POL - Osvětim-Březinka

Auschwitz-Birkenau Auschwitz-Birkenau
Další názvy:
Other Names:
Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau
Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau
Auschwitz II-Birkenau
Camp Purpose:
vyhlazovací tábor extermination camp
Doba existence:
Operational (since - to):
Odhadovaný celkový počet vězňů:
Estimated Total Number of Prisoners:
Odhadovaný počet obětí:
Estimated Casualty Toll:
Stát odpovědný za existenci:
State Responsible for Camp Founding:
Německá říše / Velkoněmecká říše German Reich / Greater German Reich
Nadřízený stupeň:
Upper Authority:
DD.10.1941-DD.11.1943 Auschwitz I
DD.05.1940-DD.11.1943 Auschwitz I
Subsidiaries of Camp:
- -
DD.10.1941-DD.11.1943 Höß, Rudolf (SS Obersturmbannführer)
22.11.1943-08.05.1944 Hartjenstein, Friedrich (SS Sturmbannführer)
08.05.1944-DD.01.1945 Kramer, Josef (SS Hauptsturmführer)
Stát, kde se tábor nachází:
Camp Location (State):
Polská republika Republic of Poland
Camp Location (Town, Village):
Osvětim Oświęcim
GPS souřadnice:
GPS Coordinates:
50°01'35.00"N 19°12'14.00"E
přístupno v návštěvních hodinách open during visiting hours
Památky a muzea v okolí:
Places of Interest and Museums in the Vicinity:
- -
- -
URL : https://www.valka.cz/POL-Osvetim-Brezinka-t19193#600111 Version : 0
a Plan of the camp of Auschwitz I.

1 Entrance gate with inscription "Arbeit macht Frei"
2 Headquarters
3 Houses prisoners
4 Hospital
5 Prison block
6 Scaffold
7 Crematorium

a Plan of the camp Auschwitz II. Birkenau

1 gateway
2 Ramp
3a Barracks of the prisoners - the women's camp
3b Barracks prisoners - quarantine
3c Barracks prisoners - family camp
3d Houses prisoners - Hungarian camp
3e Houses inmates - male camp
3f Barracks prisoners - roma and the sith camp
4 Mines
5 Hospital
6 Warehouses - Canada
7 the Gas chamber and crematorium
8 where were the corpses burned on an open fire
9 Headquarters

Auschwitz is the largest nacionálněsocialistický concentration camp. It is sometimes classified Even among the camps of extermination. From the end of 1943 Auschwitz consisted of three separate parts. Auschwitz I – the tribal camp, Auschwitz II – Birkenau and Auschwitz III – Monovice.

Auschwitz I – the tribal camp was established at the turn of may and June 1940 in the former Polish barracks. Lágerkomandantem he was appointed Rudolf Höß, who gained his experience in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Already from the beginning had Höß problems with the redevelopment of the barracks at the concentration camp. Although the area of former barracks itself was quite closed, was it necessary, according to the rules of the concentration camps, surround with barbed wire, which was then under a high voltage. Höß, unfortunately, couldn't this barbed wire to get, and so he sent 30 prisoners to obtain barbed wire from a defunct Polish pow camp. "The history of Auschwitz was therefore initiated with the used buildings and barbed wire from the other hand."

The entrance to the camp, however, was decorated with a new iron gate with the inscription "Arbeit macht Frei". For the smooth operation of Auschwitz were necessary to some remodeling as an example of accommodation for the surveillance of the camp, accommodation for the block head, guard towers, garages, and in an abandoned munitions depot should be established crematorium. Rudolf Höß had with the budget on construction, which amounted to two million Reichsmarks. Unfortunately, it was but useless, because you couldn't buy anything and he had no removal vouchers for building material, shopping privileges or coupons required to transport building material. The situation changed when at the time it was Auschwitz mapped SS – financial empire after what have been in the vicinity of Auschwitz, discovered sand and gravel mines. These mines belonged to at the time of the second world war the company DEST (Deutsche Erd - und Steinwerke). This company was also the first that showed interest in the labor of the prisoners of the Auschwitz concentration camp. Originally supposed to be Auschwitz only for the 10 000 prisoners, the passage of time had to be the capacity of the camp increased to 20 000 prisoners. At the beginning of August 1941 was begun killing prisoners using poison gas Zyklonu B. First was for this purpose used part of the block (Block 11). Since this part wasn't appropriate to kill in large quantities, was in a crematorium established by the gas chamber.

Although it is the name Auschwitz is a symbol for the mass extermination of european jews it is necessary to mention, that the site of the largest extermination in Auschwitz II – Birkenau. This part of the concentration camp Auschwitz was derived from the birch grove, which there was. On its edge were later incinerated the corpses in the open air, when not enough capacity of the 4 crematoria. In the birch grove were also dug mass graves. Birkenau was located about three miles from the tribal camp. The construction of this camp was started at the end of 1941 and the end of the war the camp was still enlarged. At the end of the war, Birkenau was only an area of about 175 ha. The camp was divided into several parts. For example, a Family camp, the Hungarian camp, Male camp, the Camp of the Roma and Sinti. The number of prisoners fluctuated depending on the standing splynovávání and still coming transports. On the basis of the testimony of Lagerkomandanta Rudolf Höße it was possible to draw up a precise reconstruction of the annihilation process. "After a selection, which ran on the ramp, have a person designated to splynování assured, that they go to the showers. On the ceiling of the gas chambers were showers. With the help of sticks and hunted dogs was to the gas chambers worried about 2 000 victims in the area of 210m2. After the closing of the door was in the shaft, which was located on the roof, nasypán poison gas, Zyklon B. After 15 to 20 minutes, the chamber is opened, the murdered were vylámány gold teeth, cut hair, removed the earrings and rings, and then the corpses were transported to the crematoria. Personal id cards of the murdered were destroyed.“

The commandos, who worked in the crematoria was called the special commando (Sonderkommando). (People appointed to the gas should be in my cards written "special treatment" (Sonderbehandlung)) Prisoners working in the specific crackpots receiving larger food rations and bydly separated from the other prisoners. Approximately every three months, were members of the special squads gassed and replaced by other prisoners. It is not known exactly how many people died in Auschwitz, because the people who went straight from the ramp to the gas chambers were not registered. Rudolf Höß testified that according to his estimates, possibly in Auschwitz to die 2.5 to 3 million people.

Auschwitz III – Monovice was set up for the needs of the company IG-Farben. This company wanted for this territory to set up a factory for synthetic rubber (Buna – werk). The "IG-Farben was the largest enterprise in Europe and after General Motors, United States Steel and Standard Oil of New Jersey, the fourth largest enterprise in the world" Interesting, in my opinion, is that Dr. Heinrich Bütefisch, the director of IG-Farben was Himmler's personal friend. The IG-Farben were engaged in the manufacture of synthetic rubber and gasoline, and aviation gasoline. Synthetic rubber is produced from coal and hydrogen. Project Buna was named after two substances which were used for the manufacture of synthetic rubber. It was about the Acrylonitrile and Sodium - sodium. The IG-Farben deliberately chose the area around Auschwitz for his new project. In the vicinity of Auschwitz, crossed three railway tracks and create a very important railway node. In addition, in the vicinity of Auschwitz, a large undeveloped property near the river. Coal was in addition to calcium the most important raw material for the production of carbide, which was an intermediate product for the production of synthetic rubber. The silesian coal was due to its composition is ideal for the chemical industry. The IG-Farben had intended to create from the small town of Oświęcim 20 000 city, to be able to offer their future employees with adequate accommodation. First, however, it had to be from the town of Oświęcim expelled the Jewish population, in order to afford space for the German population. When they were out of the town of Oświęcim Jews deported there was a problem with obtaining unskilled labor. This problem is solved by aligning with the concentration camp, which was very close. The financial terms of this collaboration were for both sides beneficial. For each of an unskilled worker were the concentration camp a day paid 3 reichsmarks and 4 reichsmarks for every qualified worker. In addition, should the DEST (Deutsche Erd - und Steinwerke) to deliver from the enterprises, which were controlled by the SS, all the bricks for the project of the IG-Farben. The prisoners, who were forced to work on the project Buna denote this work as extremely demanding and the conditions for work for the inhuman. Although when výstavběprojektu Buna died, thousands of people wouldn't be in this huge factory produced even a gram of synthetic rubber.


The food was in the concentration camps very important. Although they were daily rations very low need inmates at least a little to survive. According to the researches of the University in Linz, received the prisoners food 3 times a day. On the morning of 1 liter of unsweetened ersatz coffee or tea.
Noon to 3 liters of soup without taste. The soup was brewed from potatoes or from the peel from the potatoes, beets and other additions (350 – 400 calories which is equivalent to about 10 dkg of sausage)
In the evening About 300 grams of bread and sometimes an attachment such as 25 grams of sausage or 25 grams of margarine, a teaspoon of marmalade or a piece of cheese

The evening ration of bread was also intended as part of the breakfast for the next day. Caloric value of one dinner was about 900 to 1 000 calories. Those prisoners who worked in particularly difficult conditions they received special rations of "hard-working" (bread, margarine, sausage). Food distributed among the prisoners were, however, often old or spoiled.

Under these dietary conditions it was almost impossible to live and let alone ten or twelve hours of work. This led to a complete bodily exhaustion. Prisoner of the concentration camps, who are already familiar with how life in the camp has worked most often find a way to get some extra food. Was it enough, was balanced with the gold, but it was extra food. This activity is in the jargon of the concentration camps was called "organisieren". In the concentration camps to neorganizovalo only food, but also better clothes, shoes, cigarettes. The main source of organised things concentration camp Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II – Birkenau was the so-called Canada. It was a special department where they were třízeny things people who have been deported to a concentration camp. These people didn't know where they are going and so you carry on the way take a variety of valuables, food, the best clothes and everything would have been useful to them. These things were in Auschwitz roztřízeny and then stacked back into trains to be shipped either to Germany or to the front. Those prisoners who worked in Canada and were skillful smuggling at least some of this treasure to the camp for the purpose of immediate consumption or as objects of the next shift.

in the Case of camps and work groups

Altdorf / Stara Wies
Althammer / Old Kusnia
Bismarckhütte / Chorzow-Battory
Blechhammer / Slawiecice
Bobrek / Oscwiecim
Brunn / Brno
Charlottengrubbe / Rydultowy
Chelmek / Chelmek-Paprotnik
Eintrachthutte / Swietochlowice
Freudenthal / Bruntal
Furstengrabe / Lawski
Gleiwitz I, II, II, IV / Gliwice
Golleschau / Goleszow
Gunthergrubbe / ledziny
Hindenburg / Zabrze
Hubertushutte-Hohenlinde / Krakow
Janigagrube-Hoffnung / Libiaz
Kobio / Kobior
Lagischa / Lagisza
Laurahutte / Siemianowice
Monowitz / Monowice
Neu Dachs / Jaworzno
Neustadt / Prudnik
Sosnowitz I et II / Sosnowiec
Tscechwitz / Czechwiece

For more information

http://osvetim.valka.cz - Separate web of this concentration and extermination camp
Escape from Auschwitz - the Story of a Slovak jew Rudolf Vrba
photo Gallery KZ Auschwitz - Auschwitz (I.) and Birkenau (II.).
URL : https://www.valka.cz/POL-Osvetim-Brezinka-t19193#71746 Version : 0

This post has not been translated to English yet. Please use the TRANSLATE button above to see machine translation of this post.

Četl jsem, že náklady na existenční minimum pro vězně vypočítala správa KL na 30 feniků denně. KL pronajímal vězně za 6 RM za pracovní den kvalifikovaného dělníka, za 4 RM za pracovní den nekvalifikovaného dělníka. Čistý zisk správy KL Auschwitz za pronájem 600 vězňů činil tedy 640 000 RM ročně.
Náklady na dopravu transportem činily 4 feniky na osobu za kilometr.
Pramen: Grünberg,K.: SS - Hitlerova černá garda
URL : https://www.valka.cz/POL-Osvetim-Brezinka-t19193#89607 Version : 0

This post has not been translated to English yet. Please use the TRANSLATE button above to see machine translation of this post.

UNESCO prijalo polsky a izraelsky navrh zmeny dosavadniho nazvu KL Auschwitz- Birkenau, tj. Koncentracni tabor Auschwitz.

Novy nazev zni: Auschwitz-Birkenau. Nemecky nacisticky koncentracni a vyhlazovaci tabor (1940- 1945) [Auschwitz-Birkenau. Niemiecki nazistowski obóz koncentracyjny i zagłady (1940-1945)].

Cilem te zmeny bylo ukazani historicke pravdy o fakticke specifice tabora a presne spojuje to misto s dobou nacistickeho Nemecka.

Byla to take reakce na pouzivani ve svetovych casopisech a mediich tech nacistickych taboru jako 'polske vyhlazovaci tabory".

URL : https://www.valka.cz/POL-Osvetim-Brezinka-t19193#225590 Version : 0
Period photographs of the camp Oswiecim-Brzezinka + scheme camp Oswiecim as well.

source: own photo / information board in the KL Osvienčim.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/POL-Osvetim-Brezinka-t19193#293037 Version : 0
Period photographs of the camp Oswiecim-Brzezinka

source: own photo / information board in the KL Osvienčim.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/POL-Osvetim-Brezinka-t19193#293038 Version : 0
Discussion post Fact post

Join us

We believe that there are people with different interests and experiences who could contribute their knowledge and ideas. If you love military history and have experience in historical research, writing articles, editing text, moderating, creating images, graphics or videos, or simply have a desire to contribute to our unique system, you can join us and help us create content that will be interesting and beneficial to other readers.

Find out more