The Hussite Wars [1419-1436]
The fraternal movement is a kind of ending of Hussite times in Slovakia. It took hold in Hungary at the time of the disintegration of central power and existed as a state within a state.
The black dust described by Roger Bacon in 1242 was used until the middle of the 19th century, except for a change in the mutual ratio of the individual admixtures. On the other hand, firearms have become unrecognizable during these six centuries. From the roughly worked works of the Middle Ages, weapons evolved with their elegant decoration reminiscent of works of art. But despite all the differences, their concept remained essentially the same. In order to better understand the development of Europe shaped to a large extent by war conflicts, it is necessary to examine in more detail the beginnings of European firearms ...
We've heard a lot about the Hussite wars ( or the Hussite revolution, if you will ). Less about what preceded them and why they actually started. No wonder. These were religious wars, and we went to school at a time when the religion was "scientific" materialism. The following article is a small attempt to at least partially close this information gap ...
After the king's death, events took an unprecedented turn. As Vavřinec of Březová writes, the very next day, ie August 17, 1419, “some of the common people, or the common people, gathered and, with the consent of the Old Town Mayor Jan Bradatý, ran without fear of churches and monasteries in the city of Prague and broke and destroyed organs and paintings of churches, especially those in which communion was not allowed in any way ... "
Václav Koranda Sr. first appears in the sources in 1414 as a parish priest from Pilsen and an enthusiastic spreader of the ideas of Master Jan Hus. As early as 1417, however, the leading master of the University of Prague, Křišťan of Prachatice, rebuked him in writing that while the followers of the chalice had previously praised and admired him for his eloquence and perseverance in defending the Truth, they now paused to throw images of saints from the church. and omits at worship everything that is not directly documented in the Bible. In short, Václav Koranda put all his eloquence into the service of chiliasm and declared Pilsen the chosen City of the Sun.
Václav Koranda and his faithful in Pilsen were waiting for the arrival of Jesus Christ more and more impatiently. The supply was dwindling, the royal army made it impossible to replenish them, and the priests were right to fear that even the most fiery sermons on the salvation of souls would soon be drowned out by the rumbling stomachs of the listeners.
In addition to the nobility, at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, the "secular lords" also included royal cities, which were not only privileged centers of crafts and trade, but in many cases also owners of agricultural land in their vicinity, and thus lordly lords.
The operation of the three papal courts was, of course, quite expensive. The usual fees and taxes could not be increased or listed indefinitely, and so all the incumbent Holy Fathers began to sell so-called indulgences on a large scale. According to Catholic doctrine, forgiveness is the remission of punishments for sins imposed by the church or God and which are either served on earth or must be served in purgatory. Of course, only those sins that have already been forgiven at confession can be forgiven in this way. For example, instead of fasting on bread and water, a penitent can be cleansed by prayer and almsgiving.
Not only in England, but also in Bohemia, preachers sought a way to redress the church and society. The German Konrád Waldhauser, who was invited to Prague by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV., Rebuked not only church dignitaries, but also nobles and burghers for its extravagant life. He condemned women's fashion and most of the more pleasant (and therefore sinful) aspects of life. He is said to have been a great success among German-speaking listeners.
The visit of Hus's sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel became an essential part of most social life for most Praguers. No wonder. The pulpit meant the same for medieval man as the newspaper, radio, television, and the Internet meant for man today. The impressive media productions of the chubby, but allegedly strongly charismatic preacher were visited not only by rich and poor burghers, but also by nobles and prominent members of the royal court. Occasionally, the king's wife, Sophia, came to listen to the popular preacher.
The spreading reputation of Bohemia as a paradise for heretics eventually led to the intervention of the monarch himself. Wenceslas IV, allegedly at the urging of his wife Zofia, a regular visitor to the Bethlehem Chapel, called on the archbishop to revoke the curse and to compensate the owners of the burned books. In addition, Hus defended himself with several letters of intercession addressed to the Pope.
In the summer of 1414, King Sigismund of Luxembourg, Roman and Hungarian, agreed with Pope John XXIII. to convene another ecclesiastical council in Constance, where the sad affair with the Triad was to be finally resolved. Apparently they agreed on other things as well, because Sigismund invited Jan Hus to this council and offered him the opportunity to defend his views before the highest ecclesiastical body.
Hus's death provoked in Bohemia exactly the reaction that Cardinal Zabarella and other more prudent participants in the Council of Constance expected. Resistance and outrage. Hatred. While in May 250 Czech nobles protested in Constance, in September 1415 almost twice as many - 452 - affixed their seals to another protest letter.
Encouraged by the example of the highest places, Czech lords and knights began to occupy church property. Some to help the church in its return to evangelical poverty, others to help protect it from this help. The consequence was objectively the same in both cases - the church was poor ...
A brief overview of the Hussite military and the course of the Hussite wars.
Few of our historical figures provoke such contradictory reactions in most people as the Hussite governor Jan Žižka from Trocnov. They tend to be either unconditionally admiring or, on the contrary, unconditionally condemning. According to some, he was a capable military leader and an avid patriot, according to others, he was a capable military leader, but at the same time a ruthless murderer and robber.
Josef Pekař was born as a peasant son in 1870 in Malý Rohozec near Turnov. He was one of the most important historians at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and we rank him among Goll's disciples. In his historical works, he always tried to capture time and depict the environment of that time. He took various factors into account. The economic situation, science, customs at the time, morals, speech and religion. His most important work was the four-volume work "Žižka and His Time", published in 1927-1933. The Hussite period is one of Pekař's most watched. Why?
Hussite expeditions abroad are very popular in our country due to their glorification. However, not every expedition had to end in a Hussite victory. This is doubly true of orphan expeditions to Slovakia.
"Then let's decide with our fists!" It is said that an unknown warrior on a plain below the Leipzig Mountain ended in vain arguing on May 30, 1434. The Battle of Lipany is one of the most famous losses in Czech history, with the most interesting question being why. It is not at all clear why the loss of one of the two Czech parties should mean such a tragedy that we remember it even after almost six centuries. But this general opinion is a fact that makes no sense to question. So let's try something else. Let's describe the situation, the battle and possible alternative scenarios. Based on them, we will think about a key question. Was it really such a groundbreaking battle, as some tell us?
Landfried, or peace, meant a ban on disarmament and the protection of order and the rule of law. It was proclaimed by a monarch or association of feudal lords and cities (collectively also called a landfryd) in times of disturbance of internal order. The Plzeň Landrfrýd was then an association of West Bohemian Catholic towns and nobles who opposed the Hussites.
How Roháč's resistance was not as heroic as it seems
The Crusaders were mostly mercenaries who, even after payment, were not more interested in winning the battle. They were mainly interested in the salary. And if they run away from the fight, someone will want to hire them for another campaign. Therefore, some heroic throwing into a lost battle had no meaning for them.