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Martin Motyka

Martin Motyka

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  • Russian legions close up

    The Czechoslovak legions in Russia, together with the French and Italian legions, were among the most significant manifestations of foreign anti-Austrian resistance during the First World War. However, the effort to establish Czechoslovak troops in the states of the Allies in all cases encountered unclear war goals of the Allies and political pressures of various, mostly pro-Austrian oriented interest groups. However, thanks to developments on the Western and Southern fronts and the great political efforts of the members of the Czech Republic, all existing obstacles fell during 1917 in France and in 1918 in Italy. The Czechoslovak legions could subsequently begin to form in peace as a politically autonomous part of the national armies of these states.

    42.581
  • Russian legions close up

    The Czechoslovak legions in Russia, together with the French and Italian legions, were among the most significant manifestations of foreign anti-Austrian resistance during the First World War. However, the effort to establish Czechoslovak troops in the states of the Allies in all cases encountered unclear war goals of the Allies and political pressures of various, mostly pro-Austrian oriented interest groups. However, thanks to developments on the Western and Southern fronts and the great political efforts of the members of the Czech Republic, all existing obstacles fell during 1917 in France and in 1918 in Italy. The Czechoslovak legions could subsequently begin to form in peace as a politically autonomous part of the national armies of these states.

    24.980
  • Russian legions close up

    The foundations of the Czechoslovak legions in Russia began to form shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. In 1914, approximately 60-100 thousand Czech compatriots lived in the Russian Empire. Most of them were natives, but next to them, a large number of Czech specialists and engineers, who were still citizens of Austria-Hungary, had been employed in the Russian economy since the beginning of the century.

    22.859
  • Russian legions close up

    Since the very beginning of the Czechoslovak Republic, the Czechoslovak legions have been highlighted as the only strong point of stability and democracy in large areas of the Russian country. Relations between Czechoslovak soldiers were often presented almost as non-conflicting. Any disputes within the legions were often attributed more to unfortunate misunderstandings than to other, more objective causes.

    15.000
  • Russian legions close up

    The first stage of the existence of Czechoslovak Armed Forces movement in Russia was the period of the so-called Czech retinue. This relatively small military unit was a regular part of the Russian III. army. Its members were completely subject to Russian military orders, which strictly and very strictly defined the rules of life in the army. Despite all the restrictions, however, Czechoslovakia. volunteers in a gradually growing unit were able to create some elements of internal autonomy. However, it encountered a number of obstacles in its daily contact with the Russian environment. These were formed mainly by Russian officers of the Company and compatriots who had already lost their sense of belonging to the Czech nation.

    15.837
  • Russian legions close up

    The February Revolution brought Russia huge changes that did not escape the army. Deeply demoralized compatriots could be expelled from the 1st Czechoslovak Brigade. The existing tsarist system of troops was replaced by a reorganized revolutionary army. Elected regimental committees ( committees ) were established, and the activities of the commanders were supervised by political commissioners. Most of the existing military orders were abandoned and new administrative elements were introduced instead. According to František Polák, these were changes that were unheard of even by the widely applied degree of democratization for the armies of traditional democratic states. In the history of Czechoslovak troops in Russia played a key role.

    15.141
  • Russian legions close up

    The appearance of legions against the Bolsheviks pitted the Czechoslovak army into a new situation. While the existing independent administrative institutions were established only temporarily, with the knowledge that the army would soon switch to the French system, after the speech, the sovereign structure of the democratic administration of the legions began to be consistently organized. July 28, 1918 was the Congress of Czechoslovak troops adopted an amended French disciplinary code. The system of regimental committees and proxies was specified, and in the autumn of 1918 the reorganization of the Czechoslovak troops judiciary began. The armed performance changed the character of the army. Its ranks were supplemented by mobilized czechoslovak prisoners. The soldiers began to be visibly affected by the prolonged combat deployment.

    17.131
  • Russian legions close up

    At the turn of 1918 and 1919, Czechoslovak regiments withdrew on the Trans-Siberian railroad. This step was already demanded in the summer of 1918 at the Ufa negotiations on a unified Russian government, but the slow organization of Russian troops delayed it. Withdrawal of Czechoslovak army, among other reasons, was led by efforts to concentrate it in order to thoroughly reorganize. The basic steps to these changes were taken at the beginning of 1919 by M.R. Štefánik. The army was changed according to Western European standards. A number of revolutionary gains were canceled. A new disciplinary code has been issued. The army's response to these far-reaching changes was quite negative, and after a series of resistance, it culminated in the events of Irkutsk in mid-1919. Czechoslovak soldiers were driven by the idea of returning home throughout their stay on the railroad.

    16.967
  • Russian legions close up

    High-quality, organized facilities, which cover all the needs of the army, have always fundamentally influenced the successful management of all military operations. It was no different in Czechoslovak legions in Russia. The quality of supply and technical support played an important role, especially in the post-accession period, when the shattered Russian economy provided only part of its pre-war potential.

    14.560
  • Russian legions close up

    Until the exit,russian army provided all the needs of Czechoslovak troops. Until the February Revolution, in all of the Czechoslovak regiments was not in a single company economic officer from Bohemia. The supply of equipment and food to the Czech company was at a low level. Soldiers regularly received summer clothes for winter and winter for summer. The situation was not better even within the entire Russian army, where so-called fasting days were announced in times of food shortages. On such days, instead of the usual composition of food, only dried fish soup and begged porridge oiled with oil were served, which, according to some contemporary evidence, was almost indigestible food for Central Europeans. The rescue could be brought only by the regimental manager, who had the right at the expense of the regiment to provide improvements to the diet.

    18.325
  • Russian legions close up

    Unlike the supply, until the exit the Czechoslovak units did not create a great need to provide for itself of a technical nature. All care for weapons, ammunition and the satisfaction of all other needs of the army as a whole was fully provided by the Russian side. Already in prisoner of war organizations and subsequently in Czechoslovak units, however, the soldiers were able to repair parts of the equipment or variously adapt some tools to their technical needs. They showed a great deal of improvisation skills. After the performance, they were able to fully apply all their learned skills.

    16.307
  • Russian legions close up

    In the previous chapters, the methods of financing some components of Czechoslovak military and military organizations were marginally mentioned. The aim of the next chapter of this work is to shed light on the sources of finance by which Czechoslovak organization itself covered a large part of the expenses.

    17.813
  • Russian legions close up

    A small but important chapter in the history of the Czechoslovak troops in Russia also played Czechoslovak field post, which became the most reliable mediator of correspondence in the then Siberian Russia.

    17.341
  • Russian legions close up

    During the stay of Czechoslovak legions in Russia developed a broad-based cultural activity in their units. During each longer interruption of combat activities, music and theater performances, educational lectures, or sports events were held in the units.

    13.920
  • Russian legions close up

    In the Czech company, the effort to carry out cultural activities has manifested itself since the very beginning of the unit. However, compared to later cultural and educational activities, they have never reached such a boom. Their development was hindered by contemporary military orders, which conditioned individual activities with the permission of the commanding officer.

    14.318
  • Russian legions close up

    The February Revolution brought to the life of the Russian army a noticeable loosening of orders, which had a very positive effect on the cultural activity of the legions. Although just after the revolution, the same cultural activity continued as before 1917, the changes were reflected in the fact that between Czechoslovak soldiers Czech written literature, a welcome gift sent by American compatriots, also slowly began to flow. A significant change was the establishment of regimental and company committees. In addition to their economic functions, they also performed cultural and educational tasks. Their activity brought order and organization to the hitherto spontaneous and inconsistent activities. Their great contribution to the development of the cultural activities of the legions was significant until their dissolution in 1919.

    17.200
  • Russian legions close up

    Processing the history of Czechoslovak legions in Russia since the 1930s have focused mainly on military and political issues of their existence. A varied and diverse range of other possible perspectives on this issue remained practically out of the interest of historians. However, the thematically monotonous interpretation of the elaboration does not contribute much to the growth of a deeper interest in the study of Czechoslovak legions history.

    14.081
  • Russian legions close up

    Printed sources

    14.651
  • Russian legions close up

    Newspapers and magazines

    14.045
  • Russian legions close up

    Literature

    21.546

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