to legend, said the Dutch designer in the German services of Anthony Fokker, that this device is too primitive and that will make a better. Within 48 hours of its factory Fokker Werke presented sync devices allowing the firing range of the propeller.

Today it does not seem too likely. Such a complex device you will certainly have to require a period of development and testing, and only two days seem like too short. Moreover, according to the análů major Helmut Forster, deputy director of the German Inspectorate of the military air force (Idflieg), the Fokker had its synchroniser finished, when it Idflieg turned with a request for the development of similar equipment, which was equipped with a Garrosův machine.

Be that as it may, the fact remains that the Fokker has equipped one of its aircraft factory designation of the Fokker M5K (the army adopted a military designation of the , Fokker And.III) synchronizátorem and gun Parabellum LMG 14. This aircraft with serial number And 16/15 graduated at the end of may 1915 shooting tests of its equipment and 30. may passed Lt. About. Parschauovi.

Otto Parschau flew before the war, he was a good friend And. Fokker and a keen user of his aircraft. Parschau already flew to single-neozbrojeném light explorer Fokker And.III (known as the kavaleristický) at the end of the year 1914 at the front in Champagne. Therefore, by Anthony Fokker called as the most qualified to test his new fighter and his subsequent demonstration of frontline pilots. Parschau thus became the first German operating letcem, flying on fighter aircraft. Parschau while touring the front of the unit, showing off a new machine létajícímu staff and instructed the pilots how to control it.

the First success

Immelmann belonged apparently to the nejschopnějším the pilots of FFA 62, because when the unit on the airport Douai, arrived alone And. Fokker, to show his brand new fighter monoplanes the Fokker E. I, was the Immelmann together with Oswaldem Boelckem is selected to by the FFA 62 act as so-called
. Should your colleagues to accompany on their reconnaissance missions and to protect it from the attacks of enemy fighter machine. At the same time, it was their job to challenge the enemy reconnaissance aircraft, applied, however, the strict ban of crosses on the Fokkerech front to top-secret synchronization mechanism did not fall into the hands of the enemy. All of this should Boelcke with Immelamnnem however, to graduate in addition to their duties the pilots of observation aircraft.

Fokker to the FFA 62 arrived sometime during June, 1915, because of the Immelmann in a letter dated 25. 6. 1915 writes: "we Recently got two small combat monoplanes of the Fokkerovy factory. In the first place, therefore, to see these fighting machines, yesterday visited the bavarian Crown prince of the battlefield and did the inspection with us and section 20. Director Fokker, the constructor of the combat aircraft, he was introduced. He, as well as a Leutnant Parschau, flew with the aircraft and shot out of the air into the ground. Particularly Fokker impressed us its possibilities."

Immelmann was the Fokker excited: "As I wrote in my last letter, the director of the Fokker with us demonstrated one of the jednosedadlových fighter aircraft built in his factory. It is one of the oldest and best pilots. A lot I lie in his good books, not only because of my
flying, but also because of my lifestyle, because I don't smoke and I was not drinking, and always go early to bed. Never nezůstávám in the dining room after 10. the evening."

This information shows on the Immelamnnovu samotářskou nature, but still we get.

The FFA 62 were allocated to the two Fokker production numbers 1/15 and 13/15. Boelcke with the Immelmann in their cockpit different turns. Vied, who of them will reach the first success. Of these two was closer to victory, Boelcke, but the laurels it has prepared a jammed machine gun.

Everything happened 1. August 1915. At 05.45 in the morning to wake up the pilots of the FFA 62 the explosions of bombs. Aircraft (B.E. 2c from 2. squadron RFC bombed their airport. Boelcke immediately took off in the Fokker 3/15, attacked one aircraft, but due to the zaseknutému gun it nesestřelil. Immelmann, he was followed by the second Fokker. Far ahead he saw another machine, but due to the large distance and you was not sure of the identification. Then he saw an aeroplane bombards the German positions, gave in to his pursuit, and succeeded him closer to about 100 meters:

"Two of the others now directed to me, and they were still high above me. So I had to act quickly. I lowered down on him like a hawk and shot the am from your gun. For the moment (I think) I was ready to fly directly to him. Stuck with me the weapon when I achieved about 60 shots, which was the most annoying that I needed two hands to tell the defect removed, which means that I had to fly without tampering with the controls. Meanwhile the enemy was headed for Arras. I flew next to him, when I told him the exit way and forced him to the left-hander, who turned his machine toward Douai."

Chase continued. Persecuted the machine has been B.E. 2c from the 2. squadron, piloted by the canadian lieutenant William Reid. Reid flew without an observer, apparently to add more bombs, but his plane was not ozbrojeno. Reid has valiantly defended his gun and at the same time piloted levačkou, but did not have the slightest chance. During the ten minutes on it Immelmann achieved the 450 ran, but then he gun finally jammed. Reid had but enough, of the four bullets he prostřelily his left hand and with the as a colander and a stationary engine had to crash land. Immelmann sat with your machine nearby and he immediately went to the enemy machine. Because he's gun didn't halekal far from French "Prisonniers!" (Prisoners of war!) to happen to the defeated opponent, which so far have considered the French, did not challenge any of the silliness.

When he arrived to the downed machine, realized according to the label that is british and therefore Reidovi said in broken English (French spoke excellent): "You are my prisoner." Reid responded to him: "I have a broken arm, you shoot too well."

The German then helped Reidovi out of prostříleného of the machine, laid it in the grass, does the sleeves of his air of the coat, uniforms, and shirts and gave him first aid, but had Reid taken to hospital in Douai. Immelmann later zaletěl in the LVG over the St. Pol and threw the letter to the Reidovy fighters of the RFC, to inform them about its fate.

Excited Immelmann immediately wrote Fokkerovi letter:

"I Believe that I am the first, who knocked down the enemy with one of Your machines. In addition, I am undoubtedly the youngest fokkerpilot. You can imagine how I was joyful my success, especially when I get to the Iron cross first class. Hopefully this will not be the last victory, which I achieved in Your machine. I would rather had a machine with 100 horses. Wouldn't it be possible? I believe that with Your kind support it would have been feasible. I can't reach 2000 meters faster than 15 minutes - with the machine about 100 horses, I am sure it would be achievable in 10 - 12 minutes."

Perhaps this letter from a young Immelmanna, whose person Fokker was used to promote their machines, gave rise to a legend about the fact that Immelmann was the first who received the new machine the first victory. In fact, already in July of the first successfully reached the Court Wintgens, this victory was not, however, medializován.

the Fokker scourge

The first victory was not an isolated success. Nineteen days after the Immelmannovi achieved the first victories in the Fokker also Boelcke, another victory added more pilots. Started a period today called the "Fokker scourge". The numbers of single seat Fokker grew rapidly. If in August 1915 them for the entire queue to serve only 22, in October it was 54 Eindecker of any version and by the end of the year already the number of single seat fighters at the front (now gone even from the company Pfalz) reached a total number of 107 aircraft.

War postcard with the Immelmann. Terms of the total known photo, which was 15. November of 1915, when Immelmann was demonstrating his machine to the saxony king Friedrich Augustus III. The photo is interesting that the censor because of confidentiality vyretušoval not only synchronized machine gun, but also a rotary engine
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The adversary was almost defenseless. The main rival of the German fokkerpilotů at that time were british (B.E. 2 and the French Farmany. In both cases it was a slow and clumsy machine, originally moreover unarmed. Now, although it was hastily fitted with guns, but with the Bs.E. 2 (where sat an observer below the top of the wing "in the cage" buckling and stiffeners) with a very limited field of the shot. Farman with a pusher engine on it was better, but for him to turn was shooting maybe just in front polosféře.

How is the thing to look their opponents suggests the memory of the future fighter aces Duncan Grinnell-Milnea, which in the autumn of 1915, he flew on the B.E. 2c: "the Germans already before the time of put into fighting the new plane, Fokkerův wing monoplane with a rotary engine. He was fast, very maneuverable, equipped with a machine gun firing range of the rotating propeller through the mechanism, it is said, depict a captured from the French. All this caused that the machine is meant for our B.E. the almost sure end, especially when it was controlled by the German pilot, whose name was Immelmann. Only vaguely the stories were told, that this young officer (who had shot down the incredible number of six machines) invented a new way of turning. In fact, I do not believe that he would have done something like this, but he knew certainly remarkably clever way, as the machine rotated, so suddenly turning up behind the tail of the enemy aircraft and then you could after likes to fire his machine gun. "Immelmannův roll" became the beginning of a new field of flying - and opened before the pilots of the new problems of the aerial battles. (...) Fokkerovy monoplanes announced the beginning of a new era. Shoot "through" the propeller, therefore, it was a proven fact, and - associated with the type of aircraft, in which was a machine gun installed - the us is forced to think about new ideas, new taktikách. (...) Sometimes we talked long into the night and waited nadějeplně of that lovely morning when we could start to rehearse their new ideas, which we should protect from the threat of Fokker."

The mention of "theImmelmannově výkrutu" again refers to the other of the legend, according to which the right Immelmann invented a special aerial maneuver, which from that time bears his name - Immelmannův turnover. In fact, there is no direct evidence that this would really happen, but the fact is, Immelmann with Boelckem gradually intuitively uncovering the very core essence of air combat, and fixing the principles that fighter pilots take to this day. They were trained with the aircraft ourselves up firing positions, were taught to shoot. Come on, that attack is the best from the rear, because it allows you the easiest aiming. To achieve the element of surprise, attacking from cant, because come on, that portrait can be turned into speed. They found also, that if they have a behind the sun, that the adversary oslepí and so will give them another advantage.

Immelmann quickly amassed another victory. In the following month he scored twice, but the fight still was not entirely one-sided affairs. 23. September, two days after his third kill, him French Farman prostřelil tank. Immelmann successfully doklouzal to the emergency landing, but the damage in the chassis of your Fokker.

In October Immelmann added a fourth victory. 26. 10. demonstrated the maturity and effectiveness of their offensive tactics, when weaved with the aircraft of the Vickers Fighter F.B. 5 "Gunbus". It was the first british aircraft from the beginning developed as armed and intended for the prosecution of enemy reconnaissance aircraft. Its armament formed the machine gun of the observer in the front of the gondola. It was also the machine with the pusher engine, like the French Farmany, however, has been considered a powerful and easy to machine. Definitely been the most valuable british fighter aircraft of the time and in RFC it was believed that "Gunbusy" of themselves can take care of.

Immelmann after the battle he wrote: "I Just climbed on the 3500, when I saw the enemy squadron over the lines at Arras towards Cambrai. I let him take a moment to fly to the east. Then I began to prosecute and the whole time I was him hiding behind the tail. So I watched about a quarter of an hour. Fingers me svrběly on the trigger, but controlled myself and waited with shooting until I was 60 meters away from him. I clearly discerned the observer in the front seat, both staring down. Ra-ta-ta... rebooted my machine gun. Fifty wounds, and then from its engine vyšlehl long flame. The next fifty wounds on the pilot. Now, his fate is sealed. Went to the country in long spirals. Almost every bullet from my first series found its target. High-rise helm, rudder, wing, engine and fuel tank and control ropes were a hit. The Pilot (captain C. Darley) got a bullet to the right shoulder. I also have him shot off the thumb. The machine got forty hits. The observer (lieutenant R. J. Slade) was uninjured. His gun was in perfect condition, but service a single blow. This was a surprise."

This battle clearly demonstrated that no matter how good the aircraft is powerless against a tactically and technically well being carried out the attack. Immelmann with this victory became the first German ace of the fighter aircraft. In fact, however, this term appeared later in the German air force never has not spread as much as the French or the British. Just sometimes at that time but Immelmann became well known under a different name - they called him "the Eagle of Lille".

Immelmann added a sixth victory in November, and 15. December is the hero with the aircraft Morane Parasol LA belonging to the british 03. squadron. The machine piloted by lieutenant Alan Hobbs and the observer was lieutenant Charles Tudor Jones:

"... I Quickly toward him, but still, I was somewhat low and I could not attack. I ascended to 2600, he was, however, at 2800. Pretending I was attack and that he was somewhat bewildered. (...) Now we were at the same height, but I still climbed yet a little higher. He did the opposite, lowered the machine down and won such an enormous speed that I almost lost sight of. I saw him only as a vague gray not smudge on the distant horizon. Certainly believed that I lost it because he went into a right turn and was heading for Douai. I was now in the 3200 meters, he could be so in the 2600-2700. Since the path of its flight was now perpendicular to my, my height allowed me to, that I turned to him very quickly approached. When we were still 500-600 meters away from each other, started on me furiously to shoot. The distance between us was too big, so he had no chance of success. Fired at least 500 rounds and I have in the meantime approached from 500 yards to 150. Then I also began to shoot. First I fired a dose of 40 wounds. The enemy flew rapidly away. Why not? Now it was between us only 100 meters, then 80 and finally 50. I've seen how hostile an observer with something playing on the machine gun. About him zadřel. I had to make use of it. Let I them even a fraction of a second of respite and achieved the I'm on them 150 shots. Hostile monoplane suddenly lifted, the propeller being directed into the sky and its governing area of the country. A few seconds was standing on the tail. Then over on the right wing and nose down rotoval headlong to the ground."

Two british airmen died - Hobbs was found dead in the wreckage of the aircraft, while Tudor-Jones (whose machine-gun was not jammed, but the damaged Immelmannovými of the missile, as it turned out later), was of the falling of the machine catapulted and impaled on the branches of the tree.

This victory shows that the Immelmann had already at that time had a very good estimate of the correct distance to shoot. At the same time, however, with the previous Immelmannovou memory refutes some claims of Immelmannově phenomenal gun art and extremely small consumption of ammunition. (Eg. And. Fokker in his autobiography, "Flying Dutchman" says that "Immelmann once earned the victory after firing only 13 wounds".) Myths around Immelmannovy person, moreover, has formed the whole series.

The year 1915 therefore Immelmann ended with seven victories to his credit, Boelcke had, at that time the same number. Boelcke then has reached 5. January 1916 the eighth victory, and the Immelmann it caught 12. January sestřelením further to the british "Gunbusu". The same day in the evening received a telephone call from the FFA 62 aide to the commander and announced Boelckeho and Immelmannovo distinction of the highest prussian order of the the Pour le Mérite.

Arrogant Immelmann?

The question remains, how this event has affected max's personality. On Immelmannovi ever saying that he was arrogant. As for his alleged arrogance and nespolečenskost, something about it certainly will. Max was by all accounts a strong introvert, that anyone too did not release to the body, it is also perhaps associated a certain social ineptitude, acting probably as arrogant behavior.

Thus to him, remembers Anthony Fokker: "Immelmann was a serious, modest young man, who was interested in the technical details of flying. He was a popular and originally better known than Boelcke. Arrived in Berlin after his fourth or fifth win, and I have taken it up to Schwerin, to show him his factory. We talked a little about abstract matters. The more we discussed about the gun, he was a great scorer, and the air maneuvers and the relative advantages of one fighter aircraft above the others. He had eyes like a predatory bird and a small athletic body, which prozrazovalo ability to resist nervous tension... (...) If I could get to know, not in the least did not care about the world."

Also one of his retired spolubojovníků and Immelmannův former friend of the FFA 62, Oblt. Dr. Ernst Sieverts, after the war, wrote a short article about your memories on the big ace: "Initially, he was not conceited. Later, after the honors of many orders of magnitude, become a bit of a nafoukaným. But he was an extraordinary man, his weaknesses were harmless and he was always a dear friend. After the honors, we called him "Your Majesty". Loved when he could leave to be photographed always, when I got a new medal. On the ground like well-dressed, but when he flew, he wore an old tunic, because of which he was very superstitious - he eats a variety of your victory, and always wore a pair of old velvetinových press."

"He had a lively step, and from the local French population (Immelmann well enough spoke French) was given the nickname "the man who always dancing". He was very agile and very strong, showing off gymnastic exercises, and loved the implementation of practical jokes and telling jokes. Was a vegetarian, but in the field he ate the meat, although his real love was the "mountain of delicious pies", which you gave as a dessert every afternoon - it was a real eater, which was his only vice. Otherwise he was very modest. His Danish mastiff was the "dog on lap" and slept in the same bed as the Immelmann."

According to the other witness was his mother and the dog Tyras, the only two entities to which it really adheres. On the one hand we have the image of a fierce warrior, who calmly writes about ustřelených inch, on the other hand, a young man, which mom each week would send a box of chocolate candy.

Immelmann with your pet - the Danish mr, on behalf of the Tyras. Immelmannův pet is like cradled in my lap and spával with his master in one bed
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Fokkerův horse

Back to the events of the beginning of the year 1916. At that time already, always when it was possible, operated by allied observation planes in groups of at least three, in order to protect each other in case of ambush Fokker. Therefore began to be in the answer across the western front of Fokker Eindecker soustřeďovány into the so-called KEK (Kampfeinsitzerkommando - unit combat jednosedadlovek), pojmenovávaných as a rule, according to the place of dislocation. With FFA 62 thus created "KEK Douai" made up of four pilots. Immelmann also 16. January switched to the new equipment. Received a new Fokker E.IV with an engine power of 160.

Immelmannovo name in conjunction with this machine laid the basis for another legend. Anthony Fokker in his autobiography, "Flying Dutchman" indicates that this machine was made specifically for Immelmanna. Although it is possible that Immelmann in some way could Fokker inspire, or even the development of a new airplane to initiate, but the factory tests of this machine in the fall of 1915, carried out the Boelcke and he also received the first piece of the frontline tests - Immelmann in a letter from 20. December 1915 enviously mentions that the "Boelcke has a Fokker 160 horses".

The original prototype of the Fokker E.IV w.n. 122/15 was armed with three this guns, in addition headed for slight upward around an angle of 15°. The synchronizováním three weapons, however, were constant problems, And. Fokker therefore, left again, left the machine gun in england, and the arms placed parallel to the longitudinal axis. Boelckeho reservations, however, insist - after a few matches (at the beginning of march he was transferred to Verdun, where he took over command of his own KEK Sivry and his opponents were to change the French) to him said: "the Machine loses the power of speed in the climb, wherefore me a few biplanes Nieuport missed it. Rate of climb greatly decreases at higher altitudes (over 3000 metres). This lack could be prevented by the introduction of a light biplane. Maneuvering capabilities of the machine of 160 horse-power are considerably lower than for 100koňového and 80koňového type, because it is a problem to face the action of the influence of the heavy engine."

Probably just because of his comments about the need for new light biplane (therefore the machines completely different concept than just produced the Fokker factory; on the basis of the requirements of the pilots including Boelcka so Idflieg 8. 3. 1916 ordered by the competing firms Halberstadt the first 12 units of its fighter biplanes (D.(I) fell Boelcke u And. Fokker in disguise, and he now began to have more "gamble" on the Immelmanna.

The "christens" the new Fokker E.IV w.n. 127/15 the second of march, when forced to a landing in the German lines of the Morane BB from 3. squadron the british RFC. The observer, 2Lt. H. F. Birdwood, was killed by still in the air, while the pilot, 2Lt. C. W. Palmer was badly wounded in the legs. Yet he still managed to bring the machine to the emergency landing near Somain, then immediately went to the German hospital. German doctors there had to amputate his Palmerovi leg, one but 29. march, unfortunately, died of blood poisoning.

But that wasn't all. Immelmannovi in march and unusually flourished, have 13. 3. reached his first double victory when he shot down a B.E. 2 and the Bristol Scout, bringing the number of victories increased already at 11.

The same day, scored for the first time a new man at the KEK Douai, Max Mulzer, but victory he has not been officially confirmed. Mulzer came to the FFA 62 apparently sometime during February 1916 and soon became a Immelmannovým a close friend. Often flew together in pairs.

Although in one of his earlier work, I pointed out that Immelmann formed the first fighter pair of the world with Boelckem, this is not entirely accurate. It is very likely that Boelcke and Immelmann flying in a pair of tried, but due to their mutual rivalry cannot be assumed that they would together be able to fly in the long term. When flying in pairs is one of the two men the manager, who has to destroy discovered the aircraft, the second "number", whose duty is to keep an eye on the head and protect it. Due to the high jealously between Boelckem and Immelmann, however, it cannot be assumed that should one of them somehow podřizovali to mutual cooperation. Friends of the them has made to the German propaganda, but in fact those two should never have in love.With Mulzerem on the contrary, Immelmann quickly formed a well-tuned team.

By the end of march Immelmann added two kills, his score for the last month so was 5 kills and the total number of winning number has reached 13.

23. April, on Easter Sunday, they flew Immelmann with Mulzerem twice. First together shot down Gunbus from 11. squadron, that crash-landed at Monchy-le-Preux, while the crew fell into captivity. Later in the same Sunday, a pair of Immelmann - Mulzer challenged F.E. 2b from 25. squadron, which landed behind the british lines near Estaires is fatally wounded observer. Immelmann is ascribed to the "Gunbus", while F.E. 2b went to the Mulzerův account, as his second confirmed success. As their shared star rose, the Mulzerovi started friends say "bavarian Max", while Immelmann was called the "saxon Max".

the turnaround Comes

Came but also problems. Just two days later, i.e. 25. 4., the Immelmann weaved with a pair of new british fighters D.H. 2, managed poručíky J. About. Andrewsem and N. P. Manfieldem from the 24. squadron - the first british fighter squadron. The fight definitely wasn't a lightweight, the new D.H. 2 were faster and more manageable than the Fokker E series and in addition, pilots 24. squadron they were aggressive fighters, actively seeking aerial combat:

"Started I'm probably in the 11.00 hours and I met with two English dvojplošníky to the south of the
Bapaume road. I was about 700 meters above, and therefore I get to them very quickly rushed up and attacked one of them. It seemed to me that after a few shots overturned, but unfortunately I was wrong. Both during the fight wonderfully worked and vpálili into my machine 11 ran. Was hit by the petrol tank, the struts on the fuselage, landing gear and propeller. Could I just save the flight headlong from a height of 100 metres. Then I finally those two left alone. It was not a good deal."

This battle was just the first sign. The difficulties from escalating further. As Immelmann noted: "In the machines, on which I flew earlier, was the best defense against the enemy pilot a quick escape. But now begins to be more complex."

For the whole of may recorded the Immelmann just one victory (athus your score has increased already at 15 kills) and on the contrary he very nearly lost his life. It happened the last day of may, when Immelmann on his Fokker E.IV led Mulzera and another pilot from the KEK Douai to fighting with strong formations of five F.E. 2b and two Martinsydů. Mulzer shot down one of the "fíček", which crash-landed behind German lines. Immelmann shot from his kulometného a dead ringer for the next opponent, when suddenly felt a terrible blow. The transfer of the synchronization has failed and the machine guns odstřelily one of the propeller blades. The ensuing vibrations nearly vytrhly dvojhvězdicový Oberursel from the bed, making Immelmann had to quickly turn off the ignition. In the end, he managed to bring the shaking machine to the emergency landing.

June brought changes. FFA 62, the parent unit not only Max immelmann, but i KEK 3, was in the middle of the month transferred to the eastern front. KEK 3 was but report directly to the Stofl 6. army times major Friedrich Stempelovi, and therefore remained the Fokker with its pilots at the airport in Douai, where also moved a little closer, the bavarian FFA 5b. According to Immelmannova brother and chaplain Franz, had a Max
(like Boelcke) to get a warrant to create and lead their own KEK. Before, this would possibly at the Immelmanna sparked joy, but 13 months of front-line deployment on it has left its traces. Por. Moosmair, the commanding officer of the FFA 5b, recalled that the Immelmann was at that time very quiet and pensive, but also that he spoke with the hope of a "new fighter biplane", which should soon arrive. Por. Erwin Böhme, a later commander of the hunting season 2, the wearer of the "Blue Max" and fighter ace, wrote at the time of the home, that the Immelmann is "the last time a bundle of nerves".

On Sunday 18. June 1916 lay after daybreak above the airport Douai low cloudiness, which neslibovalo on that day, no special air activity. However, before noon the weather improved and the afternoon was already reported by the british aircraft approaching from the south-west to Arras. Four Fokker under the guidance of the Immelmanna brought from Douai, to keep them off. Approximately at 17.00 German time, Fokker dohonily the squadron of F.E. 2b from the 25. squadron. Immelmann, flying on the Fokker E.IV (probably w. n. 127/16), gained height, and headlong attacked at F.E. 2b s. no. 6940. His shots fatally injured the pilot (Canadian Por. C. E. Rogers) and also hit the observer, sergeant H. Taylor, who, however, himself an attacking Fokker was hit and seriously damaged. "Fíčko" landed crash south of the Arras - Rogers died, Taylor fell into captivity, and Immelmann could be attributed to 16. victory.

Later that same afternoon, Mulzer and Osterreicher took off on another patrol and Immelmann sat down in the dining room FFA 5b for dinner. The middle of the meals was, however, distracted by the news that the seven aircraft of the RFC přeletělo the front line near Sallaumines, and two of his buddies on patrol so octili in considerable distress. Immelmann and Wolfgang Heinemann immediately returned to the airport, but Immelmannův damaged E.IV still not been corrected. Flew, therefore, in the reserve, the Fokker E.III-w. n. iii 246/16, while Heinemann flew in their own E.IV. Before them, started off with Alfred Prehn. When Immelmann near Loos reached the height of 2000 meters, he saw an unusually large number of aircraft. About 500 metres above it were four Fokker from his Kommanda, already struggling with the next flightem "fíček" from 25. Sqn. Further to the northeast of two additional Fokker maneuvering between the four british aircraft, and, over Henin-Lietard with the other two Eindecker preparing to attack on the british intruders. In addition to all this firing of the German anti-aircraft guns. At that time it was a huge aerial battle, what remains a still more frequent use of larger formations of both the parties.

Immelmann fired white flares, signalizujíce a German shoulder-fired missiles; batteries to cease fire and joined the fight. Attacked F.E. 2b s. no. 4909, and exact gunfire struck both members of the crew, only the typical career path of a pilot por. J. R. B. The Savage and the observer soldier T. Robinson. Although mortally wounded, Savage successfully landed behind German lines south of Lensu, where her injuries succumbed, while his observer escaped with light injuries. Immelmann got his 17. victory.

Oddly enough, Immelmannovi mostly not officially recognised 17 kills, but only 15. Over his last two victories, moreover, there is some ambiguity. His sixteenth victory F.E.2b (6940) of the afternoon was at the same time credited in 21.45 Mulzerovi. Probably this is a mistake, it seems in fact, Max Mulzer shot down a second machine - savage's 4909. Mulzer also was with the captives F.E.2b photographed, went on to his fourth victory.

According to british data, the crew of the next F.E. 2b in the composition of the ppor. G. R. McCubbin, with the observer des. J. H. Wallerem saw Savageovo aircraft in distress and launched him to help. Waller opened fire from his Lewisu just at the moment when Immelmannův Fokker cruised their course directly in front of the dishrag "promising to take part". Witnesses on both sides of the saw, as with the Eindecker shudder and then began to shake in a series of irregular oscillations. Within a few seconds with the rear part of the fuselage odtrhla from the rest of the aircraft. The front part of the fuselage fell like a stone, wings separated, imprisoned by Immelmann after the fall from a height of 2000 metres, he stopped into the mud close to Sallaumines. German soldiers arrived at the crash site pulled pilotovo body of contorted debris, and according to the Pour le Mérite immediately knew that it was Immelmanna. His body was removed to the bavarian field hospital in Douai, where it was supposed to be ready for shipment home.

Major Stempel convened the commission, which should determine the cause of the disaster. However, the commission has not reached a satisfactory conclusion and a discussion about Immelmannovy death does not end today.

The british, naturally, have confirmed the victory McCubbinovi and Wallerovi. For German propaganda, however, was completely unacceptable, that was a big Immelmann overcome in aerial combat. Therefore, the German high command more or less welcomed, that most of the German pilots who witnessed Immelmannova the end, felt that once again failed synchroniser his gun and Immelmann you shot off a sheet of the propeller, which caused those of the said irregular twitching of the aircraft, and subsequently to the breach of the structural strength of the structure.

On some images the rubble is to see that one of the propeller blades was ulomen (rather straight cut off) approximately at the height of výstřelné the track of the gun and it is also substantiated by at least one of the witnesses who examined the wreckage. Boelcke to do wrote: "Immelmann lost his life to a stupid accident. Everything, what is written in the newspapers about the fight in the air is crap. A piece of his propeller flew - shocks přetrhaly the stiffening wire anchored on the top of the fuselage and the latter is then snapped off."

the Photographs of the residues Immelmannova the Fokker E.III-w. n. 246/16. Note sheet of the propeller, which is like a "uříznutý", in addition, with small rounded "teeth" on the cut. This supports the hypothesis about the failure of the synchronizátoru
image Source:

Such an explanation, however, again was unacceptable for Anthony Fokker, who refused to accept the thesis on the guilt of their product. In his memoirs, toppled the blame on the German anti-aircraft artillery: "Immelmannovo the plane suddenly crashing to the ground, when flying close to the German front line. For the first time it was stated that the fighter plane Fokker failed in the middle height. The explanation of me naturally not satisfied and I insisted to examine the remains of the wreck. (...) What I saw, convinced not only me, that the fuselage was torn into two parts šrapnely. The control cable was přeťata disconnected ends were curved, not stretched, as would be the case in a normal recovery. The tail of the fuselage was found at a relatively large distance from the aircraft itself. In the air force to a great extent, was of the opinion that unknown type of jednoplošníku flying over the German lines he was mistaken for a French aircraft, as resembled the Morane-Saulnier (here the Fokker theory rather limps, Eindeckerery already at that time from Douai operated year, therefore not newsworthy even for the British, let alone for the rest of the German gunners, it, nb auto). Finally, we have to additionally convince the air headquarters, although it was not publicly declared. The claim that the disaster was not caused by the failure of aircraft Fokker, but that it had shot down the Germans, would be horrified millions of inhabitants."

One way or the other, the great Eagle of Lille was dead. A magnificent funeral ceremony was held 22. June, 1916. The funeral was attended, inter alia, also sasský crown prince Georg and bavarian crown prince Rupprecht (commander of the 6. of the army) together with 20 generals. The honor to bear the Immelmannův Ordenkissen (black velvet pillow with exposed Imelmannovými awards at its nerozlučnému friend Maxi Mulzerovi.

Boelcke showed considerable dose of clairvoyance, when on the death of his rival, he wrote: "Despite the sad personal loss which we have suffered, we must not, in my opinion, underestimate the effect that this will have on the enemy's morale and the reaction of our own people."

Indeed, Immelmannova death shook the entire nation. At the same time also was the symbolic culmination of a period called the "Fokker scourge".

Table kills M. Immelmanna:

Provides. no
Instead of
1. 8. 1915
close to Douai
FFA 62
(B.E. 2c
v no 2003. The Pilot Lt. William Reid wounded and captured.
9. 9. 1915

FFA 62

21. 9. 1915

FFA 62
v no 2004 (10. squadron the RFC) - crash-landed behind German lines - pilot 2Lt. Stanley Winther Caws fell, the observer Lt. William Hodgson Sugden-Wilson was hurt and captured
10. 10. 1915

FFA 62
v no. 2033 (16. squadron the RFC) - the crew of 2Lt. John Gay, Lt. David Leeson - fate of the unknown
26. 10. 1915
near Ecoust St. Mein
FFA 62
Vickers F.B.5
v no 5464 (11. squadron the RFC) - the crew in the composition of the pilot Capt. Charles Curtis Darley, the observer 2Lt. Reginald James Slade captured, Darley wounded in the hand
7. 11. 1915

FFA 62
v no. 1715 (10. squadron the RFC) - the fate of the crew of the Capt. Theodore Dawson Adams, Lt. Owen Vincent Le Bas unknown
15. 12. 1915
to the north of Valenciennes
in the morning
FFA 62
Morane Parasol
v no 5087 (03. squadron the RFC) - the crew of pilot Lt. Alan Victor Hobbs, the observer 2Lt. Charles Edward Tudor Tudor-Jones, died
12. 1. 1916

Vickers F.B.5
v no. 5460 (11. squadron RFC) - the fate of the crew unknown
2. 3. 1916
close to Somain
in the morning
Morane BB
v no. 5137 (3. squadron RFC) - the observer Lt. Herbert Frederick Birdwood fell, the pilot Lt. Charles Walter Palmer wounded in the leg and captured, later succumbed to injuries
13. 3. 1916

Bristol Scout C
v no 4678 (04. squadron of the RFC) )- pilot Maj. Victor Annesley Barrington-Kennett fell
13. 3. 1916
near Pelves, east of Arras
v no 4197 (08. squadron the RFC) - the fate of the crew 2Lt. Brian Edward Glover, Lt. Gilbert Dennis James Grune unknown
29. 3. 1916

v no 6352 (23. squadron the RFC) - the fate of the crew 2Lt. Edward Athelstan Halford 2Lt. Frank George Pinder unknown
30. 3. 1916

v no 4116 (8. squadron RFC) - the fate of the crew unknown
23. 4. 1916
in the case of Monchy-le-Preux
Vickers F.B.5
v no 5079 (11. squadron RFC) - the crew captured by the
16. 5. 1916

Bristol Scout C
v no 5301 (11. squadron RFC) )- pilot 2Lt. Morden Maxwell Mowatt fell
18. 6. 1916
to the south of Arras
v no. 6940 (25. squadron the RFC) - the pilot of a Lt. Clarence Elias Rogers fell, observer Sgt. H. G. Taylor captured
18. 6. 1916
to the south of Lensu
v no 4909 (25. squadron RFC)) - pilot 2Lt John Raymond Boscawen Savage fell, the observer AM2. T. N.U. Robinson captured


G. VanWyngarden: Early German Aces of World war 1, japan. Osprey Publishing Limited, Oxford 2006, ISBN 13: 978 1 84176 997 4
And. H. G. Fokker: the Flying Dutchman, press the Mustang, Plzeň, 1994, ISBN 80-85831-05-8
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K obrázku zobrazujícímu Maxe Immelmanna a jeho Fokker E.IV se váže určitá pikantnost. Immelmann byl totiž obdivovatelem Anthonyho Fokkera a jeho výrobků. Jeho kolega Oswald Boelcke však v okamžiku, kdy začaly Fokkery zastarávat, tuto skutečnost neváhal sdělit jak Fokkerovi, tak nadřízeným. Fokkera se Boelckeho kritika dotkla natolik, že nadále považoval za "svého koně" jen Immelmanna, který na jeho strojích létal dál bez výhrad. Když však přišel na frontu Fokker E.IV, musel i Immelmann cítit, že tady Fokker šlápl vedle. Letoun byl velmi špatně ovladatelný, kvůli gyroskopickému efektu jeho zdvojeného motoru, stroj navíc špatně stoupal. Immelmann na něm létal až do své smrti, ke které však paradoxně došlo na starším Fokkeru E.III, protože jeho E.IV byl v předchozím boji poškozen. Ironií je, že podle vzpomínek Immelamnnových kolegů i Max "s nadějí očekával nový stíhací dvouplošník", tedy výrobek konkurenční firmy Halberstadt. Tento stíhací letoun však dorazil ke KEK Douai až 22. 6. 1916, čtyři dny po Immelmannově smrti. Další ironií pak bylo, že první vítězství na tomto novém stroji získal největší Immelmannův rival Boelcke, který si letoun půjčil, když přiletěl do Douai na Immelmannův pohřeb.

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Sic transit gloria mundi - Tak končí sláva světa.

Vše co zbylo z Immelmannova Fokkeru E.III sériového čísla 246/16 a velkolepý pohřební průvod slavného esa.

U fotografie vraku si opět můžete všimnout, že levý list je jakoby uříznutý, oproti druhému "uštípnutému".

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Řády a vyznamenání :

l. Železný kříž II. a I. třídy 1914

2. Pour le Mérité

3. Saský vojenský řád Sv. Jindřicha, komandér řádu získal již v roce 1915

4. Saský vojenský řád Sv. Jindřicha, rytířský kříž

5. Saský řád Albrechta, rytíř I. třídy s meči

6. Pruský královský domácí Hohenzollernský řád, rytíř s meči

7. Württenberg : Rytíř vojenského záslužného řádu s meči

8. Saská záslužná medaile krále Fridricha Augusta ve stříbře

9. Hanzovní kříž města Hamburku 1914

10. Turecko : Válečná medaile ( Železný půlměsíc )

11. Turecko : Stříbrná záslužná medaile ( Imtiyaz Medal)

Čestný pohár za letecké vítězství získal již 24. prosince 1915

Pilotní odznak

Immelmann byl saský důstojník, je velmi vzácné, když důstojník v nižší hodnosti obdržel „Komandéra „ řádu Sv. Jindřicha. Toto ocenění je zcela mimořádné. Pour le Merité měl daleko liberárnější podmínky pro udělení.

Přehled zpracován dle obrázku Immelmana .
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Max Immelmann na fotografii s autogramem z roku 1916

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Rad (citace):
Metody vzdušného boje obohatil navíc o manévr, který od těch dob nese jeho jméno: Immelmannův zvrat.
Podle charakteru manévru se jedná o překrut; v některé literatuře je jako Immelmannův překrut označován.
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Není to zcela správné. Háček je v tom, že současný manévr Immelmann není totožný s "Immelmannem" z první světové války. Za první světové šlo v podstatě o souvrat (viz popis výše), zatímco dnes se tak skutečně označuje překrut (tedy půlpřemet s půlvýkrutem). Anglický termín "Immelmann´s turn" je možno přeložit jako zvrat i jako třeba "Immelmannovu otočku".

Samozřejmě ale zvrat jako takový je v podstatě překrut naopak.
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Tak jsem z toho srna Very Happy

podle Radova popisu byl původní Immelmann turn souvrat - tedy stoupavý let s vytracením rychlosti, vyšlápnutá směrovka a sešup dolů, aby pilot vyměnil získanou výšku zpět za rychlost.
Takhle dokáže udělat zatáčku na menším poloměru a rychleji než v horizontálním letu.

V anglické literatuře je Immelmann turn běžně popisovaný (a kreslený) tak, že je to bez debaty překrut tedy půlpřemet s půlvýkrutem na konci.

Zvrat (anglicky split S) bych do toho netahal ... to je půlvýkrut s následným přechodem do půlpřemetu - útočný manévr používaný při přepadu cíle s převahou výšky
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Tak jsem spíchl ten "Immelmannův obrat" -

Samotného Maxe dodělám/předělám/doplním.

Samozřejmě "zvrat" není správný, ale když jsem hledal adekvátní překlad slova turn, našel jsem mimo jiné slovo zvrat. Immelmannův obrat se mi moc nelíbilo, použít Immelmannův souvrat nebo překrut bylo nesmyslné už proto, že to tyto manévry jednak už existují (a jaký by tedy byl rozdíl mezi Immelmannovým souvratem a normálním souvratem) a překrut jsem navíc nechtěl použít, protože je ve vztahu k Immelmannovi zavádějící. Zbyl mi tedy Immelmannův zvrat, což jsem nepovažoval za totožné jako normální zvrat.
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Následkem zvratu je ztráta výšky, následkem překrutu, potažmo Immelmannu, je nabrání výšky, potažmo nabrání výšky mezi útoky. Podle jednoho popisu je nálet do překrutu vodorovný, Immelmann začíná útokem v sestupném letu. Můžeme zkusit říkat překrutu překrut a Immelmannovu obratu Immelmann, i když to nebude košér.
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