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Rwanda genocide [1994]


Current conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa: 1. Theoretical part

Since the end of World War II, there have been more than 200 armed conflicts around the world, many of them in the last twenty years. The idea of the foundations of the world order in the form of international principles and rules, multilateral treaties and universal international organizations ( UNs ) for world peace and security, protection of human rights, disarmament and economic and cultural cooperation has received increasing support from the general public.

Current conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa: 2. The analysis of conflicts

Although Africa has considerable mineral wealth, it is the poorest continent in the world. The exceptions are South Africa and Botswana with their own exchange rates and Nigeria with one of the fastest growing economies in the world. However, the UN ranks 33 African countries among the least developed, where people live mainly on agriculture. What causes poverty? Many see the beginnings of this bad situation in colonialism, others in the declaration of independence and subsequent corruption, despotism, violence and instability.

Current conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa: 4. Ethnic conflicts in Rwanda

Like most disputes in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades, ethnic conflicts and the civil war in Rwanda have their roots in the social, political and economic factors of the pre-colonial era. The first inhabitants of the Great Lakes region were the ancestors of today's members of the Twa tribe, which make up about 1% of the total Rwandan population. Around the year 1000 BC, Bantu-speaking Hutus, originally from Central Africa and oriented mainly to agriculture, began to settle in the area, and 500 years later also Tutsis, who came from the north and subsisted mainly on pastoralism. These new people have almost replaced the original population. Until the genocide in 1994, the Tutsis accounted for 10% and the Hutus for 90% of Rwanda's total population.

Postmodern War: Can the conflict in Rwanda be described as a postmodern war?

As the Prussian military theorist Clausewitz said: " Every age should have its own special forms of war ... so everyone should have their own theory of war. Those who want to understand war must have a keen view of its main features ... at that time ”( Clausewitz 1950: 584 ). After the end of the Cold War, a new phenomenon began to appear in the international system - the postmodern war. It should be noted that not all authors dealing with this concept consider the end of the Cold War to be the beginning of postmodern warfare. E.g. Chris Gables Gray talks about the onset of postmodern warfare at the end of World War II. Jiří Šedivý describes the war in the Persian Gulf as the last war that would fall into the modern category.





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