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Rommel, Erwin Johannes Eugen

     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Rommel
Jméno:
Given Name:
Erwin Johannes Eugen
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel
Fotografie či obrázek:
Photograph or Picture:
Hodnost:
Rank:
generál polní maršál
Akademický či vědecký titul:
Academic or Scientific Title:
-
Šlechtický titul:
Hereditary Title:
-
Datum, místo narození:
Date and Place of Birth:
15.11.1891 Heidenheim /
Datum, místo úmrtí:
Date and Place of Decease:
14.10.1944 Herrlingen /
Nejvýznamnější funkce:
(maximálně tři)
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
velitel: 7. tanková divize
Jiné významné skutečnosti:
(maximálně tři)
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
Jeden z 27 držiteľov Rytierskeho kríža k Železnému krížu s dubovými ratolesťami, mečmi a briliantami .
Související články:
Related Articles:
Zdroje:
Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Rommel
en.wikipedia.org
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Rommel-Erwin-Johannes-Eugen-t8614#384216Version : 0
MOD
     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Rommel
Jméno:
Given Name:
Erwin Johannes Eugen
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel
Všeobecné vzdělání:
General Education:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR
Vojenské vzdělání:
Military Education:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR
Důstojnické hodnosti:
Officer Ranks:
27.01.1912 Leutnant
DD.09.1915 Oberleutnant
DD.10.1917 Hauptmann
10.10.1933 Major
01.05.1935 Oberstleutnant
01.08.1937 Oberst
01.08.1939 Generálmajor
01.01.1941 Generálporučík
01.07.1941 Generál tankových jednotek
30.01.1942 Generálplukovník
22.06.1942 Generál polní maršál
Průběh vojenské služby:
Military Career:
Automaticky vyplněné položky:
05.02.1940-15.02.1941 Velitel : 7. tanková divize
16.02.1941-21.02.1941 Velitel : Velitelství německých jednotek v Libyi
21.02.1941-15.08.1941 Velitel : Německý africký sbor
01.09.1941-30.01.1942 Velitel : Tanková skupina Afrika
30.01.1942-09.03.1942 Velitel : Tanková armáda Afrika
19.03.1942-22.09.1942 Velitel : Tanková armáda Afrika
25.10.1942-26.11.1942 Velitel : Německo-italská tanková armáda
02.12.1942-17.02.1943 Velitel : Německo-italská tanková armáda
23.02.1943-09.03.1943 Velitel : Skupina armád Afrika
19.07.1943-DD.11.1943 Velitel : Skupina armád B
26.11.1943-17.07.1944 Velitel : Skupina armád B

Ručně vyplněné položky:
Vyznamenání:
Awards:

30.09.1914

Železný kříž 2. třídy
Iron Cross 2nd Class
Eisernes Kreuz II. Klasse
-

22.03.1915

Železný kříž 1. třídy
Iron Cross 1st Class
Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse
-

Württemberské království [1806-1918] / Kingdom of Württemberg [1806-1918] 08.04.1915

Řád za vojenské zásluhy - rytíř
Military Merit Order - Knight
Militärverdienstorden Ritter
-

10.12.1917

Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite
-

DD.MM.1934

Čestný kříž světové války 1914-1918 pro bojovníky
Honor Cross of World War 1914-18 for Combatants
Ehrenkreuz des Weltkrieges 1914-1918 für Frontkämpfer
-

17.05.1940

Železný kříž 1939 II. třídy
Iron Cross 2nd Class
Eisernes Kreuz II. Klasse
-

21.05.1940

Železný kříž 1939 I. třídy
Iron Cross 1st Class
Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse
-

27.05.1940

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže 1939
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939
-

20.03.1941

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže s dubovou ratolesti
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub
10. držiteľ Dubových ratolestí.

20.01.1942

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže s dubovou ratolesti a s meči
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern
6. držiteľ Mečov.

- DD.MM.1942 -

-
-
-

11.03.1943

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže s dubovou ratolesti, s meči a brilianty
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillianten
6. držiteľ Briliantov.

DD.MM.RRRR

Medaile na památku návratu Memelu
Memel Medal
Medaille zur Erinnerung an die Heimkehr des Memellandes
-

DD.MM.RRRR

Vyznamenání za dlouholetou službu (Wehrmacht) 12 let
Long Service Medal (Wehrmacht) 12 Years
Dienstauszeichnung (Wehrmacht) 12 Jahre
-

DD.MM.RRRR

Vyznamenání za dlouholetou službu (Wehrmacht) 18 let
Long Service Medal (Wehrmacht) 18 Years
Dienstauszeichnung (Wehrmacht) 18 Jahre
-

DD.MM.RRRR

Vyznamenání za dlouholetou službu (Wehrmacht) 25 let
Long Service Medal (Wehrmacht) 25 Years
Dienstauszeichnung (Wehrmacht) 25 Jahre
-

DD.MM.RRRR

Vyznamenání za dlouholetou službu (Wehrmacht) 4 roky
Long Service Medal (Wehrmacht) 4 Years
Dienstauszeichnung (Wehrmacht) 4 Jahre
-

DD.MM.RRRR

Vojenský záslužný kříž 3. třída
Military Merit Cross 3rd Class
Militärverdienstkreuz III. Kl.
-

Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Rommel
en.wikipedia.org
Axis Biographical Research
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Rommel-Erwin-Johannes-Eugen-t8614#415893Version : 0
MOD

the Beginning of the military career[/heading:aaaaaa]
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel was born on 15. November 1891 in württemberském the city of Heidenheim an der Brenz near Ulm. Rommel's family had no military tradition, only Rommel senior served a short time as a lieutenant of artillery before he retired and became a teacher. Erwin during schooling showed talent for mathematics and technical skills. Thinking about it, that would become an aerospace engineer. But the father was against and gave him a choice of two options: become a teacher or join the army. Erwin chose the second option.
After he was admitted to the artillery or the engineers, entered 19. July 1910 to service in the Royal württemberského 6. infantry regiment king Wilhelm I number 124 in the Weingartenu. From march to November 1911 he graduated from officers ' courses at the War academy in Danzig. He then returned to his regiment, 27. January 1912 he was promoted to lieutenant and in the following period as an instructor participated in the training of recruits.
1. in march 1914 he was transferred to 4. a battery of field artillery Regiment in Ulm.

1. world war[/heading:aaaaaa]
After the outbreak of the 1. world war he fought with his old regiment at the Maase, west of Verdun, in Argonnách and in the Vosges, in Romania and in Italy. He was twice severely wounded, promoted to lieutenant commander and awarded the Iron cross 2. and 1. class. It turns out that it is for the war born. During combat actions, he manifested a cool, unconventional approach to solving challenging situations and willingness to take risks and accept the responsibility. Properties that characterize the rest of your life.
From October 1915, Rommel commanded a platoon of the newly formed Württemberského mountain battalion. His career during the first world war culminated at the end of October 1917 on the Italian front in the Alps. The austrians here have suffered from the Italians a number of defeats, which culminated in August by breaking the queue on the river Isonzo. The German command must have your allies rush to help and the queue at the Isonza moved 7 divisions 14. the army, after the command of general Otto von Below. When the German-austrian offensive was necessary to overcome the Italian defensive positions on the mountain ridges stretching from Monte Kolowratu to 1642 meters high the Monte Matajur. Especially the fortifications on the top of Monte Matajur had great strategic importance. The attack on this position, commissioned von Below, the German Alpine corps, in whose ranks he served i of württemberg took mountain battalion. Von Below had promised subduer of Monte Matajur highest military decoration, the order of the Pour le Merite. Offensive began 24. October 1917. At dawn set out to action and Rommelův department, consisting of three mountain and one machine-gun company. Rommel, who by then commanded the only company, now led to the attack of over 500 soldiers. During the two days lasting procedure Rommelův section bursting aggressively forward, induced among the enemy confusion and panic, to the captivity took thousands of Italian soldiers, took possession of 80 guns and many transport vehicles. 26. October at 11:40 pm could Rommel from the top of Monte Matajur fire three green and one white flare, the prearranged sign that is a massif in the German hands.
When the Italians withdrawing from Monte Matajur, he was them Rommelův section close behind. Graduating at the top of the Alpine corps, and 14. army.
The desired (and deserved) the order, however, Rommel was not followed. Instead, at the beginning of November learned that because of a mistake of military bureaucracy gave the emperor Wilhelm II. personally Pour le Mérite for the conquest of the summit of Monte Matajur officer, who conquered the side top. Rommel turned with a protest against this injustice to the headquarters of his regiment, but was rejected. Filed then a written complaint. The whole affair threatened to the scandal, therefore, the chief of staff of the 14. the army intervened to order received and Rommel. But he felt the bitterness of that well deserved honors had to fight through official channels.
From January 1918 until the end of the war he served in staff positions. 18. October 1918 he was promoted to the rank of captain.

Interwar period[/heading:aaaaaa]
21. December 1918 Rommel was reassigned to his original 124. infantry regiment to the Weingartenu, where in 1910 he began his military career. In the summer of 1919 was entrusted with the command of the internal security service in Friedrichshafen. The way there proved to subdue rebellious naámořníky, did the chief of police in Stuttgart under the impression that Rommel offered a function for the police. Rommel but expressed the wish to return to your unit. Later then still performed internally-the security tasks in the Porúři. From 1. January, 1921, he was in Stuttgart u 13. infantry regiment (124. infantry regiment was dissolved during the reduction of the army) soon as possible at battalion headquarters, later as the commander of the machine-gun company.
1. October 1929 Rommel was reassigned to the infantry school in Dresden, where he worked for 4 years as an instructor. Wrote manual for training officers of the corps "Gefechts - Aufgaben für Zug und Company : Ein Handbuch für den Offizierunterricht" and your experience of the great war described in the book "Infantry greift an" (Infantry attacks) – this manual of infantry tactics was published in čtyřsettisícovém cargo, aroused well-deserved attention among German readers and as a teaching tool it was used by the swiss army. 10. October 1933 he (as a major) was given command of 3. (mountain) battalion 17. infantry regiment in Goslaru. 15. October 1935, then taught at the War college in Potsdam, 9. November 1938 he was already in the rank of colonel, appointed commander of the Vávečné academy in Wiener Neustadt.
During his tenure in Potsdam, was entrusted with the task, which had a major impact on his future. From 1. to 9. October 1938 during the occupation of the Sudetenland, he was given command of the battalion to ensure Hitler personal safety (Führerbegleitbataillon). In march 1939 the then fourteen days during the occupation of rest of Czechoslovakia and the takeover of the to the Memel commanded the führer's main tent.
1. August 1939 he was promoted to major general.

Poland and France[/heading:aaaaaa]
23. August 1939, Rommel was once again summoned to the Führer's headquarters. Along with 16 officers and 274 soldiers ensured Hitler's safety during his numerous visits to the units during the Polish campaign. After the defeat of Poland, then in Berlin, organized the security measures during the victory parade. Hitler Rommel liked for his courage, abilities – and also because his modesty in anything wasn't an arrogant aristocratic prussian generals. After the end of the war with Poland Rommel inquired, what has ideas about your further military career. Rommel didn't hesitate: "I'd Like to command a tank division".
15. February 1940 was Rommel given command of 7. panzer division. When rozlučcce at the Führer's headquarters, Hitler dedicated a copy of the book Mein Kampf with a personal inscription: "To general Rommel with friendly memories...".
Rommel took over the division three months prior to the attack on France. During the intense training he had the opportunity to get acquainted with the theories of a tank in combat and to apply what met during the "blitzkrieg" in Poland. During the conquest of France, Rommel has emerged as the champion of the flat turn fight. At the head of his division forcibly crossed the Maasu, has broken the maginot line could be bought and attacked the canal La-Basée, then without a break attack towards Lille, he turned and crossed the Somme with the aim to break through the Weygandovu line. The last goal 7. division during the French campaign was the naval base at Cherbourg.
The constant change of direction, lightning-fast attacks with a hastily drawn up battle groups, bypasses the enemy and the sudden appearance in his rear – all this prompted the opponent to rommel's division called the "Divisions of spirit". For successful command, Rommel was rewarded Knight's cross and the rank of lieutenant general.

North Africa[/heading:aaaaaa]
Benito Mussolini played in the 1940's daring game with the aim of expanding the Italian colonies in north Africa about the new territory. 13. September has exceeded 10. the army of the colonies Libya the egyptian border. Incompetently-led offensive, the British soon stopped and 9. December went to the counter. In just eight weeks, they managed to dislodge the Italians from Cyrenaiky and cause them huge losses. 22. January 1941 lost the Italians Tobruk. The rest of the Italian army was in decay, and quickly subsided to the west towards Tripoli.
In an effort to prevent the defeat of his allies decided the German high command to send to Libya a small group of ground troops and the air force, which was to help the Italians to stop the further progress of the British at Tripoli. Hitler accepted the opinion of the OKW, according to which he had to meet this challenge to do a single choir. Its command was entrusted to lieutenant general Rommel. For the mission assigned the force were given the first name "Sperrverband Africa", (loosely translated as the blocking volume) 16. February were renamed to German african corps (Deutsches Afrika Korps, abbreviated DAK). Dak, in which the assembly was first only 5. lightweight division, in Africa began to disembark from the 11. February, 15. panzer division arrived in may. When was DAK in August 5. lightweight division reorganized on 21. panzer division, there was a higher command level - Panzer group Africa – whose commander became Rommel.
Rommel arrived in Tripoli 12. February and immediately started with the organisation of the defensive line. 13. February sent a reconnaissance battalion with the task to find out how far away to Tripoli, the British had advanced. The survey showed that british troops are not deployed to fight. Rommel, therefore, decided to take advantage of this favorable situation to planning a preventive attack. Incompletely vyloděnou 5. light division sent toward the british positions at El Agheily. 20. march during the briefing in the OKH Berlin was instructed to only holding positions and only after the arrival of the 15. panzer division made a limited counter-attack. On that occasion, Hitler gave oak branch to the Knight's cross as an appreciation of achievements in the command of the 7th. panzer division in France.
24. march contrary to orders initiated Rommel limited attack 5. the lightweight division with the support of two Italian divisions and occupy the poorly bráněnou desert fortress of Al Agheila. 31. march, then on his own decided that he would continue to attack the Cyrenaiku. Angered by the supreme commander of the Italian forces in Libya general Gariboldiho, which was formally subordinated to, and OKH, which he ordered to stick to the original orders. Situation saved to the personal intervention of Hitler, who he loosened his hands to the continuation of the attack. Rommel's offensive the British by surprise. DAK is during the 10 days ran from Cyrenaiky and arrived at your to Tobruk. Yet in addition to thousands of soldiers captured and 16 generals, among them Richard O'connor, commander of the british forces in the Western desert (Western Desert Force). After an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Tobruk continued DAK to the borders of Egypt. There it, however, in June caught up with logistical difficulties – insufficient supply of reinforcements, fuel and supplies. Rommel decided to build a defensive line on the nejvýchodnějších achieved positions around the pass Halfaya as a springboard for further action. In mid-June, he managed to repel a british counterattack and advance beyond the egyptian border. This was followed by other british protiofenzivy and during operation Crusader (begun 18. November 1941 the British managed to conquer the port of Benghazi and Panzer group Africa out of Tobruk. In January 1942 the Germans launched a new protiofenzivu and drove the British up to the Gazale. 20. January was general of the tank units of the Rommel passed meče to the Knight's cross and 30. January was followed by a promotion to was to hold... At Bir Hakimu Rommel used the element of surprise and in June there destroyed twice stronger british forces, preparing to counterattack. 21. jun conquered, this time unprepared to Tobruk. A day later, he was promoted to the rank of field marshal.
The conquest of Tobruk was the high point of rommel's career. Goebbelsova propaganda needed to create a diversion from the stalemate on the eastern front and so Rommelůvy achievements in north Africa properly used.
Tobruk, however, at the same time meant the beginning of the end for the German forces in Africa. The british prime minister Winston Churchill caught news of the fall of Tobruk in dealing with us president Roosevelt. He immediately offered to help, and already about ten days later went from America convoy with supplies of fighter jets, bombers, tanks Sherman and stocks. Were subsequently approved plans for operation Torch, the allied landings in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
Rommel, meanwhile, never sat down in the pressure on the British, shaken by the fall of Tobruk. In the spirit of his principles "when the enemy is retreating, you have to continue to attack" 23. June crossed the egyptian border and within a week wanted to be in Cairo. Ignored, however, the state of his Panzer army Africa - she was exhausted by the fight, was available to only 70 tanks, suffered from a lack of supplies and equipment. Offensive stopped by the british defense line at the El Alamein perpetuated by 8. army. During July the Germans several times unsuccessfully tried to force a breakthrough. 31. August Rommel tried to outflank 8. the army at Alam Halfy, which the British 4. September repulsed. During September and October, there was at the front relative calm,both sides prepared for a decisive encounter.
23. September, Rommel flew to Germany on a planned recovery. A year and a half in the difficult conditions of north Africa signed on his state of health. Command of the Panzer army Africa took over the general Georg Stumme. Rommel promised him that if the break out of the fight, interrupted the treatment and immediately to Africa return.
1. October was reporting Rommel to Hitler on the situation in north Africa. Stopping the offensive at El Alamein to justify the lack of supplies, the british air dominance and cowardice of the Italians. Hitler promised him the flow of reinforcements and supplies. Rommel his promises believed and got infected by his optimism.
24. October received the Rommel report that the previous day they launched the British a massive offensive. General Stumme succumbed to a heart attack after his car attacked the british fighter. After the accelerated return to Africa with Rommel horrified: Italian units in foreclosure, the German units with a minimum of tanks, convoys of supplies destroyed at sea. German soldiers in front of Alameinem, however, still held. Well-built minefields operated attacking the British heavy losses. The new commander of the 8. army Montgomery however, the Germans haven't given a breather. Regrouped their forces and 2. November launched a new attack. Rommel looked at his plans: a wide flanked the Axis forces to destroy. The only solution to averting the disaster, it was a retreat. About his decision to inform the fuhrer's headquarters and ordered a gradual withdrawal of troops from the front. Hitler reacted as usual in such situations – the retreat has banned and ordered the "victory or death". Rommel had to solve a difficult dilemma. Hitler after him, demanded that launched the destruction of his army and keep an eye on her. Responsible for the lives of the soldiers, who to him were entrusted, but Hitler was bound by an oath of obedience. With a heavy heart retreat stopped and ordered to hold position. During the 24 hours since the release of "maintenance order" to Montgomery made the decisive breakthrough. Rommel 4. November again ordered to initiate the retreat. Later he admitted that his biggest mistake was that the order“victory or death“ was about 24 hours earlier. Immediately vyslak to Hitler his emissary. It managed to Hitler to impress so that "depending on how the situation developed" retroactively approved his decision to retreat. However, they continue to consider Rommelův retreat for the severe mistake.
Retreat from the Alamejnu up to Tunisia is one of the largest back rommel's military feats. The field marshal, however, knew that the allied landing in French north Africa and material superiority of the Americans means the end of the Německo-the Italian panzer army. Even he was beginning to doubt even about the "final victory". The only solution he saw in the evacuation of all units of the Axis from Africa. 12. November accepted Hitler again his envoy with a proposal to "adopt a defensive position in the mountains Cyrenaiky and at night to transport by sea, as many troops to Europe". Hitler proposal harshly refused. At the end of November, Rommel unannounced flew to the Führer's main state to Hitler personally acquainted with the situation and defended his proposal for the evacuation. When Hitler launched his usual tirade, Rommel him angrily, and recommended to myself arrived to Africa and he showed how you can rifles to win over tanks. It the field-marshal somewhat out of line. The raging Hitler, immediately expelled from the situational briefings. Under rommel's command was the German-Italian panzer army, later renamed the the Group of the armies of Africa, the Allies gradually forced out of the Italian colony in Tunis. On the tunisian territory took place a few smaller successful ofenziv against the inexperienced Americans,but eventually was forced into the defensive perimeter, which area every week dwindled. Final defeat was a matter of just a few months.
4. march 1943, Rommel was summoned to the Führer's headquarters. The field marshal gave a situational report and urged Hitler to allow to shorten the front. Hitler instead nařídi attack 6. march against 8. army. The result was that the army Group Africa subsided for large losses to Marethu. 9. march Hitler sent Rommel on medical leave, and two days later he granted the brilianty to the Knight's cross.
13. may, 1943, the remaining Axis forces in north Africa capitulating and embarked on a journey to captivity.

Italy and France[/heading:aaaaaa]
After returning from north Africa he spent Rommel 7 weeks in the hospital in Zemmeringu and then was called as consultant to Hitler's headquarters. At that time there were concerns about from the collapse of the fascist regime in Italy. In the wake of the shutdown of Mussolini from power counting Hitler with the disembarkation of the Allies in Italy or in Greece. For this case, ordered the preparation of an armed cast of Italy. For your experience with the Italian allies was to this task Rommel directly destined. 17. may Hitler ordered to assemble "Rommelův work crew“ that started in the Wiener neustadt to plan the ambush of Italy under the code name "Alarich" (according to gótského the king, who in 410 sacked Rome).
10. July, the Allies landed in Sicily. 25. July the Fascist grand council declared itself to Mussolini's distrust and the king of it in accordance with the constitution, got rid of the power. "Duce" was arrested and ended up in custody. His successor, marshal Badoglio although declared that Italy will continue the war with Germany, but secretly started with the Allies to negotiate terms for the conclusion of a separate peace. Hitler ordered to put into a state of high alert four divisions in northern Italy, from the eastern front and was assigned division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler and the other three divisions were prepared in France. Subordinate to it were army Group B under rommel's command. According to the instructions OKW had army Group B to advance into Italy from the north, while the unit Kesselringova the Main headquarters of the South will be to the south of the country to delay the advance of the enemy and perform a fighting retreat. When Kesselringovy troops to retreat to northern Italy, Rommel assumes command of all their troops. 29. July, after obtaining a wiretap of a conversation between Churchill and Roosevelt about the armistice with Italy, broke out operation "Alarich" for real. Army group B had proceeded so efficiently that were shortly to be under the control of the whole of the north of Italy. Rommel was afraid of landing on one of the many convenient stretches of the Italian coast and he suggested that the German units defending south of Rome, promptly dismantled the south of the country and to concentrate on the defense of its northern part. Hitler disagreed, and 6. November 1943 appointed supreme commander in Italy Kesselringa.
Army group B led by Rommel was transferred to France and had to prepare to repel the expected allied invasion. Rommel was in addition entrusted with the inspection of the fortifications Atlantic wall. Formally it was subordinate to field marshal von to rundstedt, chief headquarters West. Between the two men, there was a sharp conflict in the views on the settlement of the situation in the allied invasion. Rommel after the experience with the disembarkation of the Allies in north Africa and in Italy suggest crushing the invaders in the time of the landing and prevent them from attaching on the coast. Von Rundstedt by contrast, was of the opinion that it is necessary opponent to let in to shore and then to destroy the classical ground operations.
When the Allies 6. June 1944 actually landed, Rommel was on leave in Germany. Returned immediately to Normandy, and tried to dispose of a single bridgehead. The overwhelming superiority of the allied air force, however, thwarted by the movements of German units to the places of disembarkation. At the meeting 17. June Hitler von Rundstedta and Rommel trvrdě criticized for their past management of operations, refused their request on the retreat from Normandy, and repeating the usual phrases about fighting to the last man. Both field marshals met again with Hitler 29. June, when the situation was in Normadii critical. Hitler again refused to the requirements of the retreat. 2. July appealed the von Rundstedta and replaced him von Klugem. Hitler before his departure to Normandy convince von Kluge, that the critical situation has caused the von Rundstedtovo and Rommelovo incompetent command. At the first meeting of the new supreme commander of the German forces in the west with Rommel occurred between the two field marshals to the sharp exchange of views. Shortly after he left von Kluge on a short inspection tour around the normandy battlefield, and when he came back, he had to revise his opinion on the situation and all charges, podsunutá him Hitler, took back.
17. July Rommelův car became the target of attack by allied fighter-bombers and the field marshal was severely wounded.

Conspirator[/heading:aaaaaa]
Rommel, as well as many other professional officers, watching the rampant nazism with skepticism. Hitler, however, after he took power, he saw the guarantee of order in the country and appreciated his efforts to strengthen the army. The attack on Poland and the war against France consider righting the wrongs committed on Germany the Versailles peace treaty. Never served on the eastern front, and so wasn't confronted with the worst nazi crimes.
The first hint that hitler's Germany not at war in a civilized manner, found during the african campaign. When they fell into captivity cizinečtí legionnaires of German and austrian origin, and the members of the units of the "Free French", came from the main tent, a secret order for the immediate execution of such prisoners. Rommel got angry and left the order to burn, because it contradicted the Geneva conventions.
For the first time reached Rommel to believe that Hitler is not in contact with reality, during the battle at El Alamein. Order "win or die" decided to ignore, refusing to needlessly sacrifice their soldiers and against the führer's will retreated. After the war against Germany involved the Americans, began to doubt even about the "final victory".
Definitely lost the confidence to Hitler during the battle in Normandy. The truce with the western allies considered it the only way to save Germany from complete annihilation. With Hitler or without him.
On the preparation of the assassination attempt on Hitler was informed, but refused to get into the plot directly involved.
After the failure of the assassination attempt of 20. July 1944, the nazis launched an extensive investigation. General von Stülpnagel, one of the organizers of the conspiracy, put a bullet in the head, but he didn't die. In the hospital, then he spoke in a fever from a dream and several times uttered Rommelovo name. Subsequently, one of the arrested conspirators confirmed in writing, that the marshal Rommel was in a conspiracy dedicated.
Rommel, meanwhile, was recovering from his injuries at his home in Herrlingenu. In September he visited his friend and former chief of staff, general Speidel. Rommel asked him to speak with generálplukovníkem Guderianem, which was after the cleansing appointed as the new chief of the general staff. Guderian had – regardless of Hitler's will – to close the west a truce. Rommel came to believe that Hitler should not be killed, but brought before the court.
Hitler was a but faster. Ordered immediately to investigate rommel's participation in the conspiracy and called "the honorary court of the wehrmacht", whose members were just the generals. Presided over by field marshal von Rundstedt.
7. October, Rommel was summoned to the main tent. Because he had considered that out of there alive comes back, the path of health reasons canceled.
14. October 1944 Rommel at his home visited Hitler's emissaries, generals Maisel and Burgdorf. Explained to him that the honorable court exclude from the Wehrmacht. The leader gives him a choice of two options: the people's court or commit suicide. The poison was brought in generals with him, and promised that if it chooses the second option, his family would be taken care of. To think they gave him a quarter of an hour. Rommel then told his wife what he was told the generals. "For a quarter of an hour I'll be dead....the poison apparently acts three seconds“, he whispered to her. Then say goodbye with the family and mounted with the generals to their car. After a while had to stop. His guide stood up and left the field marshal himself. About three seconds later, Rommel was dead.
A fake medical report labeled the cause of rommel's death of a heart attack as a result of the extensive injuries. The field marshal was dispatched to a state funeral. Hitler sent his widow a telegram of condolence and the main speaker at the memorial of the act at the town hall in Ulm was field marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, who had previously presided over the honor court and agreed to rommel's expulsion from the Wehrmacht.

Sources:


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Rommel
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rommel
Günter Fraschka: With swords and diamonds
Maurice Philip Remy: The Myth Of Rommel
James Lucas: Hitler mercenaries
Desmond Young: Rommel
Ken Ford: El Alamein 1942.
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Fotografie s maršálskou holí



Zdroj: https://snyderstreasures.com/gallery/hl
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Ťažko spoznateľný Erwin Rommel in prilbe during slávnostnej prehliadky, Paris, jún 1940. It is vidieť vyznamenanie Pour le Merite, pripnuté under krkom.

source: www.bundesarchiv.de.
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Funeral Erwin Rommel, kondolenčnú speech prednáša Generalfeldmarschall von Rundstedt. Ulm, Germany, 18.10.1944.

www.bundesarchiv.de
.
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Diskuse

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Další zajímavá práce o Rommelovi. David Irving - Rommel, liška pouště. Tentokrát se nejedná pouze o poněkud jednobarevné líčení jako v podání Desmonda Younga, ale o hutnější rozbor Rommelových činů. Zajímavé je zejména autorovo pátrání po věcech spojených s maršálovým životem.


(upravil RoBoT)
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Nejlepší je ale, podle méhop názoru, nedávno vyšlá kniha od Maurice Philipa Remy - Mýtus Rommel - když pomineme desítky fotografií tak se snaží o nestranný postoj a obsahuje i nepříliš neznámé informace např. že E.R. měl nemanželskou dcerku Gertrudu (* 8.12.1913) nebo že v bitvě u Tobruku vyplýtval značné množství tanků na přímém útoku a že u vojáků štábu nebyl zase tak oblíben, nadruhou stranu byl však legendou pro normání frontové vojáky(autor se pokouší i o podrobné rozebrání onoho mýtu Rommel).
Mohu jen doporučit - ze jmenovaných knih(které jsem všechny četl) je 100% nejlepší


jo a pokud by někdo měl zájem o knihu Davida Irvinga - The Trail of the Fox tak je ke stažení přímo od autora na https://www.fpp.co.uk/books/Rommel/index.html ve formátu pdf s (i bez) fotek - Bohužel jen v anglickém jazyce
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