Mesopotamia was the cradle of civilization. The first Sumerian population appeared in Mesopotamia at the turn of the 4th and 3rd millennium BC. In ancient times it was divided into northern Assyria and southern Babylonia. The upper part of Babylon was called Akkad and the lower Sumer. In 539 BC, the Persians of the Achaimen dynasty entered Babylon and Alexander the Great in 331 BC, after whom Babylon became part of the Seleucid Empire. Around 150 BC, the Parthians seized Mesopotamia, and Persians again in the 2nd century AD. In 637, Muslim Arabs took over the governments of Mesopotamia.

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