Mikojan-Gurevič I-250

Mikoyan-Gurevich I-250
Микоян-Гуревич И-250
Mikojan-Gurevič I-250(N) Mikoyan-Gurevich I-250(N)
Originální název:
Original Name:
Микоян-Гуревич И-250(H)
stíhací letoun fighter aeroplane
DD.11.1944-DD.05.1945 Moskevský letecký závod č. 155, Moskva /
DD.12.1945-DD.03.1946 Moskevský letecký závod č. 381, Moskva /
Období výroby:
Production Period:
28.03.1944-26.10.1944 maketa (mock-up)
DD.MM.RRRR-26.02.1945 1st prototype
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
Vzlet a přistání:
Take-off and Landing:
CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání CTOL - conventional take-off and landing
Uspořádání křídla:
Arrangement of Wing:
jednoplošník monoplane
Uspořádání letounu:
Aircraft Concept:
klasické conventional
zatahovací retractable
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
kola wheels
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost prázdného letounu:
Empty Weight:
2587 kg 5703 lb
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
3680 kg 8113 lb
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
? kg ? lb
9,500 m 31ft 2in
8,185 m 26ft 10,25in
4,250 m 13ft 11,33in
Plocha křídla:
Wing Area:
15,00 m2 161.46 ft2
Plošné zatížení:
Wing Loading:
245,333 kg/m2 50.25 lb/ft2
pístový+motokompresorový piston+motorjet
Počet motorů:
Number of Engines:
Klimov VK-107R kapalinou řazený vidlicový dvanáctiválec o vzletovém výkonu 1 214 kW (1 650 k) a 1 066 kW (1 450 k) v h= 3 800 m.
Vrtule trojlistá AV-5B s nastavitelným úhlem náběhu 3 100 mm a
motokompresorový urychlovač prof. Cholščevnikova VRDK (Vozdušno-reaktivny dvigatěl kompressorovy) o tahu 300 kg (2,942 kN)
Klimov VK-107R twelve-cylinder liquid colled Vee engine rated at 1,627 hp for take-off and 1,430at 12,470 ft,
driving a three-blade variable-pitch AV-5B propeller of the diameter 10ft 2in and
motorjet VRDK thurst 661 lbf
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
612 l 135 UK gallons (162 US gallons)
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
825 km/h v 7000 m 512.6 mph in 22966 ft
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
425 km/h v 2400 m 264.1 mph in 7874 ft
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
? m/s ? ft/min
Čas výstupu na výšku:
Time to Climb to:
3,9 min do 5000 m 3,9 min to 16404 ft
Operační dostup:
Service Ceiling:
11960 m 39239 ft
920 km 571.7 mi
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
1380 km 857.5 mi
3x pevný synchronizovaný kanón Berezin B-20 ráže 20 mm každý se zásobou 160 granátů Three fixed synchronized 0.79 inch Berezin B-20 cannons with 160 rpg.
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
Viz další příspěvek. The Mikoyan-Gurevich I-250(N) was a Soviet fighter aircraft specially developed up against a high-performance fighter to counter German turbojet-powered aircraft such as the Messerschmitt Me-262. Aware of earlier problems encountered with other novel propulsion systems such as ramjets both Sukhoi and Mikoyan-Gurevich chose to use the VRDK booster engine which was been under development since 1942. While quite successful when it worked, with a maximum speed of 510 mph being reached during trials, production problems with the VRDK fatally delayed the program and it was canceled in 1948 as obsolete.

Bill Gunston and Yefim Gordon, MiG Aircraft sience 1937, Putnam Aeronautical Books, an imprint of Brassey´s OK Ltd. ISBN 0-85177-884-4
L+K č. 23/1978, Monografie I-250(N) J. Moravec
archiv autora
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Mikojan-Gurevic-I-250-t801#117683 Version : 0
the Emergence and development of the aircraft Mikoyan-Gurevich I-250(N)

At the end of the second world war are increasingly starting to discover the aircraft with reactive propulsion. Classic drive unit is received at the very end of its capabilities and the propeller itself was becoming a source of aerodynamic drag. The way to a new kind of propulsion, however, were long and considerably varied, for example in the Uk was long developed the jet engine and the end of the war was deployed jet aircraft Gloster Meteor. German engineers have gained from others a considerable head start and have developed the rocket, the jet and the ramjet into a usable stage.

In the Soviet union the designers have dealt with rocket-propelled (Běrezňak-Isayev BI-1), rocket accelerators, which were installed on the best fighter types (As-3R, La-7R, etc.). As an oxidizer was used concentrated nitric acid, which rozleptávala the plywood hulls of the aircraft, and additionally, when the ignition of the rocket engines generating a large vibration which undermine the manageability and strength of the aircraft. The classic jet engine with turbine and compressor are the Russian engineers failed to produce, until after the war could be used German experience and then the Soviet union could engage in the development of jet engines.

It did not mean, however, that there did not exist any other reactive engines, again, it were the so-called accelerator and the engines were ram or motokompresorové. In the context of aircraft I-250(N) we will deal with the last type of engine, i.e. the engine motokompresorovým.
Motokompresorová drive unit is of relatively simple construction, the engine has a turbine, which is a production very challenging, its blades are subjected to high temperatures and centrifugal forces. For the manufacture of reliable turbine, it was necessary to develop a resistant material, and calculate the shape of the blades was also a complicated matter. Motokompresorový drive the turbine did not need - in her place was the engine piston and the spinning by the transmission of the axial compressor. The compressed air passed through the diffuser, in addition to the air stream could be injected with fuel that is ignited, or ignited, by a sharp explosion and gases at great speed will come out, so was the thrust of the engine.

Such engines have been tested in Italy (Caproni Campini N.1). The engine was purchased by the Japanese and after the japanese developments have been fitted to the suicide letounků Yokosuka MXY7 type 22. The second customer was the Soviet union and also there is own development, design motokompresorového engine subsequently dealt with a professor In. Ch. Cholščevnikov. This constructor for the propulsion of single-stage axial compressor used only a small part of the power of the engine Klimov VK-107R (about 5%). Piston engine was installed into the bow of the aeroplane and powered trojlistou propeller, in the rear of the engine was the clutch, gearbox and shaft, which in the case of the needs of the powered axial compressor accelerator VRDK ((Vozdušno-reaktivny dvigatěl kompressorovy). Into the stream of compressed air was seven jets of injected fuel (gasoline) and at full power this accelerator provided the thrust of the force of 2.9 kN. Two-stage regulation of tension was perhaps the output nozzle. The overall performance of this hybrid drive was 1 900 kW (2 500 hp).

In march 1944 were invited to two design teams, in order for this unit to propose a completely new machine. OKB P. About. Dry has designed and built a prototype of a marked I-107, later, SU-5. The second machine was the prototype of OKB 155, which was the design office Artiom Mikojana and Michael Gureviče. First was built a wooden mockup, which was completed 26. 10. 1944 and 26. 2. 1945 had completed the first prototype.

I-250(N) was an all-metal low-wing with retractable landing gear. In the bow was above the engine VK-107R, which powered trojlistou propeller AV-5B, under the propeller cone was a relatively large air intake opening for accelerator VRDK air to the axial compressor was led through a long tunnel under the cockpit. The products of combustion were brought under the keel of the airplane. The accelerator can be run after switching the clutch, the aircraft could fly in economic mode, only the piston engine, and in case of need it was possible to run the accelerator, I heard it was very fancy, for the aircraft welled up to five meters long flaming tail. The first takeoff was performed 3. 3. 1945. The first two test flights were carried out only with a piston engine, the aircraft behaved normally and so it was decided that the third years will be carried out with both engines, the aircraft exceeded the speed of 800 km/h and soon after was found to be the better of both types, the development of the Sukhoi I-107 was discontinued and the test terminated.

The prototype I-250(N) was soon followed by the second and he also got involved in the tests, in the meantime, however, there was a crash of the first prototype, which crashed from a height of 250 m. the Tests were not completed due to the damage of the second prototype, he is already fixed, because since the second half of the year 1946 was preparing the pre-series production. The aircraft was rated very positively, but after just completed the war the Russians got into the hands of a completely new technique – the German jet engines, Russian engineers immediately embarked on a thorough examination of the captured documents and engines, and already in April 1946 flew the prototype of the first soviet pure jet aircraft MiG–9. I-250(N) was therefore limited in number to less than a thirtieth of the machines (Russian sources). The aircraft was designated as MiG-13 and was assigned to the armament of naval aviation of the Northern and Baltic fleet, here in active service remained until 1950.

The pilots of these planes should in popularity, the transition from propeller fighters was simple and unpretentious. After training naval pilots swimming in the low-altitude maximum speed with a long fiery tail and thunder booming sensation.

Bill Gunston and Yefim Gordon, MiG Aircraft sience 1937, Putnam Aeronautical Books, an imprint of Brasseys OK Ltd. ISBN 0-85177-884-4
L+To no 23/1978, Monograph I-250(N) J. Moravec
author archive
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Mikojan-Gurevic-I-250-t801#458546 Version : 0

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Prototyp námorného stíhacieho lietadla, začiatkom roka 1946 bolo rozostavaných prvých 10 lietadile nultej série (z celkom 40 objednaných lietadiel v roku 1946) nasledovne:
stav výroby v prvom štvrťroku 1946
dokončený 25.12.1945, nebol vybavený motorom a v ďalšom období bol používaný ako etalón na stavbu ďalších kusov
dokončený v januári 1946 motor namontovaný 06.01.), prvý a jediný vzlet 12.03.1946 - pri lete došlo k poškodeniu lopatiek kompresora, následne bol motor z lietadla demontovaný a odoslaný do výrobného závodu
dokončený vo fenruári 1946, motor bol inštalovaný 26.01.1946. Pri motorových skúškach boli zistené kovové hobliny v olejovej náplni motora, motor bol demontovaný a ďalší už nebol inštalovaný
dokončený v marci 1946, 07.03. bol inštalovaný neúplný motor VK-107R (ВК-107Р) - bez kompresora
dokončený v marci 1946, 08.03. do draku zamontovali neúplný motor (bez kompresora)
v stave dokončovacích prác na draku, bez motora a krídel
v stave dokončovacích prác na draku, bez motora a krídel
v stave dokončovacích prác na draku, bez motora a krídel
v stave dokončovacích prác na draku, bez motora a krídel
boli vyrobené základné časti trupu, montáž sa ešte nezačala

Po zistených problémoch s motorom bolo rozhodnuté o vrátení motorv VK-107R späť do výrobného závodu k prepracovaniu (najmä lámanie lopatiek kompresora) a uvažovalo sa aj o zástavbe iných motorov.
Postupne, tak ako výrobca vylepšoval motor došlo k postupnému dokončeniu 8 lietadiel, ktoré mali absolvovať vojskové skúšky (okrem v.č. 3810101 a 3810107 použité ako výrobný etalón a na statické skúšky) v priebehu jesene 1946.

Zdroj: http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fighter/mig13.html
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První prototyp - byl zničený při havárii 5. července 1945, zkušební pilot Dějev zahynul.
Mikojan-Gurevič I-250 -

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Druhý prototyp - byl zničen při nouzovém přistání 21. září 1945.
Mikojan-Gurevič I-250 -

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Sériové letouny MiG-13 létaly u jednotek VMF (Vojenno Morskovo Flota) u leteckých jednotek Černomořské i Blatské floty, většinou v jednobarevném "kabátě".
Mikojan-Gurevič I-250 -

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Trojpohled a fotografie I-250(N) z roku 1945.
Mikojan-Gurevič I-250 -

Mikojan-Gurevič I-250 -

Mikojan-Gurevič I-250 -

Mikojan-Gurevič I-250 -

URL : https://www.valka.cz/Mikojan-Gurevic-I-250-t801#117685 Version : 0
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