On August 9, 378 AD, the East Roman Emperor Valens set out from Adrianople with an army of 25,000 infantry to destroy the army of the Gothic rebel Fritigerna ( Gothic Frithugairns ). In the evening of the same day, he lay on the battlefield, along with a third of his army. Ammianus Marcellinus called this defeat the worst since Hannibal's victory at Cannae. How could the Gothic refugees from behind the Danube, who had been on the defensive until now, defeat a well-armed and trained Roman army?
The crucifixion was one of the most cruel punishments in Rome, and it is associated with one of the most important figures in world history - Jesus Christ was crucified, among other things. However, there are several myths and half-truths about the crucifixion; This article seeks to present the real facts about this brutal punishment.
When the Romans expelled their last king, Tarquinius Superba ( 510 or 509 BC ), Rome became a republic governed by elected officials.
The foundations of the structure of the republic already existed at the end of the royal period. They were created by what we call the " reforms of Servius Tullia " - they are attributed to the penultimate Roman king Servius Tullius.
All three types of people's assembly passed into the republic unchanged. The Comitia curiata , the oldest of them, lost almost all its power through the " Tullio reform " and was maintained rather out of tradition.
The basic engine of the development of Roman society in the earliest times was the unequal position of patricians and plebeians. While the patricians ruled on most state affairs, the plebeians were personally free but subordinate citizens of the Roman Republic.
Given that the plebeians could also have been military tribunes, it seems that the establishment of tribunes was a temporary solution to the internal crisis. In 438 BC, however, the Romans reached for him again, this time all year round, and from 434 BC, when the tribune again took office instead of consuls, until 367 BC, the election of regular consuls was the exception.
The state system, which arose from a complex period of internal disputes, already formed the basis of what is called the high ( or classical ) Roman Republic. From 287 BC, after the civil riots (the last Art Nouveau ), all differences between the plebeians and patricians were officially erased through Lex Hortensia , which for the most part only legally recognized the factual situation.
Roman Republic around 100 BC
I bring you a list of equipment and armaments of a Roman heavyweight from the period of the 1st century AD. It's a regular infantry kit. The equipment of officers and non-commissioned officers differed on several points. The legion was one of the most effective military units in the history of the military, and the legionaries became famous for their tenacity and physical condition. After the reforms that Gaius Marius first made in the army in Christ's army, the professional army became the foundation on which every candidate for government over Rome built. So what did these "history makers" use in their daily lives?
From January 49 BC to Pharsalus (August 9, 48 according to the Roman calendar, June 6 according to the Julian calendar), the Roman world was divided into two camps by the civil war between Pompeii and Caesar. The war was fought with alternating happiness in Africa, Italy, Gaul, Spain, and moved to Greece.
An integral part of the military environment is the habit of rewarding especially brave deeds with awards that certainly provide the wearer with both real benefits and moral credit. A similar practice was known to the ancient Romans.
I tried to list the Roman legionary's outfit in the previous article. Today I will try to briefly describe the way in which the Romans built their military camps.
Gladiators are a component of Roman culture, which is probably the most widespread in the general consciousness of ancient Rome. There are innumerable myths and half-truths about gladiators that some of us have encountered, perhaps unknowingly. This article tries to deal with gladiators during the Roman Republic without mythization and, if possible, without distortion, although with such a large lapse of time it is difficult to bring real facts to light from under the deposits of legends. I can only promise that I tried to do it as best I could.
Mars, Martin, Saint Martin What do these three have in common, or the journey from God, the protector of the harvest, through the god of the warrior to the Christian saint, the patron saint of soldiers.
Near Alise-Sainte Reine in France, 32 miles northwest of Dijon, G. Julius Caesar fought one of the legendary battles of history. His adversary, Vercingetorix, the chief of the Avernovs, formed a large confederation of Gallic tribes to push the Romans once and for all out of a war-torn country. The Gauls had a numerical advantage of six to one. Caesar built a series of fortifications that took the breath away even of the Romans, accustomed to similar siege work.
The Roman army was the best in the world at the time. Above all, it allowed a small city-state to grow into a vast empire. The organization of the Roman army was complicated and gradually evolving; In this brief article, I will focus on the role of the so-called Allied Corps in the Roman army.
In this article I will discuss the Roman calendar in relation to the calendar of today. The aim is not to give an exhaustive description of the Roman calendar, but to try to explain the origins of some things that we take so much for granted that we hardly think about them - for example, why the year begins on the first of January, why the months are called what they are called in many of the world's languages, why February has 28 days, why July and August have 31 days, even though they are right after each other in the calendar, why a leap day is added to February once every four years...