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Ancient Rome was a civilization emerging from the city of Rome, based on the Apennine Peninsula, probably in the 8th century BC, which expanded to a large part of the ancient world and survived to the 5th-6th century AD. The form of the government of Rome changed over the centuries first from kingdom to republic and finally to an empire. At its greatest extent under Emperor Trajan, the power of Rome spread to all the countries along the Mediterranean Sea, then into Gaul, Britain and large parts in the Black Sea.


Adrianopol 378 AD

On August 9, 378 AD, the East Roman Emperor Valens set out from Adrianople with an army of 25,000 infantry to destroy the army of the Gothic rebel Fritigerna ( Gothic Frithugairns ). In the evening of the same day, he lay on the battlefield, along with a third of his army. Ammianus Marcellinus called this defeat the worst since Hannibal's victory at Cannae. How could the Gothic refugees from behind the Danube, who had been on the defensive until now, defeat a well-armed and trained Roman army?


The crucifixion was one of the most cruel punishments in Rome, and it is associated with one of the most important figures in world history - Jesus Christ was crucified, among other things. However, there are several myths and half-truths about the crucifixion; This article seeks to present the real facts about this brutal punishment.

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (4)

The basic engine of the development of Roman society in the earliest times was the unequal position of patricians and plebeians. While the patricians ruled on most state affairs, the plebeians were personally free but subordinate citizens of the Roman Republic.

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (5)

Given that the plebeians could also have been military tribunes, it seems that the establishment of tribunes was a temporary solution to the internal crisis. In 438 BC, however, the Romans reached for him again, this time all year round, and from 434 BC, when the tribune again took office instead of consuls, until 367 BC, the election of regular consuls was the exception.

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (6)

The state system, which arose from a complex period of internal disputes, already formed the basis of what is called the high ( or classical ) Roman Republic. From 287 BC, after the civil riots (the last Art Nouveau ), all differences between the plebeians and patricians were officially erased through Lex Hortensia , which for the most part only legally recognized the factual situation.

List of equipment of the Roman legionary

I bring you a list of equipment and armaments of a Roman heavyweight from the period of the 1st century AD. It's a regular infantry kit. The equipment of officers and non-commissioned officers differed on several points. The legion was one of the most effective military units in the history of the military, and the legionaries became famous for their tenacity and physical condition. After the reforms that Gaius Marius first made in the army in Christ's army, the professional army became the foundation on which every candidate for government over Rome built. So what did these "history makers" use in their daily lives?


From January 49 BC to Pharsalus (August 9, 48 according to the Roman calendar, June 6 according to the Julian calendar), the Roman world was divided into two camps by the civil war between Pompeii and Caesar. The war was fought with alternating happiness in Africa, Italy, Gaul, Spain, and moved to Greece.

Rewards and honors in the Roman army

An integral part of the military environment is the habit of rewarding especially brave deeds with awards that certainly provide the wearer with both real benefits and moral credit. A similar practice was known to the ancient Romans.

Roman Camp

I tried to list the Roman legionary's outfit in the previous article. Today I will try to briefly describe the way in which the Romans built their military camps.

Roman gladiators

Gladiators are a component of Roman culture, which is probably the most widespread in the general consciousness of ancient Rome. There are innumerable myths and half-truths about gladiators that some of us have encountered, perhaps unknowingly. This article tries to deal with gladiators during the Roman Republic without mythization and, if possible, without distortion, although with such a large lapse of time it is difficult to bring real facts to light from under the deposits of legends. I can only promise that I tried to do it as best I could.

Siege of Alesia

Near Alise-Sainte Reine in France, 32 miles northwest of Dijon, G. Julius Caesar fought one of the legendary battles of history. His adversary, Vercingetorix, the chief of the Avernovs, formed a large confederation of Gallic tribes to push the Romans once and for all out of a war-torn country. The Gauls had a numerical advantage of six to one. Caesar built a series of fortifications that took the breath away even of the Romans, accustomed to similar siege work.

The allied corps in the Roman army

The Roman army was the best in the world at the time. Above all, it allowed a small city-state to grow into a vast empire. The organization of the Roman army was complicated and gradually evolving; In this brief article, I will focus on the role of the so-called Allied Corps in the Roman army.

The Roman calendar as the basis of today's calendar

In this article I will discuss the Roman calendar in relation to the calendar of today. The aim is not to give an exhaustive description of the Roman calendar, but to try to explain the origins of some things that we take so much for granted that we hardly think about them - for example, why the year begins on the first of January, why the months are called what they are called in many of the world's languages, why February has 28 days, why July and August have 31 days, even though they are right after each other in the calendar, why a leap day is added to February once every four years...



Wars with Pyrrhos [281-272BC]

Pyrrhos Warin 281 BC accepted the request of the Greek city of Taranto for help in the conflict with Rome. Pyrrhos' main goal was to conquer Macedonia but lacked enough funds to pay the necessary mercenaries. So he planned to help Taranto and then move to Sicily and attack Carthage - after winning and conquering southern Italy, he should have had enough money to build an army strong enough to conquer Macedonia.

First Punic war [264-241BC]

The First Punic War (264-241 BC) was the first of a total of three Punic wars fought between Carthage and the Republic of Rome. For 23 years, these two powers have struggled to dominate the western Mediterranean. Carthage, located in North Africa, was the dominant naval power in the Mediterranean at the beginning of the war. But it was Rome, who eventually achieved victory.

Second Punic war [219-202BC]

The Second Punic War was fought between the Romans and the Carthaginians between 218 and 201 BC. The Carthaginian warlord Hannibal of the Barkas family first gave Rome a series of defeats in tactically ingenious battles, which are still featured in military textbooks. Subsequently, the Romans went into a several-year-long wear-and-tear war, gradually eliminating or neutralizing the allies and major colonies of Carthage, and finally, under the leadership of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, won the Battle of Zamy. This war finally decided the struggle of both cities to dominate the Mediterranean in favour of Rome.

First Macedonian War [214-205 BC]

The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. There were no decisive engagements, and the war ended in a stalemate. During the war, Macedon attempted to gain control over parts of Illyria and Greece, but without success. It is commonly thought that these skirmishes in the east prevented Macedon from aiding the Carthaginian general Hannibal in the war with Rome. The Peace of Phoenice (205 BC) formally ended the war.

Second Macedonian War [200-196 BC]

The Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC) was fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace and Asia Minor. During their intervention, and although the Romans declared the "freedom of the Greeks" against the rule from the Macedonian kingdom, the war marked a significant stage in increasing Roman intervention in the affairs of the eastern Mediterranean which would eventually lead to their conquest of the entire region.

Third macedonian war [171-168BC]

The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon. In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. Tensions escalated and Rome declared war on Macedon.

Third Punic war [149-146BC]

The Third Punic War (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic. This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.

Jugurthine War [112-106 BC]

The Jugurthine War took place in 112–106 BC, between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria. Jugurtha was the nephew and adopted the son of Micipsa, King of Numidia, whom he succeeded on the throne, overcoming his rivals through assassination, war, and bribery. The war constituted an important phase in the Roman subjugation of Northern Africa, but Numidia did not become a Roman province until 46 BC. Following Jugurtha's usurpation of the throne of Numidia, a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars, Rome felt compelled to intervene.

Social War [91-88 BC]

The Social War - also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War - was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities and tribes in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries. The Italian allies wanted the Roman citizenship, and the power, influence and the right to vote at Rome itself that came with it. The Romans ignored their demands and refused to grant them citizenship, thus leaving the Italian groups with fewer rights and privileges. This led to a devastating war, which lasted three years and caused many casualties. The war eventually resulted in a Roman victory. However, Rome granted Roman citizenship to all of its Italian allies, to avoid another costly war.

Gallic Wars [58-50 BC]

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium).

Great Roman Civil War [49-45 BC]

The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar, his political supporters and his legions, against the Optimates, the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey and his legions.

Dacian Wars [101-106]

The First Roman–Dacian War took place from 101 to 102 AD. The Kingdom of Dacia, under King Decebalus, had become a threat to the Roman Empire and defeated several of Rome's armies during Domitian's reign (81-96). Emperor Trajan was set on riding this threat to Rome's power and in 101 set out determined to defeat Dacia. After a year of heavy fighting, King Decebalus came to terms and accepted an unfavourable peace. When he broke these terms in 105, the Second Dacian War (105 - 106 AD) began.

Markoman wars [166-180]

The Marcomannic Wars were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about 166 until 180 AD. These wars pitted the Roman Empire against, principally, the Germanic Marcomanni and Quadi and the Sarmatian Iazyges; there were related conflicts with several other barbarian peoples along both sides of the whole length of the Roman Empire's northeastern European border, the river Danube. The struggle against the Germans and Sarmatians occupied the major part of the reign of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius

War with Attila and Huns [450-453]

The Huns had maintained good relations with the Western Empire. However, Honoria, sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III, sent Attila a ring and requested his help to escape her betrothal to a senator. Attila claimed her as his bride and half the Western Roman Empire as dowry. Additionally, a dispute arose about the rightful heir to a king of the Salian Franks. In 451, Attila's forces entered Gaul. A combined army of Roman and Visigoths then defeated the Huns at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. The following year, Attila renewed his claims to Honoria and territory in the Western Roman Empire. Leading his army across the Alps and into Northern Italy, he sacked and razed a number of cities. Hoping to avoid the sack of Rome, Emperor Valentinian III sent two envoys and Pope Leo I, who met Attila and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor. The new Eastern Roman Emperor Marcian then halted tribute payments to Huns, resulting in Attila planning to attack Constantinople. However, in 453 he died of a haemorrhage on his wedding night.

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