Current conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on Rwanda
Since the end of World War II, there have been more than 200 armed conflicts around the world, many of them in the last twenty years. The idea of the foundations of the world order in the form of international principles and rules, multilateral treaties and universal international organizations ( UNs ) for world peace and security, protection of human rights, disarmament and economic and cultural cooperation has received increasing support from the general public.
Although Africa has considerable mineral wealth, it is the poorest continent in the world. The exceptions are South Africa and Botswana with their own exchange rates and Nigeria with one of the fastest growing economies in the world. However, the UN ranks 33 African countries among the least developed, where people live mainly on agriculture. What causes poverty? Many see the beginnings of this bad situation in colonialism, others in the declaration of independence and subsequent corruption, despotism, violence and instability.
Somalia, Sierra Leone, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda.
Like most disputes in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades, ethnic conflicts and the civil war in Rwanda have their roots in the social, political and economic factors of the pre-colonial era. The first inhabitants of the Great Lakes region were the ancestors of today's members of the Twa tribe, which make up about 1% of the total Rwandan population. Around the year 1000 BC, Bantu-speaking Hutus, originally from Central Africa and oriented mainly to agriculture, began to settle in the area, and 500 years later also Tutsis, who came from the north and subsisted mainly on pastoralism. These new people have almost replaced the original population. Until the genocide in 1994, the Tutsis accounted for 10% and the Hutus for 90% of Rwanda's total population.
Attachments, photo gallery
List of used literature and internet sources
As the Prussian military theorist Clausewitz said: " Every age should have its own special forms of war ... so everyone should have their own theory of war. Those who want to understand war must have a keen view of its main features ... at that time ”( Clausewitz 1950: 584 ). After the end of the Cold War, a new phenomenon began to appear in the international system - the postmodern war. It should be noted that not all authors dealing with this concept consider the end of the Cold War to be the beginning of postmodern warfare. E.g. Chris Gables Gray talks about the onset of postmodern warfare at the end of World War II. Jiří Šedivý describes the war in the Persian Gulf as the last war that would fall into the modern category.
Introduction The security of international relations was disrupted by three global conflicts during the 20th century. The First and Second World Wars were followed by a bipolar confrontation between the USSR and the USA - the so-called Cold War. Today, these global conflicts have been replaced by problems of an internal nature located in demarcated areas. Unfortunately, Rwanda is not the only case of such conflicts, others are, for example, Darfur, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo in Europe and the Caucasus region.
1. History of the conflict in Rwanda Rwanda is a small inland state in Central Africa, also known as the Land of Thousands of Hills. This densely populated country in Africa, with a total population of 10.5 million, borders Uganda in the north, Burundi in the south, Congo in the west and Tanzania in the east. The population of Rwanda is divided into three ethnic groups - Hutus, Tutsis and Twa. The Hutus have always been the majority group and before the genocide they made up 89% of the population. A minority of Tutsis accounted for 10% and members of the Twa tribe for 1%.
2. The UN as an actor in international relations The most respected and influential actor on international security is undoubtedly the United Nations, which was created by the will of the founding states, which delegated some powers to it and thus gave it international subjectivity without which it could not perform its functions; meet the set objectives.
3. The crime of genocide in international law Genocide is an extreme type of ethnic cleansing. It is a systematic extermination of the masses of the population on the basis of their affiliation to a certain group - national, religious, political, ethnic, cultural or other.
4. UN measures and their effectiveness Genocide is not an outbreak of spontaneous violence, but above all a well-planned action. The executor is not the crowd, but an organized force; most often a political party or army. In Rwanda, it was President Habyarimana's MRND party and the Akazu informal group.
List of used sources
The security of international relations was disrupted by three global conflicts during the 20th century. The First and Second World Wars were followed by a bipolar confrontation between the USSR and the USA - the so-called Cold War. Today, these global conflicts have been replaced by problems of an internal nature located in demarcated areas. Unfortunately, Rwanda is not the only case of such conflicts, others are, for example, Darfur, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo in Europe and the Caucasus region.