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Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I

     
Název:
Name:
Saunders-Roe S.36 Lerwick Mk.I
Originální název:
Original Name:
Saunders-Roe S.36 Lerwick Mk.I
Kategorie:
Category:
protiponorkový/protilodní letoun
Výrobce:
Producer:
DD.MM.1938-DD.04.1941 Saunders-Roe Ltd., East Cowes
Období výroby:
Production Period:
DD.04.1939-DD.04.1941 série
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
21
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
DD.11.1938
Osádka:
Crew:
6
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
 
Vzlet a přistání:
Take-off and Landing:
CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání
Uspořádání křídla:
Arrangement of Wing:
jednoplošník
Uspořádání letounu:
Aircraft Concept:
klasické
Podvozek:
Undercarriage:
pevný
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
člunový trup
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
 
Hmotnost prázdného letounu:
Empty Weight:
? kg
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
12927 kg
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
15059 kg
Rozpětí:
Wingspan:
24.64 m
Délka:
Length:
19.39 m
Výška:
Height:
6.1 m
Plocha křídla:
Wing Area:
78.5 m2
Plošné zatížení:
Wing Loading:
163.56 kg/m2
Pohon:
Propulsion:
 
Kategorie:
Category:
pístový
Počet motorů:
Number of Engines:
2
Typ:
Type:
Bristol Hercules II o výkonu 1 010 kW nebo
Bristol Hercules IV o výkonu 1 010 kW
třílistá vrtule s konstantní rychlostí otáček de havilland
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
3546 l, při přetížení 6546 l
Výkony:
Performance:
 
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
344.4 km/h v ? m
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
267.2 km/h v ? m
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
4.5 m/s
Čas výstupu na výšku:
Time to Climb to:
? min do ? m
Operační dostup:
Service Ceiling:
4267 m
Dolet:
Range:
2478.4 km
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
? km
Výzbroj:
Armament:
1x 7,7mm kulomet Vickers K v příďové věži F.N.7
2x 7,7mm kulomet Browning v zatahovatelné hřbetní věži F.N.8
4x 7,7mm kulomet Browning v ocasní věži F.N.4A

4x 227kg bomba nebo
8x 113kg bomba
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
London, Peter. Saunders and Saro Aircraft Since 1917. Putnam, London 1988. ISBN 0-85177-814-3.
Thetford, Owen. Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918, Putnam Aeronautical Books, London 1976. ISBN 0-37010-056-5.
www.britishaircraft.co.uk
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Saunders-Roe-Lerwick-Mk-I-t1146#400241Version : 0
MOD
Saunders Roe With 36 Lerwick

Emergence
After the good experience with flying boats, Supermarine Stranraer started the RAF think about their refund. Already in the beginning of the war was to know, that the endurance of the flight, in the mid-30. years enough, already does not suit you. And even the staunchest conservatives in charge it became increasingly apparent that the concept of the biplane has its zenit also long behind him. The modern substitute for dvojplošné patrol flying boats was to become the planned Saro Lerwick, touted by the british royal air force by Saunders Roe Ltd. (Sara) (RAF) in response to input of Air Ministry Specification R.1/36 (General Purpose Flying - Boat). Expected to, inter alia, a cruising speed of at least 370 km/h and the starting weight, not exceeding 11 340 kg. Boats of this type should consist of a complement of heavy four-engine machines of the far reach of a Short Sunderland and Singapore and replace in the service of outdated biplanes by the Short Singapore and Sara London. Together with american Consolidated Canso Catalinami should fulfill the tasks of combat against submarines, the protection of convoys and long distance patrols over the sea and coastal waters. Their projects submitted by four aviation enterprises: Blackburn, Supermarine, Short, and Saunders - Roe (Saro). Company Blackburn offered a very unconventional boat with vyklápěcími landing floats, marked B.20, Supermarine introduced the project, Type 314, Short project, having no factory markings, and the Sara project, marked in the factory With.36 (or And.36).

The Air Ministry was considered the best project Type 314 of the company Supermarine, on second place is ranked the projects of the companies Short and Sara. The Blackburn B. 20 was - due to unusual construction - discussed separately as machine experimental.

Race the Supermarine was at that time fully utilized the works, with definitely a higher priority - the development and production of fighter the Spitfire. After the communication, that the work on the Type 314 will not be able to be launched sooner than in two years, had the Air Ministry to look elsewhere. Because at the same time engineers of the company Sara improve your initial project, it was definitively collected into serial production just a plane With. 36 although his later career in the RAF was very short and not very successful.

Development
Lerwick was the design engineers of the company Sara, led by Henry Knowlerem, designed very modern as strictly an all-metal machine. Hornokřídlý self-supporting cantilever monoplane with a fixed depth of the middle part of the wings and tapering to the external parts of the wings all-metal construction. Hornokřídlá concept was chosen, therefore, to the end of the blades were taking off and landing as high above the water surface. It was powered by two engines Bristol Hercules II type (HE1SM) on the performance of 1394 KM. Proven twin-configuration should provide plenty of power and a certain confidence when the failure of one of them. The aircraft had a conventional compact hydroplánový torso with one degree of on the lower part, when moving on the water surface using a pair of stabilizing floats, one under each wing. A disadvantage of the used hornoplošné the concept was that the long strut floats to increase the aerodynamic resistance of the machine. Similar to the problem solved in similar hornoplošně conceived Blackburn B -20 designers by floats after take-off sklápěly towards the end of the wings, so that accounted for his end arch. On the same principle, this problem was tackled by the american Catalin.

The crew consisted of six people - in a confined pilot area working pilot, copilot and on-board techniques. 3 shooters then in separate turrets. For self defense bore for its time, a formidable armaments, it was equipped with three powered missile towers, whose firepower was graded according to the level of risk that should turn away. In the bow gun turret was a single Vickers machine gun To the caliber 0.303 in (7.7 mm), two machine-guns Browning of the same calibre in the dorsal turret and four machine guns Browning of the same caliber in the tail gun turret. The plane could carry in pumovnicích formed in the rear parts of the engine nacelles, four bombs weighing around 227 kg or eight bombs around 113 kg.

Aircraft project With.36 was prepared in 1938 and the RAF ordered directly from the drawing boards 21 serial machine, which has assigned the name Lerwick and registration numbers from the L7248 to L7268. The first of them (no L7248), fulfils the role of the prototype, the test years graduated in early November 1938. Along with two of the following machine (no L7249 and L7250) handed over to the RAF for testing. During flight tests it was found that it is aerodynamically unstable and therefore not very suitable for flying in the autopilot mode. It was for aircraft designed for long-lasting long-distance air patrols in this mode, a serious problem. Lerwick initially had the double vertical stabilizers and the rudder. Another test, carried out in Cowes in a time of 9. January 11. February 1939, the only confirmed large directional instability of the machine. Numerous adjustments (e.g. adding another auxiliary vertical surfaces of the first made by a machine no L7248) culminated in the creation of new greatly enlarged simple vertical tail surfaces (the fifth machine, no L7252) and by increasing the angle the wings of the two grades (seventh machine, no L7254). The original propeller diameter 4,11 m have been replaced by larger diameter 4,42 meter. But even these additional adjustments failed to improve his improper flight characteristics, even its not very "friendly" behavior on the water surface. The problem remained even takeoff weight, exceeding specifications of the Air Ministry. The only good feature of Lerwick was only a high maximum speed measured during the tests - 378 km/h - the highest of all the English flying boats this time. Speed fully equipped with serial machinery, however, was about 30 km/h less. As a side also proved the inability to continue in level flight on one engine only. That worked out to the last 8 of the serial machines with more powerful engines.

Operational deployment
The long search for the remedy "congenital" defects of Lerwick moved to its introduction into service until the summer of 1939, when he was flying boat Lerwic" Mk I declared capable of operating the service. 9. June 1939 got Sq. 240. RAF the first of the three machines (no L7250 or - here the sources differ - no L7253) for the purpose of conducting the tests in conditions as much similar to normal service by combat units. 've dismissed in February-march 1940. 20. February was destroyed by machine no L7253. And because of the not very good flight characteristics Lerwick failed to completely remove, leaving only when the original order 21 piece.

The crews was not Lerwick too popular. As a result, was very little used, practically it is only used three units: the only unit of combat, using aircraft Lerwick Mk I, was in the years 1939-1941 209. Sq. RAF Oban. In late July, W/C Skey, Barnett, Bentley, Sutler and Marshall returned from Invergordon with three Lerwicky, later the pilot, Don Simco transport the other two, and Lt. The Honey one.

However, the fighting career of the Saro Lerwick was unusually short. The first operational patrol graduated from the machine no L7255 on Christmas day in 1939. In December so he flew a total of 8 of the 31 days. In march 1941 were lost due to accidents and disasters up to six aircraft (including 6. December 1940 machine no L7255, or 24. march 1941 machine no L7252) and from 23. of march 1941, aircraft of this type with a sharp pace replaced american flying boats Consolidated Canso Catalina. The last operational flight Lerwick at 209. the squadron performed the 29. April 1941 machine no L7267. Complete overkill 209. Sq. the Catalina was completed in may 1941 - exactly at a time when the RAF received the last ordered Lerwick (no L7268). Their Lerwicky then were moved either to the OCU no. 4 or to Scottish Aviation in Greenock, Scotland. The last eight specimens (no L7261 to L7268) was equipped with a silnějšými engines Bristol Hercules IV.

In 1941, a few Lerwicků flew at the Operational Conversion Unit no 4 (Coastal) in Invergordonu. One (no L7254) in the Marine Training School (MTS) at Wig Bay as a practice ground habitat (evid. no changed to 3300M). In Canada, the type also served in two units: 423. Sq. The RCAF and 422. Sq. The RCAF, a unit falling under the command of the RAF. Day 9. July 1942 brought the W/C Larry Skey to 422. Sq. the first Saro Lerwick. At the same time, but the unit has already vyzbrojována type Short Sunderland. Some sources indicate that in Canada serve only for training purposes. The irony is that Lerwick had originally just Prototypes to replace the firm Short Brother free his hands for the production of heavy bombers Strirling. In the end it turned out exactly the opposite. Stirlingy proved not quite satisfactory, while the Prototypes of their position represent the best.

In April 1942 he was With.36 Lerwick definitively declared the Air Ministry for the outdated and completely withdrawn from service. All the built aircraft was decommissioned in 1943.

TTD:
(here are sources of small differences, the data is transferred to the metric system)
Saunders Roe And.36 Lerwick
• Crew: 6 - is placed and an indication 6/7 persons
• Length: 63 ft 7 in (of 19.39 m)
• Wingspan : 80 ft 10 in (to 24.65 m)
• Height: 20 ft (6.1 m)
• Wingarea: 845 ft2 (78,5 m2)

Weight:
• Takeoff: 28,400 lb (12 880 kg)
• When overload: 33,205 lb (15 059 kg)

Powerplant:
• 2×14 cylindrical dvojhvězdicový air-cooled engine Bristol Hercules II performance 1 375 hp (1 030 kW) each
• powered třílistové metal adjustable propeller De Havilland on average from 4.42 m (originally of a diameter 4,11 m)

Performances:
• Max. speed : 214 mph (at a height of 6,250 feet (344 km/h, h= 1,900 m)
• Travel speed : 165 mph (267 km/h
• Practical avail : 13 993 ft ( 4 265 m) - are also reported the values of 15,000 ft (4,572 m)
• Max. endurance flight (at cruising speed) : 11 hours
• specific pressure on the wing : 39.36 lb/ ft2 (192 kg/c m2)
• Rate of climb : 880 ft/min (4.50 m/s)
• Range: 1,500 mis (2,414 km)

Armament:
• 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers K (bow)
• 6 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Browning (dorsal [2x] & tail [4x])
• 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs or depth charges

Sources:
L+To no. 12 / 1975
www.luftfahrtmuseum.com
www.en.wikipedia.org
https://207.150.180.135/Saro_Lerwick
https://www.indopedia.org/Saro_Lerwick.html
avia.russian.ee
https://www.seawings.co.uk/lerwickarticle.htm
www.britishaircraft.co.uk
www.jaapteeuwen.com
www.rcaf.com
https://www.cofe.ru/avia/S/S-33.htm
https://www.samoloty.ow.pl/str156.htm
photos.shetland-museum.org.uk
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/48000/BA48402.JPG
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49542.JPG
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/48000/BA48488.JPG
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49366.JPG
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/47000/BA47192.JPG.
Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/47000/BA47192.JPG

pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/47000/BA47192.JPG

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49366.JPG

pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49366.JPG

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49542.JPG

pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49542.JPG

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49542.JPG

pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/49000/BA49542.JPG

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://www.britishaircraft.co.uk/aircraftpage.php?ID=244

pramen
www.britishaircraft.co.uk

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://www.rcaf.com/aircraft/patrol/lerwick/index.php?name=Lerwick

pramen
www.rcaf.com

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
www.en.wikipedia.org

pramen
www.en.wikipedia.org

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://avia.russian.ee/air/england/saunders_lerwick.php

pramen
avia.russian.ee

Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://207.150.180.135/Saro_Lerwick

pramen
https://207.150.180.135/Saro_Lerwick

URL : https://www.valka.cz/Saunders-Roe-Lerwick-Mk-I-t1146#210371Version : 0
This not too successful flying boat - Saro Lerwick,which was produced only 21 units ,served in the british air force only 209. squadron RAF - the Headquarters of the coastal air force and one aircraft was equipped with 240. squadron, RAF..
Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - Saro Lerwick z výzbroje 209. perutě RAF.

Saro Lerwick z výzbroje 209. perutě RAF.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Saunders-Roe-Lerwick-Mk-I-t1146#166499Version : 0
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Saunders-Roe Lerwick Mk.I - pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/48000/BA48402.JPG

pramen
https://www.blueangel.org.uk/BA/I/48000/BA48402.JPG

URL : https://www.valka.cz/Saunders-Roe-Lerwick-Mk-I-t1146#210376Version : 0