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Curtiss P-1 Hawk

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Curtiss P-1 - dvojplošné stíhacie airplane, vyrábané since 1924

XPW-8B - prototype, víťaz súťaže with typom Boeing XPW-9 (07/1924)
XP-1 - a prototype of the serial version
P-1 - serial verzia, produced 9 kusov, delivered in 1925 pre 27th Pursuit Squadron and 94th Pursuit Squadron, slúžil to 1930
P-1A - improved model P-1, delivered 25 kusov in 1926
P-1B - small changes in the motore, väčšie kolesá, pretty delivered 25 kusov
P-1C - model improved the braking system of the chassis, pretty delivered 33 kusov
P-1D, P-1E, P-1F - označenie machines converted from training lietadiel Hawk AT-4, AT-5 and AT-5A

Pretty produced 149 ks lietadiel this type (including 4 pcs of type of the Curtiss P-2 prestavaných on verziu P-1)

P-2 - five machines with engines, Curtiss V-1400, one temporarily equipped with a compressor as XP-2
XP-3 - conversion of one P-1A radial engine Curtiss R-1454, awaiting settlement
P-3 - six test machines with engines Pratt & Whitney R-1340-1 Wasp
P-5 - five machines with engines, Curtiss V-1150-4 with the turbocharged
P-6 - variants with the engine of the Curtiss Conqueror
XP-17 - P-1 modified for the tests of the engine Wright V-1470-3
XP-21 - two machines with the engine Pratt & Whitney R-985
XP-21A - one of the XP-21 rebuilt motor R-975, the second was converted to P-1F

F6C - variants built for the naval air force
F11C - final variants for the naval air force

Source: Lloyd With. Jones: Army Air Force 1925-1980, Aero Publishers 1975.
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Stíhací letouny Curtiss P-1 Hawk

Přímý předchůdce: Curtiss PW-8

The beginning of the 20. years has not been for the firm Curtiss is successful, as well as other companies suffered from a lack of orders. When therefore the success of a number of Curtissových racing aircraft, the company is in pursuit of military contracts, decided at their own expense for their adaptation to the aircraft fighter. The project received the company designation of Model 33. The skeleton of the fuselage was all metal, welded, and from a racing R-6 took over the engine of the Curtiss D-12 even with the fairing. The wings had a narrow profile of the Curtiss C-62 and greater range than R-6, so it required two sets of struts in the shape of N, again for them, but it was surface cooling.

Model 33 first flew in January 1923, and made the army air force sufficient impression on it, to it 27. April bought and at the same time ordered the other two prototypes. Curtissův fighter received from the military designation PW-8, according to a new system, which the army adopted in 1920 and which included seven fighter-categories (even if one of them was just R, i.e. "racing"). PW mean Pursuit, watercooled, therefore a fighter with a water-cooled engine, and it was the only category that contained mass-produced aircraft, and not just one or two prototypes. In 1924, were the prototypes of PW-8 subsequently renamed XPW-8 after it was introduced, the letter X as a prefix distinguishing the experimental machines. XPW-8 was the army handed over to 14. in may 1923 and in the summer he was on zkešebním airport McCook Field subjected to comparative tests with the Boeing XPW-9. XPW-8 of these tests came out as faster, but the XPW-9 overcame him dexterity, durability and reliability. The basic problem of the PW-8 was part of his závodnického heritage, surface coolers in the wings, which, although very improved aerodynamics (XPW-9 also used the engine of the Curtiss D-12, had but the tunnel cooler under the bow), but were very high maintenance and prone to constant leaks. And, of course, would be in a real fight were very easy to damage.

The second prototype, Ser. Well. 23-1202, from the first differed a modified chassis with twin axes, which should lower the resistance, the improved aerodynamics of the fairings of the engine struts connecting the wings at the top and bottom wing and elevator without balance, which all together led to an increase in takeoff weight from 1255 to 1429 kg. The army may continue to prefer Boeing, 1. August but the decision was made to order the 25 Built, based on the form of the second prototype. Curtiss is considered pledged to work together on the plan of the brigadier general Mitchell "from dawn to dusk" clearing in a single day from the east to the west coast of the USA. XPW-8 23-1201 was therefore odstrojen from all military equipment and used lieutenant Russell Maughanem to two unsuccessful attempts to fly. Then got the 1201 second cockpit, the temporary designation of CO-X (Corps Observation, Experimental - experimental choral observation) and deployed to the plant Liberty Engine Builders Trophy for the military two-seater machine, however, after the legitimate protests of the navy phased out.

25 serial PW-8 was ordered in September, and the first machines the air force has taken over in June 1924. Most of these aircraft served with the 17. fighter squadron, flew also but 28. the squadron and several of the machines were left to experimental work on the McCook Field. 23. in June, 1924, also finally managed to fly US, when Maughan on the machine 24-204 flitted from Mitchell Field on Long Island to Crissy Field in San Francisco. Distance 4195 km did it in 22 hours, with refueling in Dayton in Ohio, St. Joseph, Missouri, Cheyenne, Wyoming and Salduře in Utah.

So far not mentioned the third prototype remained in the factory for the installation of a new jednopříhradového wings and was completed as a XPW-8A, and then was adapted to the form of XPW-8B, which became the basis for the pursuit family P-1 Hawk..
 - Druhý prototyp PW-8, jehož podobu převzaly také sériové stroje.

Druhý prototyp PW-8, jehož podobu převzaly také sériové stroje.

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Prototyp XPW-8A/XPW-8B

Třatí prototype XPW-8 (23-1203) keep at the factory for the installation of new jednopříhradových wings. The heavier the beam, so it was solid enough even with just one set of struts. From the previous prototypes also differed the new radiator, this time a classic and zabodovaným flat in the middle of the upper wings, and the rudder without balance. In this form got company designation Model 34 and the army designation XPW-8A, and was an army air force taken in September 1934. 4. October 1924 was deployed into the race for the Pulitzerův cup, had previously been but still problematic the radiator in the wing replaced with a new one, through a tunnel located under the bow, after the model of a competitive XPW-9. This modified XPW-8A piloted by lieutenant Stoner reached the third place and the speed of 270 km/h.

During October of 1924 then conducted another round of tests at McCook Field, where he was deployed XPW-8A against the XPW-9. Both machines in them were more or less the same speed, rate of climb and dive, Boeing, however, still led as far as agility and maneuverability, which convinced the army to reorder other serial PW-9, and even proposed in December Curtissu to consider the adjustment of your machine to incorporate the trapezoidal wings after the model of the Boeing. Curtiss agreed, and XPW-8A so got the new again wings of unequal span, this time with a profile of the Clark Y and the footprint okopírovaným of the photos Boeingova machines, and other minor modifications. Modified machine, now with the designation XPW-8B, was the air force taken in march of the following year.

With the new form no longer was the air force sufficiently satisfied, and 7. march 1925 was from Curtissu ordered mass production of this type. In may, 1924, the air force decided to abandon the complicated and, in practice, inoperative, the system of the seven fighter categories, and the production version of the XPW-8B became the first type, designated under the new scheme - P-1..
 - Závěrečná podoba XPW-8A, s tunelovým chladičem pod motorem. Brzy poté dostal i nová křídla a byl přejmenován na XPW-8B.

Závěrečná podoba XPW-8A, s tunelovým chladičem pod motorem. Brzy poté dostal i nová křídla a byl přejmenován na XPW-8B.

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Curtiss P-1 Hawk

7. may 1925 commissioned the u.s. army air force 15 machines derived from the prototype XPW-8B. Differed only in the details, had the articulation of a balanced rudder and a bit of modified struts. The power unit was now Curtiss D-12C, in the new army system, renamed the V-1150-1 (In - two-row, 1150 - volume of cylinder in cubic inches, 1. version), dragon but allow for installation of larger 353kW engine Curtiss V-1400. The novelty was also an option under the hull podvěsit 55galonovou auxiliary tank.

The first P-1 was the army passed in August 1925 and was used mainly for further development of the McCook Field. For a short time he got inverted air-cooled engine of Liberty and in September 1926se in Philadelphia participated in National air races, where he finished eighth. Then it was again rebuilt, got another invert motor, the Wright V-1460, and was renamed XP-17. The other nine P-1 (which were by the way the first machine, which received the name of the Hawk) was assigned to 27. and 94. fighter squadron Selfridge-Field, where it flew for another 5 years.

The last five machines received the already mentioned engines, Curtiss V-1400, and were considered so different that they got a new label, P-2..

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Curtiss P-1A Hawk

P-1A (Model 34G) was an improved variant of the P-1 and the first versions built in greater numbers. In September 1925, it was the USAAC ordered 25 of the machines (26-276/300), deliveries began in April of the following year. The difference was in the extended hull design, modified fairing of the engine and modified the fuel system. Three other P-1A were rebuilt not the second half of the year P-2 25-421, 422, and 424. Their user once again become the 1. fighter group, based on Selfridge-Field, the machine 26-296 of the original order was left in the factory and adapted to the prototype of an advanced practice XAT-4. In 1927 he was to the factory returned also 26-300, which got radial engine Wasp and the new designation XP-3A. Remodeling see also 26-295, which was edited for the next edition of the National air races by being given equal to the wing of the XPW-8A, this time with surface cooling, and the engine V-1570 Conqueror. Under the designation XP-6A with him lieutenant Batten won first place with a rate of 233,9 km/h, shortly before the race in 1928 but was destroyed in the crash. Another experimental machine became under the designation XP-1A also 26-280.

Already in 1927, began to P-1A to receive also to 43. school squadron in the texas Kelly Field, where three of them signed up and into a cinema performance in the role of a German aircraft in the movie Wings.

P-1A was also the first variant, which has enjoyed export - in 1926 eight of the machines purchased by Chile, where they served until 1939, probably without the "sharp" deployment. Curtiss even in Los Cerrillos in Santiago de Chile he founded with government support factory, where he was mounting the Hawk P-1A and P-1B and O-1E Falcon from the america parts for the latino market, the actual production here, but probably there was. In the early 30. flight was a Curtiss forced because of the economic crisis this montovnu to conclude, when the chilean government canceled a large part of their orders. In the factory even left a few completed machines, which Curtiss was trying to get rid of a few years.

Another machine bought Japan,traditionally trying to keep track of the western structures. In February and march of 1928 was one of the P-1A represented Jimmy doo for a minute together with an order of the Falcon in Bolivia, where both machines participate in a practice battle with the bolivian Breguetem XIX, and Doolittle made an unsuccessful attempt to take off with the floats-equipped Hawk of lake Titicaca. Bolivia has expressed an interest and bought a few Falcons, although it is but mentioned that she bought four Hawks, in fact at this time she gave preference to the Vickers Type 143 "Bolivian Scout". At the beginning of the 30. years bought nine relatives of the export machinery Hawk II..
 - P-1A 17. stíhací letky

P-1A 17. stíhací letky

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Curtiss P-1B Hawk

In August 1927 was ordered variant of the P-1B, which was the engine of the Curtiss V-1150-3 (D-12D) about the same power, but more reliable, and larger radiator, and also got a wheel of larger diameter. The first 25 machines (27-63/87) was passed in December 1926 to the air section at the washington Bolling Field, most went but to the units that have already used the previous variants. Two machines, 27-71 and 27-73, were allocated as experimental and with the designation of XP-1B serve to Wright Field. 27-73 also got two machine guns built into the lower wing.

In 1927, eight of the machines purchased by Chile, which has already used eight P-1A, and together with them and Curtissy Falcon serve 1. mixed air group. Also these Hawks were assembled in Chile in the Curtissově factory in Santiago..

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Curtiss P-1C Hawk

33 P-1C (Model 34O, 29-227/259) were ordered in October 1928. The engine was again replaced by a newer and more reliable version, the V-1150-5 (D - 12E), was even larger, 30-inch wheels, equipped with mechanical brakes, and the last two machines have hydraulic shock absorbers instead of the rubber blocks. The user was traditionally 1. fighter group Selfridge-Field.

P-1C 29-259 was completed as XP-6B with the engine V-1570-1 Conqueror and tank volume 946 l and was designed to record the flight captain Ross Hoyt from New York to Alaska, with return path 19. July 1929 but crashed. After the repair was sent to Wright Field, where he continued as a trial until August 1931.

XP-1C was the designation of the allocated P-1C 29-238, which was used for testing radiator Heinrich and cooling system with a liquid Preston..

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Cvičné varianty - AT-4, AT-5 a AT-5A

In 1924, the us army decided on the basis of some of their main fighter types to create a follow-on trainer by placing the engine on the lower performance. The first prototype of the Curtiss created from P-1A 26-296, which was due to the fact warehoused in the factory, to the installation of the engine the Wright-Hispano E (the new designation of In-720), from the prvoválečných inventory. Visually the main difference accounted for barely half the cooler, which featured just slightly below the hull. The army was finished the machine passed in July 1926 under the designation XAT-4.

In October 1926, it was ordered 40 serial machines (27-88/97 and 27-213/242), the first of which arrived for training units on the Kelly Field in may 1927. As the origin of the fighter machines should but the AT-4 unnecessarily robust construction, which also was a great weight for such a weak engine and a very weak performance, and were even considered dangerous for inexperienced pilots. After a short service was 35 AT-4 again converted to the installation of engines D-12 to the forms of the matching pursuit P-1B, and were also armed with one machine gun. After the reconstruction have been renamed to P-1D, despite the stíhacímu designation but continue to serve on the Kelly Field in Texas as an advanced practice.

The last five machines from the original čtyřicetikusové order has not been completed as AT-4, but as AT-5 with the engines of the Wright J-5..

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The last five machines ordered as AT-4 (27-238/242) was completed as AT-5, with engines Wright J-5 (R-970-1). This was lighter and more powerful than the Wright-Hispano AT-fours, but still remain the same problems. 30. July 1927 was also ordered 31 AT-5A (Model 34M, 28-42/72) which had the same engine, based but P-1A and thus had a bit of a longer torso. As with the AT-4, in 1929, were all the AT-5 and AT-5A, and converted to standard P-1B, under the designation P-1E, respectively, P-1F, and to return to the training squadrons on the Kelly Field. Other P-1F (28-189) was rebuilt from the XP-21..

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Curtiss P-2 Hawk

Curtiss P-2 (company designation Model 34B) was the army designation for five P-1 Hawk (25-420/424), which were given instead of the standard engine D-12 engine Curtiss V-1400. The first take-off of the P-2 took place in December 1925. The higher the power of the engine allow for appropriate increases in performance, the engine but proved unreliable and after less than a year of operation the machines were 25-421, 422 and 424 converted to standard P-1A. The first of the P-2, 25-420, got the supercharger, which allowed to increase engine power up to 447 kW, and on the ground adjustable propeller Hamilton. In this form, under the designation XP-2 reached the speed of the 289,7 km/h at a height of 6100 m and the maximum altitude increased to 7315 m, but engine problems prevented further development.

From the P-2 25-423 became after he got the engine V-1570 Conqueror, the prototype of XP-6..
 - XP-2 s turbokompresorem

XP-2 s turbokompresorem

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Curtiss P-3A Hawk

As well as the us navy was also the army air force from the beginning of the indecisive, whether to prefer the star or ordinary engines. The radial engine was successfully used in P-12, and so the air force instructed Curtiss to verify the possibility of modifying the Curtissu Hawk. Was it singled out P-1A 26-300, who had, under the designation XP-3 get the experimental engine in the Curtiss R-1454 on the performance of 291 kW. This, however, proved to be unreliable, and the rebuilding therefore not carried out. Instead, in October 1927 he received the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-1 Wasp, and was renamed the XP-3A, factory designation Model 34N. After the transfer of the army got the experimental designation XP-451, and was used to test the various early forms of the motor of the rings NACA.

The lighter engine allowed the XP-3A better rate of climb and greater avail, and the army 27. December 1927 ordered another five machines, 28-189/193, for the operational tests. These were also the army passed with exposed engines, additionally, were given the rings type of Townend. From the first of the P-3A later became the XP-3A no. 2 and was also used for the development of the ring of NACA. With a tight-fitting cover of the NACA and a large propeller cone was in 1929, deployed in the open part of the National air races, where, piloted by R. G. Breen, won the second place with a speed of 300 km/h. Defeated was a "civilian" Doug Davis and the Travel Air R. Of the two XP-3A later became the XP-21, and 28-189 ended up P-1F.

As for the other P-3A, tests have failed to convince the army enough to buy another star motor powered by the Hawks, and remained so for the rank and file of the engines. On the contrary, the navy at the same time as the first major naval version of the Hawk ordered F6C-4 just with a star engine..

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Curtiss P-5 Superhawk

At the request of the USAAC created company Curtiss also a variant of the P-1 Hawk equipped with engine D-12 engines. This variant got the army designation of the Curtiss P-5, factory designation Model 34L and used engine V-1150-4 (D-12F). 14. may 1927 was ordered five machines, which were taken to Wright Field in January 1928. The increased weight and frontal resistance caused by the compressor led to a significant decline in performances in the country, the rate of climb is also not brilliant, at higher altitudes but significantly increased the maximum speed and altitude was the P-5 for nearly three miles higher than the standard P-1B. For operation at high altitudes could be the cockpit partially covered by a tarp and heated by the air generated on the exhaust pipe. Despite an excellent vertical performance but the army decided to hang on with the purchase of other machines, until he's finished a more powerful engine, the Curtiss Conqueror. Two of the P-5 (which bore and perhaps just the unofficial name of Superhawk) have been lost in accidents during three months after delivery, the other used by the 94. fighter squadron up to August 1932, when they were the survivors of the machine transferred to the training of mechanics..

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Curtiss XP-17

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Další varianty

Kromě výše zmíněných variant do řady Curtiss Hawk patřila nebo z ní vycházely také stroje P-6 s motory Conqueror, které mají samostatné téma, a hned dvě řady stíhaček pro americké námořní letectvo - F6C s řadovými motory, a F11C s motory hvězdicovými.

Bowers, P. M. Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947, Putnam Aeronautical Books, London 1979. ISBN 0-370-10029-8.
Bowers, P. M. Curtiss Army Hawks, Aircraft in Profile No.45. Profile Publications, Leatherhead 1965.
United States Army and Air Force Fighters 1916-1961, Harleyford Publications, Letchworth 1961.
Fahey, James C. U.S. Army Aircraft 1908-1946. Ships and Aircraft, Falls Church, 1964.
Bowers, P. M. Forgotten Fighters/2 and Experimental Aircraft U.S. Army 1918-1941, Arco Publishing Company, New York 1971. ISBN 0-66802-403-8.
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