Micubiši F1M Zerokan [Pete]

Mitsubishi F1M Zerokan - přehled verzí
Mitsubishi F1M - an overview of the versions
maritime observation aircraft of the Type 0 / 零式水上観測機

Japanese name: Zerokan
Allied code name: Pete

Mitsubishi F1M1 10-Shi
in 1936, four prototypes were built, the factory marked Ka-17, driven by a Nakajima Hikari 1

Mitsubishi F1M2 11
a radical reworking of the original project, the aircraft was completed in August 1938, mass production from 1940

Mitsubishi F1M2-K
Naval arsenal in the Sasebu built a few dozen training aircraft

A total of was built 1 118 aircraft

Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Nagoya
4 F1M1 prototypes
524 F1M2 serial aircraft

Dai-Nijuichi Kaigun Kokusho, Sasebo
590 F1M2 serial aircraft.
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Mitsubishi F1M Zerokan / Pete

Specification 10-Shi
In 1934 he started the technical department of the headquarters of the imperial navy air forces to formulate technical requirements for the yet unoccupied category of naval aircraft "F". The japanese navy used to katapultech their battleships and cruisers reconnaissance aircraft of the category "E", in this year the factory Nakajima Hikoki To. To. started serial production of the exploratory float of the aeroplane E8N1, and the new reconnaissance aircraft it was replacing in the moment when it starts E8N1 become obsolete. The newly required category "F" should represent a smaller, but more skilled design of the aircraft, which had also to serve for the management of the artillery warships.
Such a procedure was at that time usual, and he had to keep and also maintained a naval air force for the increasingly high technical level.

Specification 10-Shi from 1935 demanded the Kaigun Koku Hombu (command naval aviation), aircraft of different categories, first was the already mentioned float reconnaissance aircraft, were also required jednoplošné on-board bombers (B5M1 and B5N1) and on-board reconnaissance aircraft (C3N1).

The requirement for a two-seater float plane for the management of the indirect fire marine works was handed over to the factories Aichi Tonkei Denki To. To. in Eitoku, Kawanishi Kokuki K. To. in Nauru and Mitsubishi Jukogyo K. To. based in Nagoya at the turn of the years 1935/36. In these specifications, listed almost everything with the structure and performance of the aeroplane concerned. It was supposed to be a float plane with one main float and two floats of the other, the crew should be two-piece, the arm was also given, were required two fixed guns and one movable all caliber 7.7 mm. The engine is precisely specified - radial devítiválec Nakajima Hikari 1, the output of 820 horsepower.

On the specifications of the replied all three of the factory, Aichi Tonkei Denki To. To. proposed biplane aircraft with slender wings and built a total of two prototypes, designated F1A1, both prototypes participated in the competition and failed - unfortunately after completed the competition is no longer known of their further fate. Kawanishi Kokuki K. To. started with the works on the project of the airplane F1K1, but the work itself has stopped and from the competition withdrew, is not known to me, whether it was proceeded to the construction of his own prototype. The third factory Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha presented the project of the aeroplane office marked Ka-17 and which the navy identified as F1M1 10-Shi.

Prototypes F1M1
On the project he started working the team of designers under the guidance of Joji Hatoriho, designed aircraft was characterized by the aerodynamic subtleties and elliptical wings, struts between the wings were reduced to the minimum necessary and both have been carefully aerodynamically formed. The first prototype was to fly in June 1936. The aircraft suffered a large directional instability both in the air and on the water surface. Poor nautical characteristics caused probably the main float, which was used from the float of the aeroplane Nakajima E8N1, the use of this float was one simple reason - accelerated by the construction of the prototypes.
In competition with prototypes of F1M1 fought only with competitors from Aichi. Competition winning prototypes F1M1, but the victory was conditional. Mitsubishi had its aircraft to radically adjust and be redesigned according to the comments of the maritime air force. Comments related to the already mentioned instability and also elliptical wings, which was very production-intensive.

F1M2 model 11
The result of the reconstruction was almost a new aircraft, a new wing was aluminum alloy dvounosníkovou ground floor plan of the wing was trapezoidal, reduce their production performance, the one degree increase the dihedral of the wings, a completely new then was the float, the size was larger and mainly characterised by incomparably better nautickými properties. The biggest change, however, passed the tail, this resulted in improved stability of an aeroplane in flight. The area of the vertical fin was increased by 85 % and the area of the rudder was larger by 32 %. New was also the engine. Radial engine Hikari was replaced by the aerodynamically more advantageous dvojhvězdicovým čtrnáctiválcem Mitsubishi Zuisei 13, which has higher take-off power - 875 horsepower. The new engine due to the fact that it was the engine of a smaller frontal resistance and could be better kapotován. The modified aircraft has commenced flight testing in August 1938. Its flight characteristics were very good and the whole maritime tests now passed without any major problems. Serial production began in Nagoya in 1940. Navy assigned the designation "maritime float observation aircraft of the Type 0 model 11" abbreviated F1M2 11.
Armament remained the same with the first prototypes consisted of two synchronized machine guns stored above the engine Type 97 caliber 7.7 mm. An observer may, if necessary, to eject from the slit between the cabin and the keel machine gun Type 92 caliber 7.7 mm, which had a supply of ammunition drum trays. Under centroplán it was possible to hang up two šedesátikilové cougars.

The use of new aircraft depends on the circumstances, if it seaplane carrier, brought to the place of the japanese landing party, so in addition to reconnaissance tasks proved itself also as a light attack aircraft and it is known that in the initial phase of the war was used as an auxiliary fighter aircraft, on the island of Attu was even a fighter group to be equipped with such aircraft and it has reportedly kills several american fighters. On battleships served mainly as an observation plane and jajo, the crew drove a fire ship works. If flying away from the coastal bases, fulfils anti-submarine and anti-ship patrol years ago. Only over time, as growing allied air force, had to Pete download to the sidelines or on the remote battlefield.

The japanese aircraft they Zerokan, made a total of 1 118 aircraft and it was given its considerable extension, operated on the carriers seaplanes Kimikawa Maru, Kiyokawa Maru, and Kunikawa Maru, Sagara Maru, Sanuki Maru and Sanyo Maru. On your katapultech it bore the battleship Fuso, Hiei, Kirishima, Congo, Musashi, Mutsu, Nagato and Yamato and cruisers Aoba, Ashigara, Atago, Haguro, Cinema, Maya, Myoko, Nachi and Takao.
Included in the arsenal of these Kokutai 21., 32., 453., 902., 938., 954., Amakusa, Fukuyama, Otsu and Tateyamaa.
Pete flew throughout the war, towards the end of the war tried also the bombing of one 250 kg bomb, but it was already really something, what this aircraft really wasn't enough.
Produced was a factory Mitsubishi and naval air arsenal in Sasebu (Dai-Nijuichi Kaigun Kokusho – Sasebo), in Sasebu is also a few tens of training aircraft with dual controls marked F1M2-K.
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Micubiši F1M Zerokan [Pete] - Micubiši F1M2

Micubiši F1M2
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Micubisi-F1M-Zerokan-Pete-t67103#637456 Version : 0
Sources used:
Rene J. Francillion Ph. d., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Naval Institute Press, rok 1987, ISBN-10: 087021313X.
Robert C. Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe, Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990, ISBN: 1557505632
Tadeusz Januszewski and Kryzysztof Zalewski, Japońskie samoloty marynarski 1912-1945, tiel 1., Wydavatelstwo Lampart, year 2000, ISBN: 83-86776-50-1
Vaclav Nemecek, Military aircraft 3., Our troops, Prague 1992, 3. supplemented edition, ISBN 80-206-0117-1
L+K 2/1977 Monographs of the Mitsubishi F1M, Václav Němeček
archives of the author.
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