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Operace Blockbuster

Operation Blockbuster

     
Název:
Name:
Operace Blockbuster
Datum:
Date:
22.02.1945-11.03.1945
Válčiště / Fáze:
Theatre of Operations / Phase:
Západoevropské válčiště
Místo:
Location:
oblast mezi městy Goch a Xanten
GPS:
GPS:
51°39'21.38"N 6°21'07.2"E
Účastníci:
Belligerents:
 
Strana A:
Side A:
Kanada
Velká Británie
Strana B:
Side B:
Velkoněmecká říše
Velitelé:
Commanders:
 
Strana A:
Side A:
Harry Crerar
Strana B:
Side B:
Alfred Schlemm
Síly:
Strenght:
 
Síly strana A:
Forces Side A:
1. kanadská armáda
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
 
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
-
Síly strana B:
Forces Side B:
1. výsadková armáda
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
 
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
-
Ztráty:
Losses:
 
Ztráty strana A:
Losses Side A:
VERITABLE + BLOCKBUSTER:
1 049 důstojníků
14 585 příslušníků mužstva
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
 
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
-
Ztráty strana B:
Losses Side B:
VERITABLE + BLOCKBUSTER:
22 000
+
22 239 zajatých
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
 
Zobraz detail:
Show Detail:
-
Cíle a výsledek:
Objectives and Result:
 
Typ operace, strana A:
Type of Operation, Side A:
útok
Typ operace, strana B:
Type of Operation, Side B:
obrana
Cíle, strana A:
Objectives, Side A:
obsadit západní břeh Rýna severně od Geldern - splněn
Cíle, strana B:
Objectives, Side B:
udržet předmostí na západním břehu Rýna - nesplněn
Výsledek:
Result:
vítězství strany A
Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
www.canadahistory.com
Charles Perry STACEY: Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War: Volume III. The Victory Campaign, The Operations in North-West Europe 1944-1945, 1960
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INTRODUCTION

Battle for the Rhine
Operation BLOCKBUSTER conducted 1. the canadian military in the area between the river Rhine and Meuse on the Dutch-German border. The operation followed up on operation VERITABLE. These two operations together with the the operations of the GRENADE, it conducted the american 9. army in the area between the Tubes and the Meuse on the one and the Rhine on the other hand, were part of the battle of the Rhine, in February and march played out on a broad front from the Nijmegen after Rastatt. Both armies came under the command of the Montgomery 21. the group armies, which ensured the nejseverní part of the conquest of the left bank of the Rhine. In the evening of the 21st. in February 1945 units 1. canadian army I managed to overcome the tenacious German resistance in the German woods cleaned from German troops, the city Goch and occupy the position in the road from this city to Kalkaru. This ended operation VERITABLE and could commence operation BLOCKBUSTER, at the core of which was a duel 4. canadian armoured division with German 116. panzer division on the fire-break between the Hochwaldským and Tüschenwaldským through the woods (that formed the northwest tip of the Balbergského forest).

the Position of the units 1. canadian army
The commander of the 1. canadian army available to the two councils - II. canadian corps on the left wing between the Gochem and the Rhine and british XXX. choir on the right wing between the Gochem Meuse river. II. the choir was on the left flank between the Rhine and the road Kleve-Kalkar-Xanten 43. (wessexskou) infantry division, on the direction of the among the Kalkarem and Uedemem cost 2. canadian hiking and 3. canadian infantry division. For them to attack prepared 4. canadian armoured division and 11. armored division. XXX. the congregation had on their right wing 52. (lowlandskou) division, which was located northeast of Afferdenu. Southwest of Gochu was 51. (highland) division, but not in the fighting hit, as it had to go to the backup and prepare for the crossing of the Rhine. Southeast of Gochu along the railroad tracks Goch-Geldern was 53. (welsh) division. To the left of it, stood 15. (scottish) division and on the left flank was 3. infantry division. The commander of the XXX. corps should available Gardovou armoured division. The canadian part of the battlefield was closer, but acted more units and started running through the stiffest of the fight, including the peak point of the operation - a breakthrough Hochwaldským cut.

the Position of the units of the German 1. airborne army
The commander of the German 1. airborne army Alfred Schlemm had four choirs. On the right wing and was XLVII. panzer corps and the area between the Uedemem and Weeze held II. airborne corps. On the line of Weeze-Venlo was LXXXVI. army corps and south of it defended the area between the cities of Venlo and Roermond LXIII. army corps. XLVII. panzer corps consisted of 6. parachute division (north of Keppelnu), reinforced 116. panzer division (around Keppelnu) and 7. members of the parachute regiment (in Uedemu). II. airborne corps consisted mainly of 7. airborne division, which was relatively well prepared to fight. Compared to 8. the airborne division was on half-stocks and moreover full of inexperienced soldiers. 15. the division of the panzer grenadiers and 84. infantry division on this were not any better, rather the opposite. The germans could partly rely on Schlieffenovu line, which was among the Kehrumem and Sonsbeckem consists of three rows of infantry trenches and anti-tank moat. But that wasn't nearly everywhere done and in addition the terrain was not always favorable. General Schlemm while the defensive line strengthened the fifty 88-mm guns, but their operator nepřekypovaly just experience and fighting morale.

American procedure in the south
23. February came the good news from the southern locations of the us 9. army. In the half fourth morning finally launched operation GRENADE. After the initial triple-a club to put her two corps into the attack and started to cross the river Pipes. On the right wing is to support the american 1. army that attacked in the area of Durenu. The americans here have followed relatively rapidly, thanks to the fact that part of the German forces were moved into positions against the canadian army.

Variants of the procedure II. corps
II. the canadian corps had three options for action. The first option was to proceed north of the forest along the road along the Rhine, which led from Kalkaru through Marienbaum Xanten. However, the road was very damaged and spilled the Rhine here the conditions even worse. In addition, it was the shortest way and the Germans the allied advance expected. The second option was the procedure south of the Tüschenwaldského the forest along the road Uedem-Kervenheim-Sonsbeck-Xanten. However, this way had to do XXX. choir and the roads would be congested. General Simonds therefore decided for a third variant - to pass along the railway line cut between Hochwaldským and Balbergským (Tüschenwaldským) through the woods. Units of the corps were first to occupy the ridge between the cities of Kalkar and Uedem, from here continue to the saddle toward the break between Hochwaldským and Balbergským forest, this section of the way, then occupy the city Xanten and finally occupy a position at the bank of the Rhine. According to the survey wasn't the saddle mined and body line after removing the superstructure can be used for the supply of the column.

a Plan of procedure II. corps
II. canadian corps had to go 26. on the morning of February. The initial strike should lead the brigade 2. canadian infantry division, which with the support of the two regiments 2. canadian armoured brigade had crossed the road Goch-Kalkar and attack direction on the plane south of the Kalkaru. This was in itself an important position, whose conquest was in the Germans also give the impression that the Canadians attempt a procedure in a northerly direction. The allies hoped that in the wake of the Germans to strengthen this part of the battlefield at the expense of positions in Uedemu. South of 2. canadian infantry division had to go 8. canadian infantry brigade from the assembly 3. canadian infantry division. Its task was to occupy the heights north of the Keppelnu, which lay roughly half way between Uedemem and Kalkarem. After securing the northern part of the ridge 8. brigade to occupy the Keppeln. Between the two infantry divisions then had direction on Todtenhügel stretch the offensive tip in the form of 4. canadian armoured division. Then have the attack proceed in a southerly direction. 9. canadian infantry brigade from the assembly 3. canadian infantry division had to go to Uedem that was supposed to be threatened by also 4. canadian armoured brigade from the assembly 4. canadian armoured division. In the meantime, had 11. armored division, which was allocated as a reinforcement from the british 2. army, to advance south of the Uedemu direction on Kervenheim and take positions on in the field of Gochfortzberg, which was the southern tip of the ridge. Follow had on the east directed punch 4. canadian armoured division, which had from the area north of Keppeln go over the saddle between the Uedemem and Hochwaldským through the woods into the space of the break between Hochwaldským and Balbergským through the woods. In the meantime, had 11. armored division moving forward and to conquer Sonsbeck. This would ensure that the ridges southeast of Balbergského the forest. The two canadian infantry divisions were to advance on the wings 4. canadian armoured division. Hochwaldským through the woods had to go through 2. and Balbergským forest 3. division. After the passage of the cut should follow the attack on the Xanten.

Artillery and air support
The advancing unit should have a strong artillery support. The initial mortar fire should provide twelve field, six medium and three heavy artillery regiments in the case of 2. canadian infantry division, respectively, seven field and two medium artillery regiments in the case of 3. canadian infantry division. For the case of encounter from the significantly to the strong positions of the enemy should be upon request available strong artillery support in the course of the fighting. In the late stages should armored division support three field and five medium artillery regiments each. For the air strikes was pre-selected 25 important goals. On the 18 of them in the space between the ridge and the western edge of the woods in advance of the ground forces focused fighter-bombers. To the word were also medium bombers. Targets north of the Kervenheimu and in both the forests, lay the anti-personnel bombs. In addition, implement přehradné bombing on the southern (space, Sonsbecku) and the north wing (the area at the Kehrumu and Marienbaumu). But in general it can be said that air support was hampered by bad weather. The area under the west bank under German control in addition, still dwindled, which would require still more caution when picking targets to attack and in addition to a higher concentration of anti-aircraft artillery in the rest of the bridgehead. Mutual benets roughout the operation was the air support is provided sporadically and in the end wasn't provided virtually no air support..
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COURSE
the Initial procedure XXX. corps
22. march attacked 15. (scottish) division into the wooded area north-east of Weeze, to which 24. February followed up 53. (welsh) division. She was tasked to head south, to occupy Weeze and continue south-west. After securing the right wing of 26. February, in motion unit II. the canadian corps, which were given the task to go through the area Hochwaldského the forest to the city of Xanten and take positions on the Rhine.

Cast the northern part of the plateau Kalkar-Uedem
As soon as 25. February evening it got dark, started with unit 2. canadian infantry division to move to the designated starting position on southwest from the Kalkaru. On the divisional left flank was 5. brigade with the Regiment de Maisonneuve and Black Watch (royal horalským regiment), on the right wing stood 6. brigade with Jihosaskatchewanským regiment, Mont-Royalskými fyzilíry and the Queen's personal canadian cameronskými the hill people. Transfer of units recorded by the Germans and Canadians often fired from mortars. Early in the morning of the second day they attacked the German paratroopers with the support of a number of tanks to 4. the brigade, which held the position, which should pass through the attacking regiments 6. brigade. German success would jeopardize the proper start of the offensive. However, company D regiment of the royal hamiltonské light infantry managed to with the help of artillery and tanks 10. armored regiment 2. canadian armoured brigade counter-attack to repel. Just in time, for a few minutes should start a massive artillery preparation. At 03:45 rozezvučela cannon, whose mortar fire should open the way to attacking bodies 6. brigade and 2. armored brigade. You set off at 04:30. Fyzilíři should target the closest, not far from the road Kalkar-Uedem. It didn't take them even an hour and a goal achieved. Jihosaskatchewanskému regiment also managed to get into the first objective - the heights at the railroad tracks Kleve-Kalkar-Xanten. Cameronský regiment encountered some resistance, and diverted to the axis of the procedure fyzilírů. The commander of the regiment was also shot dead by a German sniper. However, the regiment succeeded despite stiff resistance to reach the eastern edge of the ridge. At noon 26. February meet 6. brigade all the objectives of phase I. Regiments of 5. the brigade went to the area southwest of Kalkaru. The regiment de Maisonneuve occupied without major problems most of their objectives, but the conquest of the grove at the junction of the roads from Gochu and Kleve stifle stiff German resistance and the absence of battleships, which were under the brigade concentrated in the Black Watch, who had to keep up with the 6. brigade. The resistance was broken shortly after the arrival of the tanks and mobile flamethrowers Wasp.

On section 3. division stammered the procedure of the regiment of the queen's personal canadian shooters. German paratroopers tenaciously defended several farms, primarily Mooshof, which stood on the way up to the top of the ridge, and soggy ground prevented deployment of the tanks. The germans even tried an unsuccessful counterattack. When managed to get here with the tank, was a German resistance was overcome. The gunners then proceeded to their targets - farms Steeg and Wemmershof. This nest of resistance was neutralized. This time with the aid of flamethrowers Wasp. At the moment in this space between the regiments of the 2. and 3. infantry division drove tanks 4. canadian armoured division, cleaned the shooters even some of the cellars in which they kept the most determined of the Germans. Around a fifth were all the targets of the first phase secured and the corps could go to the second stage - the attack on Keppeln.

Cast of the southern part of the ridge and the conquest of Keppelnu
After the gunners secured the already mentioned position on the edge of the ridge, attacked the remaining two battalions of the 8. brigade along the road Kleve-Uedem to Keppeln. Northshoreský (novobrunšvický) regiment and regiment de la Chaudière had to attack in the open, flat landscape. German mortar fire early members northshoreského, who without the support of battleships, attacked to the north from the road, was added to the ground, and only the artillery counter-attack to prevent more losses. Kanaďné then waited for the arrival of the tanks, which are no longer in the queen's shooters need after the conquest of farmers ' homesteads on the edge of the ridge. The regiment de la Chaudière, advancing south from the road, sent out to attack the infantry with the support of a squadron of tanks 2. armored brigade. Their immediate goal was the homestead Hollen. However, the procedure of the regiment de la Chaudière was slowed down by stopping the procedure northshoreského regiment. In addition, on the scene appeared three tanks Panther, whose firing caused the Canadians to great loss. After you have managed to northshoreskému regiment to resume the procedure after the arrival of a squadron of tanks 1. hussar regiment 2. armoured brigade, succeeded to the regiment de la Chaudière conquer Hollen. Then proceeded to the regiment pretty easily thanks to the exemplary cooperation of infantry with tanks and artillery. Northshoreský regiment also benefited from this collaboration and the cast Keppeln.

While the 8. the brigade fought the fight of Keppeln, managed to 4. armored division, or its battle group TIGER, to ensure the north-eastern part of the ridge Kalkar-Uedem. Infantry brigade 2. infantry division still neobsadily all the goals and structure of the group of TIGER hanging out in the space between 6. and 8. brigade. The procedure of the tanks was difficult, the terrain was sodden and the German panzerfausty have found their victims. However, the canadian tank corps managed to German positions to neutralize. Having secured Todtenhügel, went operational group of the SMITH, yet held in reserve, to the south to occupy heights northeast of the Uedemu, therefore, inter alia, Paulsberg and Katzenberg. Twilight took Paulsberg, however, the Germans immediately went on the offensive. However, in the sit the evening was this hill firmly in canadian hands. During the next two hours managed to occupy even Katzenberg. Plateau from Kalkaru after Uedem was in canadian hands. It was completed II. the attack phase II. corps.

Conquest Uedemu
Now they could go to the conquest of Uedemu, which would allow the procedure 11. the armored division south of the city and the subsequent attack through Hochwaldský forest Uedem should defend 116. panzer division. Help her 28. February was 180. infantry division here, which should be moved from the LXXXVI. army corps. At 20:30 rozduněla cannon and after a half-hour triple-a club attacked Uedem 9. infantry brigade with his highland regiment canadian light infantry on the left wing and stormontským, dundaským and glengarryjským highland regiment on the right wing. Infantry should have the support of tanks, but 2. the armoured brigade was still deployed in the northern part of the battlefield and at the beginning of the could not her squadron to arrive. Yet regiments managed relatively quickly to advance up to the town, where, however, the resistance of the paratroopers 7. members of the parachute regiment has significantly increased. The defenders let up until around 4 o'clock in the morning. Both regiments then occupied the northern part of the city, and then severonovoskotský highlandský regiment set off to conquer their own city. German snipers have proven to be váždným problem, and the brigade commander therefore ordered the regiment of canadian light infantry, to novoskotským help with the cleaning of these places of resistance. Roughly half of the tenth 27. February reported the regiments that managed to occupy positions along the railroad tracks Goch-Xanten in the southeastern part of the Uedemu. After the arrival of the tanks managed to conquer even the southwest part of the city. In the afternoon the brigade could report the completion of the tasks. Ensure Uedemu allowed 11. an armoured division drive along the south part of the city towards the Gochfortzberg to the area to the north of the Kervenheimu. 7. infantry brigade from the assembly 3. the canadian infantry division then occupied these positions. AND III. phase of the operation thus took place in accordance with the prepared plan. Around midnight of 26. 27. February occupied the members 4. infantry brigade from the assembly 2. canadian infantry division positions in the area Todtenhügelu, which has become vacant following the group of TIGER 4. canadian armoured division, to continue offensive operations.

Procedure 43. division on the left wing of the II. corps
129. brigade 43. (wessexské) division, which operated on the left of the 2. canadian infantry division on the left flank of the corps, took up positions south of the Kalkaru, which eased the regiments 5. canadian infantry brigade, which could go into the next attack. In addition to myself trying to attack in the direction of Kehrum, to maintain the procedure with the 2. divisions, and to protect the left side of the choir. 5. battalion Wiltshireského the regiment joined in the afternoon without resistance to Kalkaru. A little more to the southeast to the unit 214. infantry brigade moved to the position conquered on the previous day 6. infantry brigade. 43. the recon regiment crossed the 26. February evening Kalflachský channel and occupied without a fight Wissen. The second day then ensure even Grieth and Hönnepel. So it was occupied territory to the north of the Kalkaru. In the following days the regiment continued in operations between the road Kalkar-Marienbaum and the river Rhine.

Attack on the fire-break
In the middle of a combat zone II. canadian corps early in the morning 27. February focused force designed to break the Schlieffenovy line. At half past four in the morning was at Kirselu, which was located less than two kilometers to the north of the Uedemu, to attack formed the group of the LION. Her offensive forehead accounted for 29. the armoured reconnaissance regiment and the Algonquin regiment, both from the 4. canadian armoured division. The group should soon be complemented by infantry battalions stationed now with the group TIGER. To the left of the formations 4. armored division to attack in the area Todtenhügelu prepare unit 5. canadian infantry brigade. A group of LION had to cross the valley between the plateau and Hochwaldským the ridge and attack the circular mound at the western end of the break between Hochwaldským and Balbergerským forest - dimension 73, marked now as the ALBATROSS. After the initial two-hour triple-a club led by three field and five medium-sized dělostřeleckmi regiments, continued 25liberní cannons with bombardment defensive line and secondary cannons, blocked his projectiles and area of the pass. The gunners also tracer ammunition helped to maintain the orientation of the attacking units. However, some departments Algonquinského regiment didn't arrive in time, which made it impossible to launch an attack, according to a timetable. It had unpleasant consequences. At five in the morning began, the Germans shelling the area near the Kirselu. And in less than an hour should be rozednít. At a quarter to six it was finally issued the order to attack. The germans were to attack first, caught off guard, and the Canadians managed to pass the artillery made gaps in the anti-tank ditches and minefields before dawn. When the front setninám managed to overcome the last line of defense before the ALBATROSSEM, launched by the Germans counter-attacking. Due to the presence of tanks and summoned artillery fire, the Canadians succeeded in these German for the time being attempts to thwart. But the situation wasn't the best. A group of LION was thrust into the hostile position and, thus exposed on the wings. Or 2. division in the north, or 3. division in the south yet not have come forward. The germans could the LION to focus all the available guns and mortars, which resulted in an increase of the losses. At six o'clock in the morning began a diversionary attack on the starboard side. Smallish convoy of armored vehicles set out from Kirselu and picked up Uedem, but for him she lost orientation. The railway line crossed right in Uedemu and got into the area that we haven't cleaned 9. infantry brigade, and subsequently the extra hit on the high ground at the southern tip of the ridge that we didn't fill 11. the armored division. The germans here had the status of a 88mm anti-tank guns, which destroyed most of the battleships. The rest arrived German infantry with their panzerfausty. It was both a disaster for the dead Canadians, both big complications for the aggressive tip of the LION group, which remained without an indoor the right wing.

On the left flank before dawn finally went through the valley of the unit 5. infantry brigade. Around deáté hours Calgarští hillmen overcome the German defensive line and arrived to the homestead Schmachdarm, where the country was added to the German artillery fire. The expected attack of the Black Watch through Hochwaldský forest further to the south-east had to be postponed on the morning of the 28. February. When Argyllští and Sutherlandští kanandští the highlanders came back from the engagement with the group TIGER, he is the commander of the 10. infantry brigade of 4. armored division to attack in places where they were buried members of the Algonquinského regiment. However, the German shelling forced them, to stop and dug in. The commander of the 4. canadian armoured division needed to recover the offensive and ordered the 10. infantry brigade, to re-attack at the beginning of the pass, cleared the northwest corner of Balbergerského forest (Tüschenwald), which was going through the railway track, and ensure the space between the Uedemem and Tüschenwaldem to this way to adjust the route the pioneers and subsequently passing further to the east to go forward to the attack armored regiment of the Canadian the grenadier guards and a motorized infantry regiment lake Superior. A new attempt 10. infantry brigade of the transition to the offensive was scheduled for the second hour of the morning 28. February after the previous strong artillery preparation. Argyllští should occupy positions along the road passing through the perpendicular cut and the Lincoln and Wellandský regiment then had to secure the railway line and Tüschnewald. The infantry attack was to support one squadron of 29. the armoured reconnaissance regiment. Before the third hour Argyllským managed to occupy the ALBATROSS and get to the lateral road. Here repulsed several attempts to counterattack, which were led by, inter alia, fresh banner 24. members of the parachute regiment. At 12:30 should the attack hit Lincoln regiment, but before the completion of the formation of his two companies came under a strong artillery fire and suffered heavy losses, which led up to the appeal of the attack. The situation improved at least one company Algonquinského regiment managed to cross the railway track and to ensure Uedemerbruch. However, in the space 4. armored division, the situation still seemed so, that the departments of the 4. armoured brigade still stood for the departments 10. infantry brigade. Supply of two additional armored regiments 4. the brigade did not come into consideration due to the promáčenosti the field and to the German shelling of the boarding area.

the Situation at the other positions
While on the tip of the situation at all was not going according to the plan, on the wings it's just more cheerful. On section 2. infantry division out of unit 4. brigade in the attack against the northern tip of the Hochwaldského the forest. The royal canadian regiment cleaned 28. February evening the area around the Todtenhügel and now here in the 21:00 forward set off the Essex scottish regiment, whose company has landed here in the western side of the northern tip of the forest. On the right flank of the corps put in motion 11. armored division, which 27. February afternoon took Gochfortzberg and out slowly progressed rozmáčeným terrain to Schlieffenově line to the southwest from the Balbergského the forest. XXX. corps on the right flank of 1. the canadian army maintained a constant pressure on the German defenses. The welsh division, although so far failed to conquer Weeze, however, on the 3. the british division of the relieving 15. the scottish infantry division and severing the road Uedem-Weeze. 52. division 28. February occupied Groote Horst and 1. brigade commandos progressed along the Meuse. To position 1. the canadian army plus from the south, quickly close to the units of the american 9th. the army, which successfully expand the conquered territory between the Rourem and the river Rhine. 1. march was liberated Venlo and Roermond. Positive was also the fact that the 28. February with better weather. This allowed the arrival of the fighter-bombers of 84. group RAF, which ensure direct air support and attacks on more distant targets, e.g. Sonsbeck. Soon, though, the weather got worse and made raids irregular.

the Situation on the German side
The procedure of the american 9. the army made a general Schlemmovi a lot of worries. At the beginning of the fighting to him it was mainly about to XXXXVI. such and II. airborne corps prevent the procedure 1. in the canadian army. Now he had to ensure a safe crossing to the right bank of the Rhine, because his army was threatened with encirclement. Schlemm therefore suggested download units 1. airborne army into the perimeter Marienbaum-Kevelaer-Geldern-Kempen-Krefeld, which Hitler 28. February approved, but only after personal assurances from the commander in chief West, general field marshal von Rundstedta, that's about the best solution. Schlemm had to first strengthen the southern part of the perimeter, where he was placed LXIII. army corps. Thanks I'm sending from 25. the army could move 2. airborne division to the south, where she had to provide a space between the Krefeldem and the Rhine, and to strengthen the 84. infantry division and 15. the division of the panzer grenadiers in Kempenu.

Schlemm also started ahead of time to prepare a narrower perimeter Xanten-Alpen-Mörs, who were preparing the backup and supply departments. Meanwhile, over the Rhine moved the crew LXXXVI. army corps. II. airborne corps took over the 190. division and expanded the scope to Kempenu. Schlemm corresponded to my own life for, that no bridge across the Rhine in his area doesn't fall into the hands of the allies, however, allowed to let them blow up at the last minute. Also he was forbidden to send on the right bank of the team and technique without Hitler's permission. Schlemm couldn't let it send to the other side of the damaged equipment or with incoming ammunition. It was similar with the soldiers, across the river were allowed to only those injuries, so stayed and those who did not have the necessary equipment, mostly from the hinterland areas of the departments of the destroyed units. Although the american procedure forced Schlemma strengthen the left wing at the expense of the right, leaving on the right the side of the stronger forces in the area Hochwaldského the forest. Here put your best backup services, such as an assault battalion paratroopers. Also artillery here was stronger than in other parts of the battlefield.

the Continuation of the fighting on the fire-break
1. march was replaced by regiments of 6. brigade regiments of the 10. brigade. Regiments of the 4. brigade probíjely the northern part of the Hochwaldského the forest. Essexští the Scots here ran into fierce resistance from German paratroopers and had to reflect the range of enemy counter-attack. On the south with the departments of 3. the division attempted cleanup Tüschenwaldu and Balbergerwaldu, but without much success, the regiment de la Chaudière was repulsed. When the morning resumption of the attack at support of tank 1. hussar regiment has brought success. The regiment de la Chaudière is entrenched on the edge of the forest and its success then in the afternoon to develop the other two regiments of 8. brigade - Northshoreský regiment and the regiment of the queen's personal canadian shooters that started with the cleaning of the southern forest from the enemies. In the area 2. the division continued the attack 4. brigade. Regiment royal hamiltonské light infantry took over the baton from the Essex Scottish and moved towards Marienbaumu. In the pass he took over the commander of the 4. armoured brigade command and above Algonquinským regiment and together with its tanks of the Canadian grenadier guards and the infantry trasportéry Kangaroo motorized regiment lake Superior attacked from the cross-road towards the east to a group of buildings near the road Marienbaum-Sonsbeck on position 24. members of the parachute regiment and the parachute assault regiment. The buildings got only part of the infantry, as tanks and armored vehicles, suffered heavy losses from the German Tigers, self-propelled guns and anti-tank guns mentioned airborne units and the overall 116. panzer division. Extended walking tip Algonquinského regiment was subsequently the aim of the devastating German counter-attack. Attack of the 2. march failed. Position 4. armored brigade in the break took over unit 5. infantry brigade.

In the morning 2. march, while in the break leading up to the disaster, the regiment of the queen's personal canadian cameronských highlanders from the assembly 6. infantry brigade passed around Mont-royalských fyzilírů and attempted to advance into the depths of the forest, but he was soon stopped. While, until not taken 5. the brigade position in the break, couldn't 6. brigade continue to attack. The only positive aspect was that the Canadians occupied the eastern part of the Hochwaldského forest roughly to a depth of nearly two miles. In the south it took units 8. brigade two days before cleaned and Balbergerský forest after the regiment de la Chaudière took 2. march the Tüschenwaldský. The area was heavily mined and the procedure through the forest, hampered next to the conveniently placed machine-gun nests with high quality of service and the impossibility of effective deployment of armored vehicles in wooded terrain. 11. armored division in the first three march days closer to Sonsbecku. The heaviest fighting of the division passed second march in overcoming Schlieffenovy line near the southern tip of Balbergerského the forest. To the Sonsbecku yet armored division enter as the driveway from the west was in bad condition and very well defended. The division, therefore, stopped and waited. Meanwhile, unit 3. infantry division attacked towards the Hammerbruch, which lay on the ridge emanating from Balbergerského the forest and hauled it up behind Sonsbeck.

Procedure XXX. corps
On the battlefield XXX. the choir is noticeably began to show the effect of the american advance to the south on the German defenses. The procedure of the congregation was faster, mainly on the right wing. 3. the british division captured 1. march Kervenheim, 2. march Winnekendonk and the next day occupied without a fight the positions on the Schlieffenově line Kapellenu. Unit 53. the division entered 2. march to the abandoned Weeze and continued in peace to the Kevelaeru. 3. march there was a connection between the units of this division and units of the u.s. XVI. corps near the village of Berendonk, four kilometers north of the city of Geldern. At the very right wing of the corps occupied 1. brigade commandos 2. march Langstraat and 3. march Well. 4. march has teamed up with the american 17. riding reconnaissance esakdrou in Walbecku. Additional units 52. the division occupied without a fight Wemb.

Where on the German side
Around noon 3. march received XLVII. panzer corps corps orders, download 116. panzer division to Alpenu. Around midnight she took her area 180. infantry division. To the right is 6. airborne division withdrew to a position about three miles east of the Hochwaldského the forest. In the southwest part of the battlefield downloaded II. airborne corps 190. division to Alpenu, thus had to face the us-british pressure already just 7. airborne division and the remnants of the 8. airborne division. These changes allowed 2. the canadian division of the cast Hochwaldského the forest, including the break. On nejzasším the left wing had advanced 43. division forward. Her 214. infantry brigade 3. march occupied the Kehrum and the following morning entered the Marienbaumu. In the evening she managed to ensure an even Vynen and reach the edges of the Wardtu. Xanten, distant about three miles, was in sight. In the meantime, 2. canadian infantry division in Hochwaldu was regrouping to the parallel of the attack on Xanten. 3. canadian infantry division cleared the Balbergrský forest and its 9. infantry brigade the heights at Hammerbruchu. While the 7. infantry brigade from there it would proceed south to the Sonsbecku, 4. armored division had to scoop up the direction of the Vee.

Another procedure XXX. corps
Horrocksův XXX. choir on the southern wing of the 1. the canadian army began to turn north-easterly direction. His operating room was now closer and forward so marched his two divisions - Guards armoured division on the left and 53. welsh division on the left. Welsh division advanced in the direction of Geldern-Issum-Alpen. Guards armored division passed through the position 3. division at Kapellenu and attacked to the east toward the Bönninghardt. At noon 4. march is the welsh division managed to occupy the Issum. Guards division, or its 5. armored brigade, occupied even in the dark Hamb. In the way of the Bönninghardt stood the division in the way of wooded heights, which was heavily occupied by German paratroopers with the support of the self-propelled guns. Fierce fighting in this area lasted two days, 6. march ripped out of the division Bönninghardt from the hands of the 8. airborne division. The same evening mined 53. welsh division Leuchtský forest south of Alpenu with the prospect of rotation 52. lowlandskou divisions. The american XVI. the choir from the assembly of the american 9. the army fought 6. on the morning of march Rheinberg. Followed the north wing of the 1. the canadian army, although not in so fast pace as a wing of the south.

Conquest Sonsbecku
3. canadian infantry division has fulfilled the specified tasks. The morning of the 6th. march of the conquered 9. brigade a sufficient part of the heights at Hammerbruchu to departments of the Canadian scottish regiment could attack south towards Sonsbeck, which was subsequently occupied Reginský rifle regiment. He then made contact with 3. the british divisions which went out of Kappelenu and took Winkelscherský forest between Kappelenem and Sonsbeckem.

Cast of Xanten
Schlemmovo bridgehead has been significantly reduced. Formed it now an imaginary circle, composed of two semi-circle when one předtsavoval arc of the Rhine and the second line Xanten-Veen-Alpen-Ossenberg. For the functioning of a bridgehead was the key to keep this mansion and the north-south road Xanten-Osseberg. Kanďané were going to occupy the Xanten and Veen, the British Alpen and american XVI. chorus mělv plan to go through Rheinbergem and occupy the Ossenberg. Xanten should occupy the 2. canadian infantry division, along with the 43. (wessexskou) divisions, Veen was the aim of 4. the armored division. To 5. march already held 43. division Wardt and Wickermanshof. 2. division stood at the farmhouses Roschhof (6. brigade) and Birkenkampfshof (5. brigade). 6. march had 6. brigade, together with 43. divisions occupy Xanten and 5. brigade the heights south-east of the city. Early in the morning attacked Cameronští the highlanders, but their attempt was repulsed. The corps commander ordered the reshuffle and an attack on the city led by 4. and 5. brigade 2. the canadian division and 129. brigade 43. division. 7. march 4. and 5. the brigade completed the regrouping and unit 6. the brigade occupying the forward position position on the west of the city, and příravy on the general attack on the city were done. According to the plan was 4. brigade to occupy the western part of the city, 129. brigade drive into the city from the north and take his rest. Then should 5. brigade to conquer the heights on southwest from the town between the railway tracks and the shoulder of the Rhine.

The attack on the Xanten launched in the half sixth morning massive artillery preparation led by seven field and four medium artillery regiments. Then put into motion 4. brigade. Essexští the Scots passed the position of the Jihosaskatchewanského regiment in Röschofu and the hamilton light infantry positions Mont-Royalských fyzilírů in Birkenkampshof and with the support of eskadrony B Sherbrookských fyzilírů with their odminovacími and plamenometnými tanks set off even more during the qualifiers into the attack. Initially, the infantry formations a relatively fast approach to the city, when already at seven o'clock they occupied a farm on the outskirts of the city. Now they stand in the way silniec on Sonsbeck. Resistance here overcome around noon, after the arrival of the Crocodilůwhose flames the Germans drove to escape. Hůže the situation evolved in Hamiltonských, who attacked south along the railroad tracks. Some company ran into determined German resistance, have suffered significant losses and was interrupted the connection. The procedure slowed down the big crater on the road, the bulldozer managed under a strong fire to remove until this afternoon. After the whole time was infantry exposed to mortar and machine gun fire from the Xanten and even shelling out the works on the other side of the Rhine. Three of the company lost their commander, the two were killed, one captured. This afternoon he sent a brigade commander to attack the Royal canadian regiment, which had in the north to help 129. the brigade with the attack on the city, so that together odlehčily Hamiltonským. Attack support mobile flamethrowers Wasp, since the muddy terrain did not allow the deployment of heavier flame tanks. By the end of the day the regiment fought its way into town and struck up a connection 129. brigade. The situation on the right flank 4. brigade so far, but did not improve much, which would undermine plans 5. the brigade, which way should pass, and attack the heights on the south. Company And Hamiltonských while reached the road to the Sonsbecku and reaching the objective, company B and C were located to the south of the railway body přibyté to the country to the west of the road. Yet the commander of the 2. the division ordered the 5th. brigade, so as soon as possible to launch an attack. Attack 129. brigade proceeded successfully. 4. battalion Somersetského light infantry regiment postupila during the qualifiers forward and occupied the anti-tank ditch, which enabled the arrival of a bridging tank, which laid across the překážu your bridge, and after him went to attack the flame tanks, which helped fight off the German paratroopers. The battalion then set off to occupy the homestead Beek east of the city. 5. battalion of the Wiltshire regiment attacking from the Wardtu at Lüttingen, where he ran into strong resistance and the struggle of man against man there lasted until the morning.

At 22:45 began the second phase of the battles of Xanten. The regiment de Maisonneuve 5. the brigade set off in the armour Kangaroo with the support of tanks Sherbrookských fyzilírů and mine clearance tanks along the road from Kalkaru. Ran the conquered parts of Xanten and stopped south of Beek, and without much resistance so they occupied another part of the city. The canadian Black Watch also ensure your goals. Now it was necessary to occupy the southwest part of the city on the right wing. The brigade commander sent Jihosaskatchewanský regiment, which was temporarily subordinated to blocked the north-eastern edge of the Dieheeského the forest. After Calgarští the highlanders occupied the position between the northeast edge of the forest and an arm of the Rhine. This was neutralized and the enemy, which has so far shelled the position of the Hamiltonských. At nine o'clock in the morning 9. march sent a brigade commander, the regiment de Maisonneuves through the ranks of the Black Watch with the task of ensuring the transition across the Winnenthalerský channel for Birtenu. Faced stiff resistance, however, with the support of tanks, flame tanks, and mobile flamethrowers cleansed the area. She was captured a number of Germans, including the commander of the 17. members of the parachute regiment. Right through Calgarští hillmen and without any resistance they crossed the channel.

the Evacuation of the bridgehead
In the meantime, there was no longer even the German high command that the days of the presence of the wehrmacht on the left bank of the Rhine are numbered and 6. march was given permission to evacuate the bridgehead to 10. march. Evacuation began immediately in the night of 6. on 7. march. General Schlemm still remained on the left bank, and oversaw the operations Meindlova II. away ward, who had available the remnants of 6., 7. and 8. airborne division, 116. panzer division and battle group 346. infantry division. The few remnants of anti-tank and anti-aircraft units. About it, they won't give up without a fight, the Canadians convinced in Xanten.

Cast Veenu and Winnenthalu
The germans put stiff resistance in the area of Veenu. 4. canadian armoured division 6. march deployed to attack Argyllské and Sutherlandské the hill people with the support of tanks 29. the armoured reconnaissance regiment. Initially, the process was without major problems. however, a mile before the city stopped the process tanks large krátek on the road and even the infantry didn't get much further, as her to the ground brought severe machine-gun fire. After dark, one company came up to Veenu, but there was surrounded by German defenders, including members of the parachute assault battalion, and the greater part of the men captured. It turns out that it will be necessary to deploy greater force. The attack knocked out the Algonquin regiment for the support 29. the armoured reconnaissance regiment of the north wing and the Lincoln and Wellandský regiment with the support 28. an armored regiment on the southern flank. The procedure but the likelihood of soggy muddy soil, precise anti-tank fire and resolute resistance of the troops. You downloaded that in the night from 8. to 9. march. In the morning I could 10. canadian infantry brigade 4. canadian armoured division to enter into Veenu and occupy it.

Battle group consisting of one company Algonquinského regiment and eskadrony the Canadian grenadier guards occupied Winnenthal, located to the east of Veenu, when, with the help of a company of the Regiment lake Superior brought heavy clash on the strongly hájený monastery. The paratroopers, who defend him, give up to 10. on the morning of march. While the paratroopers put a stiff resistance, the continued orderly evacuation through the bridges at the Wesel, the last nevyhozené into the air throughout a large area. Schlemmovi helps that the american XVI. corps may 6. march of the conquered Rheinberg, but the conquest of Ossenbergu it took him another two days. 8. march managed to conquer even the Alpen, which entered 52. the division of XXX. corps. The following day cleaned and the status of Haus Loo Fort, the last significant position to the west of the road Xanten-Rheinberg.

the Liquidation of the remnants of the bridgehead
The evening of 8. march forward XXX. choir of your division II. canadian corps and his staff crossed to the subordination of british 2. the army and interest in planning other operations. 9. of march crossed the american XVI. corps to temporary subordination 1. in the canadian army. A number of units but already devoted to rest and close the wounds after the heavy fighting, because the fighting was in progress only in a very limited area. Allies 10. on the morning of march found that both of the bridges across the Rhine in Wesel are already ruined and the west bank remained only a small German formations. In the dark 52. (lowlandská) division occupied the Menzelen and Ginderich, which were located in the bend of the Rhine. The division here remained and held the position of between the 2. canadian infantry division and u.s. 35. infantry division. Operation BLOCKBUSTER ended the morning of the 11th. march, when surrendered to the defenders of the Fort Blucher, which was located right across the street Wesel at the bridge over the river..
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CONCLUSION
Appreciation
Taking into account i operation VERITABLE, over the monthly period of heavy fighting 1. canadian army, which is engaged with a determined and experienced enemy who had more than the standard support of artillery and recorded him the bad weather, that the Allies make it impossible to conduct an effective air support. Muddy terrain and broken roads in addition limited maneuvering options of the british tanks. The procedure of american troops to the south of the operational area 1. canadian army while he siphoned off part of the defenders, but had the British and especially the Canadians seduce a hard fight, which caused in their ranks heavy losses. In some of the canadian units that were not yet the greatest losses for the whole period of participation in the fighting of the second world war. Loss of the German 1. airborne army was due to the overall situation on the battlefields of de facto inevitable, but it must be acknowledged that its troops put tough resistance, and then orderly withdrew. General Schlemm did, despite the often unreasonable and contrary to orders from above, he could.

Losses
Loss 1. the canadian army, spočátané for the duration of operation VERITABLE and BLOCKBUSTER together, make 1 049 officers and 14 585 members of the team. Most of whom were british soldiers. Loss pure of Canadians soared to 379 officers and 4 of the 925 members of the team. From that in the operation of the BLOCKBUSTER were 243 officers and 3 of the 395 members of the team. For comparison it is possible to indicate the loss of the american 9. army of operation GRENADE, which amounted to less than 7 300 persons. During operations VERITABLE and BLOCKBUSTER 1. the canadian military captured 22 239 German prisoners. The dead and badly wounded Germans was according to the estimates of the other 22 thousand.


SOURCES:
Charles Perry STACEY: the Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War: Volume III. The Victory Campaign, The Operations in North-West Europe 1944-1945, 1960
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Veritable
www.canadahistory.com
https://canadianheroes.org/loren/hochwald.htm
https://www.104infdiv.org/grenade.htm
Battlefield I The Battle for the Rhine Episode 11 (tv documentary).
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Map, operation Veritable and Grenade

Source : en.wikipedia.org.
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