War of roses [1455-1485]
The War of the Roses is one of the most interesting and at the same time the most complicated conflicts in medieval Europe. The thirty-year struggle for the English throne between the Lancaster and York factions was characterized by bloody clashes, intrigues, and the intricacies of relations between important English aristocratic families. At first glance, the whole conflict is a great chaos, in which some Edwardians and Richards constantly appear. In a series of articles on this war, we will try to introduce the various phases of the conflict and explain the nature and course of the entire conflict.
In this part of the series on the War of the Roses, we will recall the serious events that took place in the final phase of the Centennial War and influenced the emergence of the dynastic conflict in England. At the same time, we will gradually imagine the first important personalities who intervened in the conflict. the main motive, however, is the presentation of the first period of the reign of the weak King Henry VI, who played a large part in the outbreak of the War of the Roses.
Failures in the war and the incompetent government of Henry VI. and his advisers constantly deteriorated the state of society in England. It has not been a month before further evidence of incompetence and corruption appears at the royal court. Someone had to take an endless chain of failures. In this section, we will notice the root causes of the unhappy state of the Kingdom of England, just before the Rose War.
After the fall of one of the privileged men of the royal court, the situation worsened even more. Under King Henrich's incompetent leadership, the country rushed toward anarchy. The desperate state of the kingdom constantly provoked York to action, knowing that the King's favorite incompetent Duke of Somerset was to blame. The conflict between York and Somerset culminated.
The long-running conflict between King Edward IV. and his cousin the Prince of Warwick had been in crisis for a long time. Edward IV he did not allow himself to be controlled by his older cousin, which undermined Warwick's ambitions. Mutual disputes soon escalated into open rebellion. Prince Warwick planned to overthrow King Edward IV.
The War of the Roses definitely began after the defeat at Castillon. The final defeat of the English in France only hastened the internal boiling in the country. England plunged into anarchy, where everyone did what they wanted. This created an ideal space for strong men who competed in the power struggle.
After a short but intense clash at St. Albans, the royal army disintegrated. The winner, the Duke of York, also fell under King Henry VI. The fate of the English throne was in his hands.
In 1460, the Duke of York lost patience and seized power. For years he tried to be a faithful servant of the throne, and his reward was only insults and debts. But even his followers were surprised by York's demands. His friends assumed that the aim of the uprising was to gain control of King Henry VI. and not deprive him of the throne. However, York uncompromisingly established his claim to the royal throne.
The Battle of Towton marked one of the major turning points in the conflict known as the War of the Roses. On the battlefield, Edward triumphed the prince of March and opened the way to the throne. The article describes the first years of his reign and deals with the problematic relationship between the king and his first nobleman, who went from a sincere friendship to an irreconcilable hatred.
To King Edward IV. managed to obtain in Burgundy the financial support he needed for his return to England. He diligently gathered his strength and managed to land successfully in England, where he soon formed a new army. He was ready and determined to defeat all the rebels and, in particular, to definitively deal with the Duke of Warwick.
After the defeat of the internal enemies, Edward IV. focused on foreign policy. He carried out a military campaign in France, which ended in a peace settlement between England and France. By the time he thrived on the thorn, the Duke of Clarence began to be angry again.
King Edward's last years were marked by peaceful rule, but also by health problems. It was clear that if the king died, Richard, of the Duke of Gloucester, would rule England in his son's age. However, there was a group in the court that thought differently.
After the death of King Edward IV. a ruthless power struggle broke out. Richard, Duke of Gloucester, played a major role in this fight. After the end of the conflicts of power, he ascended the throne as King Richard III. His accession to the throne, however, was accompanied by a number of crimes that completely ruined his reputation.
King Richard's reign was neither long nor peaceful. From the beginning, the monarch pitted many people against himself, and the unfortunate circumstances associated with his accession to the throne weakened his position. This rescued him at a time when he had to face Henrich Tudor's attempt to gain the throne.