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Peter Frišo

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  • September 28 - Feast of St. Wenceslas

    Legends are biographies of saints, but these biographies are very strange. Their hero is born only at the moment of his death, when, as a martyr, he lays down his life for faith, or at least he fills with life the life to which he has given the testimony of holiness. Therefore, the anniversary of the saint's death is celebrated in the church as the anniversary of his birth. The legend unfolds the life of the saint in its natural order, from birth, but in turn, from his death. It shows how the fulfillment of the ideal of holiness in this surrender of the soul to God was prepared from birth.

    24.130
  • The order of Dragon

    We often find very contradictory figures in history. In any case, Sigismund of Luxembourg, who ruled Hungary for 50 years, is one of them. Especially due to the influence of old Czech historiography, he was perceived as a "red fox", which was to indicate not only his cunning, but also his inferiority. It is certain that Machiavelli would certainly be happy with this monarch. However, contemporary historiography has largely revised the attitude towards Sigismund.

    37.169
  • The order of Dragon

    We often find very contradictory figures in history. In any case, Sigismund of Luxembourg, who ruled Hungary for 50 years, is one of them. Especially due to the influence of old Czech historiography, he was perceived as a "red fox", which was to indicate not only his cunning, but also his inferiority. It is certain that Machiavelli would certainly be happy with this monarch. However, contemporary historiography has largely revised the attitude towards Sigismund.

    19.276
  • The order of Dragon

    On December 12, 1408, Sigismund of Luxembourg founded the secular knightly company of the Dragon, later called the Dragon Order. It didn't take even 2 months for Ernest Železný to join the order with all the knights of the Order of Salamander, which further increased the prestige of the Dragon Order. The insignia of the Dragon Order was a coiled dragon with its back torn into a cross shape and the slogan: “ ABOUT QUAM MISERICORS DEUS? IUSTUS AND PATIENS '.

    19.709
  • The order of Dragon

    Heraldic questions of the Dragon Order

    15.585
  • The order of Dragon

    Catholic symbolism

    19.003
  • The order of Dragon

    Dragon as a non-Catholic symbol

    15.165
  • The order of Dragon

    Today, you will not find a psychologist who deals with a certain person or personality and at the same time would not deal with his family environment, the environment in which he grew up, or his parents. Since this work attaches great importance to the psychological point of view - it seeks to find the causes and reasons that led Sigismund not only to the creation of a secular order, but also to the creation of the Dragon Order - he must also take into account Sigismund's family, but especially his father Charles IV. - a great monarch and at the same time a great mystic.

    13.730
  • The order of Dragon

    When Sigismund was born in February 14, 1368, to King Charles IV. and Elizabeth of Pomerania, King Charles IV. he already had a son, Václav, whom he clearly preferred as a firstborn to Sigismund. It did not hurt Sigismund, on the contrary, he did not become a spoiled child on the throne, but a shrewd politician.

    13.662
  • The order of Dragon

    When creating this order, we must pay more attention to the relationship between Sigismund and the Roman Catholic Church, which is more important than it might seem at first glance.

    14.453
  • The order of Dragon

    If we want to deal with the relationship between Sigismund of Luxembourg and the Church, we must realize exactly what period it was in the history of the Church and how the Church itself affected the surrounding world.

    13.304
  • The order of Dragon

    The first case when Sigismund got into a dispute with the church is in the period when Sigismund had to fight with the troops of Ladislav of Naples, the son of Charles the Little, who landed in Dalmatia in 1402.

    13.454
  • The order of Dragon

    Based on what I have presented so far about Sigismund and his attitude towards the church, or about the mythology that influenced him, it is time to close the question of Sigismund's faith.

    12.991
  • The order of Dragon

    When we showed the relationship between Sigismund and the church, the work of his father or educators, the varied symbolism of the Dragon and we proved that Sigismund was a man of believers, we must unconditionally open the question of archetypes.

    13.312
  • The order of Dragon

    Archetype as part of the subconsciousness

    14.261
  • The order of Dragon

    If we want to see another reason for the creation of the Dragon Order, we must go back a few years before its actual creation.

    13.860
  • The order of Dragon

    In his court we find a large number of knights, typically medieval, just like Sigismund liked. They were knights who lived quite a bit in the world of medieval myths and followed up on the myths about Parsifal.

    14.505
  • The order of Dragon

    We have already sketched that Sigismund excelled above all in diplomacy, and the Dragon Order is no exception, but rather an obvious proof of Sigismund's ingenuity and diplomatic skills, which no other ruler of his time could have probably described. In the history of diplomacy ( especially the medieval one ), Sigismund undoubtedly has an important place.

    13.764
  • The order of Dragon

    Just as Sigismund of Luxembourg is not a one-sided figure, and it is not easy to explain this personality in detail, so it is no easier task for order of Dragon.

    12.543
  • The order of Dragon

    List of used literature

    13.586
  • The order of Dragon

    Chronological table

    14.946
  • The order of Dragon

    Recommended literature and literature for deeper study

    12.627
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    Great warriors are naturally connected with wars. Today I would like to present a brief portrait of a man who certainly has his position in the history of the military. It is Iulius Caesar, a man who conquered Gaul, defeated the Germans, won many battles of the Civil War and ended the history of Ancient Egypt. In the history of antiquity, only such men as Alexander the Great, Scipio Africanus or Trajan can probably compete with him. So let's look at this man, who hardly knew defeat and kept a cool head in the worst situation. At the same time, however, he was a man of much greater qualities in virtue than later Napoleon, it is a mistake to compare him to Hitler, Caesar always had a dimension that made him a great figure in history and put him above many cold dictators.

    25.297
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    Gaius Iulius Caesar came from an old patrician family. He himself, with the pride of a true Roman, derived his family from the semi-legendary Roman kings to the gods. As for Caesar's mother Aurelia, she came from the plebeian, but very respected family of Aurelia.

    16.644
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    Caesar again tried to become Pompey's right hand, doing everything he could to ensure that Pompey did not establish close relations with the Senate in order to strengthen Caesar's position. Caesar supported the proposal to allow Pompey to run for consulate in his absence. However, the brave Cato prevented him, who was then almost killed.

    19.354
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    Interestingly, the only record of a participant in Caesar's campaign in Gaul is the Notes on the Gallic War , which was written by none other than Caesar himself, and then historians such as Plutarchos used it. However, because I do not want to deal for a long time with the analysis of this work, which is interesting for historians, but for laymen and admirers of history, I will just say so much that Caesar was not completely objective, but he could not be subjective and invent, because among soldiers had its people senators, Cicero and Catón.

    22.117
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    After returning from Britain, Caesar faced the most difficult of all the trials he had survived in Gaul. At the end of the year 54 BC a great Gaelic uprising began.

    18.917
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    The dice were really thrown. Interestingly, we have records of the entire Civil War only from Caesar's Notes on the Civil War and Cicero's correspondence. Immediately after crossing the Rubicon on January 10, 49 BC the first Roman fortress of Arminium fell, where Caesar sent his troops ahead. It turned out that Pompey did not have an army with which to stop Caesar.

    21.158
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    After returning from Rome from Thaps and Utika, Caesar mainly made sure to make a good impression and influence public opinion in a certain way. He also appeared before the people in the Senate, emphasizing that he had no tyrannical intentions and highlighting his efforts to increase prosperity at the expense of conquered territories.

    16.059
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar

    In the elections for 44 BC Caesar and Marcus Antonius were elected consuls. In 44 BC Caesar became dictator 4 times and consul 5 times. His position seemed indisputable. The new honors bestowed on him by the Senate corresponded not only to royal majesty but simply to religion. In an atmosphere of endless honors and resolutions, in a situation of general servility, talk of Caesar and the royal wreath became more and more widespread, with the dictator's closest persons providing reasons for similar errors with their almost provocative behavior.

    31.656
  • Incas (I.)

    When I was preparing one extensive work on great Indian cultures (it was mainly the area of Mexico - Aztecs and Mayans and the area of Peru - from the Paracian Indians to the Mochi, the realm of Chima, etc.) I discovered interesting and engaging history, which is really an attraction for everyone historian

    21.797
  • Incas (I.)

    Prologue As When I was preparing one extensive work on great Indian cultures (it was mainly the area of Mexico - Aztecs and Mayans and the area of Peru - from the Paracian Indians to the Mochi, the realm of Chima, etc.) I discovered interesting and engaging history, which is really an attraction for everyone historian

    13.964
  • Incas (I.)

    1. Realm of the Sun (Tahuantinsuyu)

    14.777
  • Incas (I.)

    2. The oldest history of the Incas and Cuzco

    13.873
  • Incas (I.)

    3. Life in the Inca Empire

    16.856
  • Incas (I.)

    4. Legendary beginnings

    14.777
  • Incas (I.)

    5. On the path of expansion

    14.834
  • Incas (I.)

    6. Inka Roca

    15.468
  • Incas (I.)

    7. A war to glory

    15.191
  • Incas (I.)

    8. Pachacuti - World Transformer

    14.421
  • Incas (I.)

    9. Tupac Yupanqui

    15.738
  • Incas (I.)

    10. Intrigue in the fight for the throne

    15.763
  • Incas (I.)

    11. Incas and Svätopluk rods

    16.227
  • Incas (I.)

    12. Death of the Inca Empire

    15.420
  • Incas (I.)

    13. Epilogue performed by Radiant Snake

    15.163
  • Incas (I.)

    Inca table

    13.863
  • Crusades

    Although the Crusades are not my domain at all and I have never shown any particular interest in this phenomenon, when writing the Best of the Knights (in which I wrote an introduction and additions concerning St. Francis of Assisi and St. Louis IX) article forced me to write an article about the reason for the crusades and I decided to describe these expeditions very briefly.

    52.768
  • A man as a warrior

    or about the male psyche, archetypes, and Sigismund.
    I'm not sure about that, but I guess I haven't written about the male psyche yet on www.valka.cz (apart from my articles about Sigismund - although paradoxically this one will also be about Sigismund - where something like this was mentioned only marginally), in in any case, I don't think this topic has been discussed here yet.

    16.277
  • A man as a warrior

    1. About war and masculinity

    11.385
  • A man as a warrior

    2. From boy psychology to man psychology

    19.868
  • A man as a warrior

    3. Archetypes of the Warrior and the King and an attempt at a profile of Sigismund of Luxembourg

    11.297
  • The best of knights

    At times, it seems to me that the problem of knights is experiencing a great boom, but few people know what people were like, few people can look behind the curtain and reveal the veil of the mystery of this medieval phenomenon. Similarly, knights are today in the imaginations of many completely different figures as they actually were, as is the crusades, which, if viewed through the eyes of today's man, of course, remain misunderstood.

    36.771
  • The best of knights

    At times, it seems to me that the problem of knights is experiencing a great boom, but few people know what people were like, few people can look behind the curtain and reveal the veil of the mystery of this medieval phenomenon. Similarly, knights are today in the imaginations of many completely different figures as they actually were, as is the crusades, which, if viewed through the eyes of today's man, of course, remain misunderstood.

    16.928
  • The best of knights

    The Crusades have long attracted many historians with their character and the impact they had on medieval society.

    18.116
  • The best of knights

    Knighthood included significant features of the medieval military state, it met a religious and military component.

    16.796
  • The best of knights

    Medieval court culture was determined by military, Christian and aesthetic ideals.

    22.992
  • The best of knights

    The ideal of chivalry was fully manifested in the crusades.

    21.587
  • The best of knights

    The idea of Christian chivalry was an important contribution to the refinement of early medieval society.

    14.691
  • The best of knights

    All the ideals of early medieval Europe, developing on a secular-spiritual level, met and began to be applied in the knightly orders of a strongly spiritual nature.

    14.115
  • The best of knights

    In 1118, six men, led by Hugo de Payns, came to the Holy Land and founded the germ of the Order of the Poor Knights of Jesus Christ.

    19.259
  • The best of knights

    The Johannites are the oldest knightly order. As early as 1050, Italian merchants established a shelter to treat pilgrims near the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

    23.935
  • The best of knights

    During the reign of Henry V. and the pontificate of Pope Clement III. the order of the Teutonic Knights was founded in 1190 during the siege of Akkon.

    23.842
  • The best of knights

    Although the greatest burden in the battle lay on the backs of the knights, there were such individuals among the dukes who, with their courage and heroism, drew considerable attention to themselves.

    13.653
  • The best of knights

    The first monarch to go to the East in the 3rd Crusade ( 1189-1192 ) was Frederick I.

    13.925
  • The best of knights

    Richard was the most famous knight in all of Christianity in his thirties.

    17.940
  • The best of knights

    A perfect knight, brave in battle, brave in misfortune, steadfast if he was convinced that his cause was just.

    16.775
  • The best of knights

    In 1181, or perhaps only in 1182, a knight was born in Assisi, Umbria, who was not actually a knight, a crusader who was not actually a crusader.

    17.669
  • The best of knights

    Campaigns to the Holy Land to fight the unbelievers, called the Crusades, ended in 1291, when the last Christian bastion of Akkon fell.

    13.398
  • The best of knights

    List of used literature

    13.501
  • About Iraq

    A brief reflection on the current situation in Iraq, certainly subjective, but this is usually the case.

    10.917
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    In post-war Europe, an anti-Catholic course often suited (one could even say anti-Christian, but the first term is more appropriate for our work). In Eastern Europe it was clear with the advent of the communist regime, in Western Europe it often hid from various atheistic forms to Freemasonry and liberalist conceptions. Therefore, it is not surprising that a lot of anti-Catholic literature (but also other forms of propaganda) was often created (and unfortunately still is created today), which is not very surprising, as the Catholic Church does not want to adapt to the degenerate morals of today's society).

    24.419
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    Introduction In post-war Europe, an anti-Catholic course often suited (one could even say anti-Christian, but the first term is more appropriate for our work). In Eastern Europe it was clear with the advent of the communist regime, in Western Europe it often hid from various atheistic forms to Freemasonry and liberalist conceptions. Therefore, it is not surprising that a lot of anti-Catholic literature (but also other forms of propaganda) was often created (and unfortunately still is created), which is not very surprising, as the Catholic Church does not want to adapt to the degenerate morals of today's society).

    12.391
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    Holy Father of the Peacemaker This difficult task was given to Holy Father when the clouds began to move over Europe, where the Versailles treaties had long since ceased to exist. But we have to go back a little bit and take a closer look at the person of Eugene Pacelli. This man was really the right person for the position, and the Holy Spirit chose him.

    18.938
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    The quest for peace at the beginning of the war In the peace effort, Pius XII wanted to continue even though the war has already begun. Making peace as soon as possible was very important for him. Above all, he wanted to oppose the spread of the war, which in practice meant keeping Mussolini out of the war.

    13.599
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    The Pope and the Church in Germany The problem of the Church in Germany has long been serious. When Eugenio Pacelli succeeded the papal throne after Pius XI in March 1939, a struggle between the Catholic Church and the National Socialist regime had been going on in Germany for several years.

    13.988
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    The Church in Poland Political and war events have posed extremely serious problems for the Polish Church and the Holy See. The country was divided by two occupying powers, both extremely hostile to the church, both hostile to the Polish nation. I can safely say that in Poland these disgusting ideologies have been treated to their cruel butcher's tastes.

    13.976
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    At the time of the German triumph During the German triumphs, the Holy See had its hands full, there were many problems with the Nazis, but also with the Allies, who demanded the withdrawal of clergy from enemy countries, in which the Holy See often submitted for good relations.

    16.202
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    From the European World War on June 22, 1941, the Wehrmacht crossed the borders of the Soviet Union, a former ally. The Soviet Union found itself in war. The Vatican had no reason to sympathize with the Soviet Union, a state-controlled party with a materialist philosophy led by a mass murderer.

    11.702
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    Laws and racial persecution The plan to organize an information service to ensure the exchange of messages between prisoners and their families was particularly at the heart of Pius XII. From September 18, 1939, the Pope was determined on the need to establish an information office. He was very disappointed, the Berlin government, which had the most prisoners, refused to give lists of prisoners.

    16.150
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    Deportations in Slovakia A special chapter in this work is the issue of deportations from Slovakia. This chapter has a significantly different character precisely because I am Slovak and therefore Slovak history is closer to me and I can better assess the individual events, given that I have no problem with the amount of information from this perhaps at first glance controversial period.

    14.576
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    Croatia, Romania and Hungary The independent state of Croatia, which emerged in 1941, was even more subjugated to the Empire than Slovakia. The situation of the Jews, of whom there were more than 40,000, deteriorated day by day. Cardinal Maglione immediately spoke in favor of helping the Jews who were in danger.

    15.595
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    Rome and France Rome was a city where the Holy Father managed to save himself from bombing and war destruction. The question of the bombing of Rome arose as early as June 10, 1940, when Italy entered the war. It became especially relevant in 1942, when the English bombed Genoa, Turin and Milan.

    14.631
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    The Last Struggles and the Fate of the Nations The Second War was coming to an end, but the Holy See was also interested in what this end should look like. The Holy Father was still the same, he was not frightened when the Germans were in Rome, nor when they were at the height of their power, he was not frightened even when the Allies and Soviets already had Germany on their shovels. Trying to discuss giving Germany decent conditions so that there would be no further war later, the Vatican was not quite sure that the best rise was the Allied unconditional surrender. Pius XII. told Myron Tylor clearly, distinguishing between the regime, the army, and the people of Germany.

    13.137
  • Pius XII. and Second World War

    Annexes

    15.821
  • Almost New Year's thoughts from Slovakia

    I haven't spoken in a long time and maybe many have expected me to come first from some historical article (I have a few of them developed, but they still need to be worked on), but paradoxically I decided to come up with a political article.
    My foreign policy should be at the heart of my thinking, especially the war in Iraq, but I will not forgive myself for a few words about what is happening in Europe, because it has a lot to do with it.

    11.481
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    I have been dedicated to history since I was 10 years old. While studying the history of World War II, I came across a personality who was making history at the time. It was Winston Churchill - the biggest star of the British Empire. Many books have been described about this man and it will be described and he has many pages on the net, just enter his name on Altavista and you will get to many less or more high-quality pages. Not only should all historians study it, but his life and work have an essential function for the study of political science, and we must not forget Churchill as a great writer and a decent painter.

    30.357
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 1 - In Father's Footsteps, or Randolph Churchill

    14.318
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 2 - The Young Soldier

    16.678
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 3 - Political Beginnings

    15.971
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 4 - Liberal politician

    14.157
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 5 - Depression and initiative in the First World War

    15.288
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 6 - Winston and Bolshevism

    14.031
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 7. - Return to the Conservatives

    15.350
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 8 - The German Threat

    19.379
  • Winston Spencer Churchill

    Chapter 9 - His greatest hour

    16.066
  • Winston Spencer Leonard Churchill - The Last Tory

    There is an inexhaustible amount of literature about Winston Churchill, and it seems that as a historian does a different interpretation, sometimes it goes ad absurdum. Well, it simply follows from the fact that we are each different and each of us evaluates things differently. Neither those who glorify Churchill indefinitely nor those who insult him are right. In the end, however, we will all have to acknowledge the greatness of Winston Churchill, perhaps it would be good to paraphrase Jára Cimrman: “We can argue about that, we can disagree, but that's about all we can do about it. "

    19.442
  • Winston Spencer Leonard Churchill - The Last Tory

    11.401
  • Winston Spencer Leonard Churchill - The Last Tory

    10.936
  • Sigismund's War I. - The Last Crusade? Nikopol 1396

    When DEVÍN radio broadcast the Dynasty (Sovereigns in History) cycle in the Historia magistra vitae program, I had no idea what impact it would have on me. In the broadcast selected Slovak historians discussed individual rulers in Slovak history, from the Mojmír family to the Habsburg family. (In total, there were 10 dynasties that ruled in Slovakia) The part dedicated to the Luxemburgs, especially the only one who ruled here for 50 years, was particularly interesting. It's Sigismund of Luxembourg.

    22.748
  • Sigismund's War I. - The Last Crusade? Nikopol 1396

    If we want to say something about the war that broke out between Sigismund's Hungary and Turkey, we must first and foremost look back a few years to better understand the whole situation.

    16.697
  • Sigismund's War I. - The Last Crusade? Nikopol 1396

    The beginnings of the Ottoman Empire date back to the end of the 13th century. In 1299, one of the Seljuk emirs, Osman I, declared independence from the Seljuk sultan. The independent history of an important state began. He was very aggressive from the beginning, supported by the ideology of militarized Islam.

    12.292
  • Sigismund's War I. - The Last Crusade? Nikopol 1396

    Before we get to Sigismund's fight with the Turks, we need to at least take a brief look at the first years of Sigismund's reign in Hungary. Originally, I expected that Sigismund was scattering property during the great clash with the Turks, but when I looked at the documents from this period, donations do not play a dominant role here, and that was a big surprise for me.

    29.108

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Orden de Estrella Cariba grado tercero

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Coronation Medal

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