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Authoritarian regimes in Latin America on the example of Hugo Chávez: 1. Introduction

Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez is one of the most famous figures in Latin America today. The steps of his policy of New Socialism in the 21st century have forced many political scientists to rethink the regime in Venezuela. The political reforms currently underway by the current Venezuelan president have led political scientists to link him to authoritarian regimes. Thanks to the historical legacy of Latin American states in the form of authoritarian regimes, which often appeared in power in the complex history of the region, the question arose as to whether the regime of Hugo Chávez could not be included among them.

Authoritarian regimes in Latin America on the example of Hugo Chávez: 2. Authoritarian and democratic regimes

As a basic division of political regimes, the work uses a division into democratic, authoritarian and totalitarian regimes. The simple and direct line between these concepts is probably impossible to determine with absolute precision. The fundamental problem remains the separation of clearly defined undemocratic totalitarian regimes and purely democratic ones. Authoritarian regimes as a separate entity move on the very edge of the two and connect certain parts of them, and therefore, as the definition of democratic regimes is not entirely clear, the naming of authoritarian regimes is difficult to separate.

Authoritarian regimes in Latin America on the example of Hugo Chávez: 3. Authoritarian regimes and Latin America

Inspiration through the Iberian Peninsula is one of the historical reasons for the emergence of authoritarian regimes in Latin America. This interconnectedness dates back to the first conquistadors who brought Spain to the American continent and the political system of the then kingdom. The organization of the colonial society of Latin America, of course, followed the style of the other colonial powers.

Authoritarian regimes in Latin America on the example of Hugo Chávez: 4. Venezuela and Hugo Chávez

The next chapter will focus on the history of Venezuela and its experience with undemocratic regimes, as well as the phenomenon of current President Hugo Chávez, a strong representative of the Bolivarian Republic, and will seek to shed light on the position and style of government. The facts presented here will then serve to analyze the Chávez regime in the final chapter.

Authoritarian regimes in Latin America on the example of Hugo Chávez: 5. How Chavism is formed in the 21st century

President Hugo Chávez has dedicated his government to the fight against the neoliberal economy, US President Bush and other influences that pose a threat to his Venezuelan people. The result was an initiative to promote revolutionary socialism in the 21st century. This mix of steps leading to increasing alienation from the outside world has brought him great support from its people and a contradictory response both on the American continent and overseas.

Authoritarian regimes in Latin America on the example of Hugo Chávez: 6. Final evaluation

In assessing the current ten years of the Hugo Chávez regime, several aspects of his government need to be taken into account. The main fact that speaks for the democracy of the Hugo Chávez regime is his re-election. Although he changed the constitution in February 2009 and can therefore be elected in the next presidential election in 2012, he must still win this battle with opposition candidates in the public field.

Hammer on pirates

While light boats with commandos were cutting through the sea waves at maximum speed, a Lynx helicopter unexpectedly appeared in the sky. Armed to the teeth, soldiers penetrated aboard the Korean merchant ship Sambo Jewelry from water and air. The fierce and precisely aimed fire literally nailed the kidnapper to the ground. The battle for the hijacked ship was decided within minutes. Twenty-one men of the crew were liberated. Only the captain of the hijacked ship suffered injuries. But not deadly. The kidnappers shot him in the stomach area.

New initiatives by the International Maritime Bureau to tackle piracy off the coast of Somalia

Piracy: The act of endangering and subsequently occupying a vessel using force for the purpose of robbery or other crime. The act includes all possibilities of intimidation and coercion by the crew of a private vessel (aircraft) against another vessel (aircraft) in the territorial sea (airspace) or against persons and property of such vessel (aircraft) for personal gain. Applies to vessels moored in ports, on the high seas, on regular sea routes, etc. (aircraft at the airport, in the airspace).
Article 1 of the UN Convention 1982 (On the Law of the Sea)

Piracy is flourishing

We are quite full of such a label - we will turn rude drivers into road pirates, from Viktor Kožený the pirate a cheater, the financial grandmaster. Unauthorized copying of books, music records, movies, imitations of all kinds of goods with a fake sign of world fashion houses, after which we occasionally watch a documentary recording of a bulldozer crushing and burying a mountain of glittering wristwatches, underwater rolexes. The activity may be profitable, but essentially bloodless. According to the classical definition, however, piracy is only " an act of violence in international waters by a private vessel against another vessel for the purpose of looting (animus furandi) ". Piracy was the first to be declared an international crime (the second was slavery ), its operators became " outcasts, outlaws of humanity " and could be judged by any country. I Mongolia, Nepal, Czech Republic, any land state.

Piracy is flourishing even more

I return to the subject of activity, by the classical definition expressed as ' an act of violence in international waters by a private vessel against another vessel for the purpose of magnifying glass (animus furandi) '. Piracy was the first to be declared an international crime, its operators " outcasts, outlaws of humanity " and could be condemned by any state. Thus, even the Czech Republic, so terrestrial, albeit on the Elbe, let alone Nežárka, will not be ruled by corsaires, individuals with a black plaster on a plucked eye, staggering with one wooden leg.

Pirates and their less than optimistic prospects

It's not an extinction yet, the pirates are not wading in schooners, where a black banner with a skull and crossbones would flare on the mast. They have been modernized, equipped with automatic weapons, mortars and anti-tank cannons. They often have better radars and more horsepower under deck than their potential pursuers ...

The development of Somalia after 1990: 1. Introduction

Somalia has experienced the longest period of absence of effective central power since the collapse of the world's bipolar order, during a long-running armed conflict that broke out in 1988 and continues to this day. Most Somali society agreed to overthrow Maxamed Syiaad Barre's bloody dictatorship, but after 1991 they could no longer unite on the shape of the new Somali state. The absence of the state apparatus and public institutions in the form of, for example, the army, police, education or health care, led local people to various forms of adaptation to new conditions, mostly in the form of quasi-states or smaller " clans ", in an effort to prevent chaos, crime and famine.

The development of Somalia after 1990: 2. Failed states

The former Somali Republic has been the territory since 1991 with the longest absence of a central authority with effective tools to enforce power throughout the country. Somalis thus face great complications in the areas of communication with other states, ensuring internal and external security or the necessary coordination in education, health care, transport and environmental protection. None of these services are provided at the national level. Somalia has become a typical example of the disintegration of the state and has reached the final stage of collapse.

The development of Somalia after 1990: 3. Political developments preceding the collapse of the Somali republic

Before embarking on the theory and development of attempts to rebuild Somalia, I would like to introduce the reader to a brief description of the developments that preceded the break-up of Somalia. It cannot be overlooked, as clan political factions and leaders played a major role in the gradual disintegration of the Somali dictatorship, and they subsequently became the main actors in the conflict. Since the 1990s, they have had a major influence on developments in Somalia in attempts at national reconciliation and the restoration of the state. It is also desirable for the reader to understand the nature of the Barre regime so that he can form an idea of the Somalis' experience of the nation-state.

The development of Somalia after 1990: 4. Post-intervention development of Somalia and attempts to restore the state

The Somalis experienced British and Italian colonial rule, during which the current socio-political system of organization of society was changed. Independence was followed by the euphoria of independence, when the Somalis tried to establish a Western model of democratic institutions, but a significant cultural gap led to its decline. The 1969 military coup gradually transformed Somalia into a dictatorship that resulted in an ongoing civil war in 1988. The unfortunate experience with the liberal-democratic state apparatus as well as the dictatorship and the centrally planned economy, provoked considerable prejudices in Somalis against the need to restore the state.



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