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World War Two [1939-1945]

World War II - global and deadliest conflict in years 1939-1945, that included most of the countries of the world in two alliances - Allies and Axis.


"Bloody heat" in the Hürtgen Forest

Southeast of Aachen is the Hürtgen Forest, an area of about 50 square miles. The forest has mostly mountainous, rocky terrain and was created by deliberate afforestation of an empty area. The area is located on the Belgian-German border and forms a triangle, surrounded by the aforementioned cities of Aachen and the cities of Duren and Monschau. The forest was part of the Siegfried Line and was full of fortified machine gun nests, artillery batteries, and some parts of it were almost impassable due to the large minefields. The next part of the article deals with the battles of the 28th Infantry Division, because it was she who led the biggest battles in Hürtgen and paid the highest tax for them.

... and the last was Javoricko

The story of a Moravian village that entered the minds of people in 1945. When, at the very end of World War II, after 6 long years of occupation, the same fate befell her as Lidice and Ležáky in 1942. On May 5, 1945, four days before the arrival of the Red Army, SS units murdered 38 men aged 15 to 75 and burned 32 houses.

311th (Czechoslovak) Bomber Squadron RAF celebrates its birthday

After the Czechoslovak pilots fled from demoralized and defeated France to England in the early summer of 1940, the Churchill spirit of defiance that prevailed in this country did not allow them to pursue defeatist ideas for a long time. After the 310th Fighter Squadron (established on 10 July 1940), the first Czechoslovak bomber squadron has been assembled, armed with much more complicated aircraft than the Hurricane fighters ...

37 mm ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN Mk. 1939

I will focus on the technical description of the anti-aircraft cannon. Modelers will certainly appreciate the little available photos and some technical data that I managed to obtain when building a 1:72 scale model.

6. Panzer Division

The 6th Panzer Division gained one of the best combat records on the battlefields of World War II among all the divisions that fought in it. Its operation begins with the invasion of Poland in 1939 and ends with the defense of Vienna in 1945.

60th anniversary of the ANTHROPOID group fight

On June 18, 2002, 60 years have passed since the last battle of seven brave Czechoslovak paratroopers, hidden in the crypt of the Orthodox Church of Cyril and Methodius on Resslova Street in Prague against the superiority of the German occupiers: J. Bublík, J. Gabčík, J. Hruby, J. Kubis, A. Opalka, J. Valčík and J. Švarc. They were members of Czechoslovak troops in Great Britain, deployed to the German-occupied territories of Bohemia and Moravia in order to carry out special reconnaissance and diversionary tasks.

9cm mortar Škoda "U Cihelny"

The separate infantry bunker KS 14 "U Cihelny", part of the fortifications of the Kralická fortress area, is a two-sided two-winged two-bell army fortress building in the strongest and most durable design (3rd resistance class), situated north of the town of Králíky.

A blow of thunder

Heroic defense of the intelligence troops of the US 99th Infantry Division in the Ardennes

A clumsy Pacific War worker

During World War II, the Allies deployed around 10,000 special pontoon vehicles not only in the Pacific but also in Europe, which was officially classified as LVT (Landing Vehicle Tracked), although soldiers did not call it anything other than amtrac in transporter version and amtank in the support version with cannon armament. It was also known by the combat name "Alligator" or "Buffalo", and its journey into the US Marine Corps is so colorful that it is worth telling.

A contribution to the history of the Manganese landing

After 1989, the Western foreign resistance during the Second World War was thoroughly researched and published by historians, but also by enthusiasts of this scientific field, both in the press and on television, and especially in the phenomenon of today - the Internet. But no matter how detailed archival research, there are always documents that complement and reveal the past. They are usually found in places where no one would look for them and in research focused on a completely different area. We most often know this Murphy's Law from home when we look for shorts and find a lost wedding ring. Something similar happened to me while studying at the National Archives in Bratislava. I didn't find the ring, but ...

A contribution to the study of the economic causes of British appeasement in the 1930s 1.

1. The British policy of appeasement Appeasement is a policy that recognizes the principles of non-interference and non-influence of the internal affairs of other states. It seeks to find common ground and resolve conflicts in a moderate manner, which sometimes requires material forms of concessions. Opinions on him, however, vary widely. Some people see appeasement as a completely natural phenomenon that accompanies diplomatic relations, because in an effort to reach mutual understanding, it is clear that states sometimes have to compromise on their demands. Others, on the other hand, see it as a sign of weakness and inconsistent foreign policy.

A contribution to the study of the economic causes of British appeasement in the 1930s 2.

2. Developments after the First World War The First World War had a fundamental impact on the post-war image of Europe. It was officially ended after the signing of the armistice on November 11, 1918, but as the course of events itself showed, peace was just a short break from an even more terrifying conflict. The Great War did not solve the problems that led to its emergence. On the contrary, it brought with it great unemployment, which was caused mainly by soldiers returning home from the war. Shortly after its end, an epidemic of Spanish flu broke out, killing a huge number of people. The map of Europe has changed dramatically, many new states have emerged and, conversely, others have disappeared. The Bolshevik revolution broke out in Russia, and Europe feared that it might spread to neighboring states.

A contribution to the study of the economic causes of British appeasement in the 1930s 3.

3. Development of appeasement in the 1930s Ramsay MacDonald formed the second Labor government in 1929, but it was not very successful. Its hopes for smooth operation were dashed by the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in the same year, which brought with it many problems that the government had to deal with. Before the stock market crash, Britain exported much of its production to the United States, but demand has now been severely shaken and declined, or in some markets even disappeared altogether. MacDonald's cabinet finally fell in 1931 because he was unable to agree on how to deal with the consequences of the crisis and what items to reduce the budget.

A contribution to the study of the economic causes of British appeasement in the 1930s 4.

4. British foreign policy and the crisis of appeasement The United Kingdom was forced to solve a number of foreign policy problems in the 1930s. Britain found itself on the brink of war with Italy after occupying the free state of Abyssinia and Japan, which occupied part of China's territory. For her concessions, especially to Italy, she was often criticized, but Germany was seen as a potentially greater threat and therefore could not antagonize the two states.

A contribution to the study of the economic causes of British appeasement in the 1930s: Conclusion

Conclusion The choice of appeasement policy was influenced by a number of factors. Whether it was the not very happily concluded Treaty of Versailles with Germany, or the lack of potential allies with whom Britain could form an effective alliance against Nazi Germany. Britain saw the priority in dealing with internal affairs and in good relations within its Empire. The British dominions sought to gain more and more independence, either in the area of free trade and their growing domestic markets, or in the area of greater decision-making powers. Dominia has made it clear that they will not allow themselves to be drawn into a war due to a small European state. For Britain, the empire was a large market for its products and served as a source of raw materials, so it had to take her opinion into account. Another role was played by public opinion, which wanted to avoid war at all costs and therefore encouraged the government to maintain good relations with Germany.

A deck of cards on the battlefield

"As you can see, sir, my deck of cards served me as well as the Bible, the prayer book, and the calendar," Soldier T. Texis Taylor explains to his commander about the deck of cards in a familiar story set to music by the Rangers. (paid advertising)

A soldier on several fronts

Jaroslav Selner fought not only in North Africa and the Carpathians, but also worked for reporters during the war
Jaroslav Selner was a healer during his varied life. He worked as a pusher, dispatcher, founded a drugstore school in Křivoklát, worked as a secretary of the Faculty of Arts of Charles University in Prague. Above all, he was a soldier…

A/M Karel Janoušek RNDr., KCB

When I look around here at Černý Most and read the names of the streets, I see one interesting name next to another. The heroes themselves. Ocelka, Breitcetl, Bryks, Dygrýn, František, Vašátko, Valenta, Maňák ... Pilots who fought in the ranks of the RAF against the hated enemy during the Second World War, for the liberation of the homeland, for democracy, the ideals of Masaryk and Beneš, for returning to their homes . They are all dominated by the name of the only Czechoslovak air marshal, a man who practically led our air force in Great Britain for five war years and who helped build his fame and the name of our Czechoslovak Republic, A / M RNDr. Karel Janoušek, KCB ...

About one unusual friendship

"I would like to pilot Messerschmitt at least once in my life. Let me do one practice circuit ..."
(Request from RAF Lt. Col. Douglas Bader to Luftwaffe Lt. Col. Adolf Galland in August 1941)

Admiral Graf Spee

Although Admiral Graf Spee was built as the last in its class, his story is probably the most famous of the three German pocket battleships. Firstly, because she was the first to take part in war operations, but also because she was blown up in front of the inhabitants of the capital of the neutral country. Perhaps the fact that her captain's command and gentlemanly way of fighting gained respect and recognition on the part of the Allies also contributed to their extent. He sank a total of 9 ships with a displacement of over 50,000 tons without losing the life of a single British sailor.

Adolf Hitler

As part of his expansionist program based on the principle of the supremacy of the Germanic race, he invaded the Rhineland (1936), occupied Austria, the Sudetenland (1938) and Czechoslovakia (1939). He started World War II on September 1, 1939. When he lost it, he committed suicide on April 30, 1945 in Berlin.

Adolph Gysbert

A slightly more extensive biography of the South African Fighter Ace, one of the most famous and successful RAF fighter pilots during World War II. Words from the last farewell to Malana: "We mourn the loss of a great officer and brave fighter who fought in the front line in the Battle of Britain, a man who fought bravely and fearlessly led his pilots at a time when courage and commanding ability were our only patronage. His name will continue to live in the history of the Royal Air Force and in the minds and hearts of all brave people around the world. "

Against All - Locotenent Comandor Aviator Dan Valentin Vizanty

The fate of Romania in World War II is similar to the fate of other small states at this time. After the busy end of the 1930s, it came under the influence of Germany and entered the war with the USSR alongside it. So he wanted to regain the territory lost just in favor of the attacked. After that, however, the Romanian soldiers had to take part in further campaigns, which culminated in a defeat at Stalingrad. Since 1943, their own country has been the target of attacks by the US Strategic Air Force. Subsequent failures of Germany in 1944 brought the Romanians to the side of the Allies, who then ended the war in Czechoslovakia. And Romanian fighters took part in all these victories and losses. They won over 1,200 victories and one of the most successful was Dan Valentin Vizanty.

Against the flood - Sedan 13th of May, 1940

If the French infantry crouching in the forts, trenches, and cannon positions on the south bank of the Meuse River near Sedan on May 13, 1940, looked at the spring sky, they would see only enemy aircraft.

Air battles over the Gulf of Germany

The RAF entered the war with faith in the defensive capabilities of fast modern bombers, which can fight their way to the target and back during the day through defensive fighters and anti-aircraft artillery fire. With the outbreak of war, Douhet's theory was tested in practice.
The first victory in Germany's air defense took place the second day after the entry of the United Kingdom into the ongoing war between Germany and Poland. The British goal was to eliminate the threat from the Kriegsmarine. While British ships chased German corsairs across the oceans, the RAF sought to contribute to the war effort by attacks on warships off the German coast and in ports. How the RAF was doing its efforts in 1939 is trying to describe this article ...

Air Chief Marshal Sir Edgar Ludlow-Hewitt

Biography of the RAF Marshal, who held important positions in the ranks of the RFC and RAF during the First World War and who, under his command, led the British Bomber Air Force to the beginning of World War II.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding

A prominent RAF officer who commanded the Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain and greatly contributed to the building of the structure of the anti-aircraft defense of Great Britain before World War II.

Air crash at Ohrobec (district Praha-západ)

The end of the horrors of war is usually commemorated during the anniversaries in May, but many of the events of the war did not end until long after the war. Let's try to reveal the secret of the sad story of an American pilot who fatally crashed his machine near Ohrobec just before the end of the fighting, but his story did not end until August 62 years ago.

Air Force Colonel Otakar Černý and his journey through the short 20th century

The main trial of a group of "treacherous" pilots from the West took place at the infamous State Court in Prague from the morning of February 9, 1949. It was nothing more than a constructed process with a group of div. gene. Karel Janoušek, in which, coincidentally, he found himself Capt. Otakar Černý, who, like the others, heard a harsh verdict that afternoon. He sentenced him to three years in a heavy prison, sharpened by a hard bed. Furthermore, the loss of honorary badges, decorations and the loss of honorary civil rights for three years.

Air Vice Marshal Richard Saul

During the Battle of Britain, he was the commander of the 13th RAF group, which defended the north of Great Britain. In the 1930s, he held an important position within the RAF Fighter Command, where he participated in the RAF's preparations for war.

Aircrafts of the Second world war

During the First World War, new fields appeared in the war machine. They were war gases, automatic weapons, tanks, but above all aircraft. Pre-war experimental machines, flying mostly just a few meters above the ground at near-fall speeds, became dangerous and efficient machines during the four years of the war, flying twice as fast as their predecessors.

Albert Kesselring

Born in Bavaria, Albert Kesselring served in the Artillery, which was part of the forces under Prince Ruprecht. During his career he became interested in aviation and in 1933 he was transferred to the Luftwaffe. He was also a strong leader and a capable politician, qualities who were key to success in the new German army under the Nazi party.

Allied campaign in Central Europe from March 22 to May 8, 1945 (1)

At the beginning of the spring of 1945, the situation in Europe clearly developed in favor of Allied troops. By January, Anglo-American troops had consolidated the front after the German December offensive in the Ardennes, known as the " Battle of the Bulge ." The failure of this last German offensive exhausted much of the remaining combat power of the Third Reich, which was now completely unprepared to resist the final advance of the Allies in Europe.

Allied campaign in Central Europe from March 22 to May 8, 1945 (2)

Shortly after noon on March 23, there were already three complete regiments of the 5th Infantry Division on the bridgehead, which were further strengthened by one regiment of the 90th Infantry Division. The tanks, together with the tank destroyers, supported the infantry with fire from the other bank throughout the morning, and in the evening of the same day, a pontoon bridge over the Rhine was put into operation. By midnight, the infantry had widened the bridgehead boundaries more than 9 km in depth, achieving unexpectedly easy success on the first violent crossing of the Rhine in modern history.

Allied campaign in Central Europe from March 22 to May 8, 1945 (3)

At the tip of attack of VII. Corps towards Paderborn was the 3rd Tank Division, whose strike divisions were equipped with several new M-26 Pershing heavy tanks. Behind the advancing 3rd Tank Division, supported by one regiment of the 104th Infantry Division, the rest of the 104th Infantry Division advanced, making it the VII. the corps is ready to secure the entire occupied territory. Literally, the rolling armored units advanced 72 km to the north without stopping, and when they stopped their advance at midnight on the same day, they were only 24 km from their destination - Paderborn.

Allied campaign in Central Europe from March 22 to May 8, 1945 (4)

While the 12th Army Group made its cut across Germany, General Devers' 6th Army Group operating in the south had two tasks. In addition to covering the right wing of the advancing 12th Army Group, it was to eliminate German attempts to organize a fight to the last man in the Alps in southern Germany and western Austria.

Allied operations in the Rhineland from 15 September 1944 to 21 March 1945 (I)

In September 1944, it seemed that the final victory over Nazi Germany was already within reach. In the east, the Red Army advanced uncompromisingly towards the German border. From the sky over the Third Reich and its occupied countries, the Allied air force wreaked havoc on the German army, German industry and communications. In the west, three army groups, deployed from the North Sea to Switzerland, were ready for a final assault on Germany.

Allied operations in the Rhineland from 15 September 1944 to 21 March 1945 (II)

On September 17, thousands of aircraft engines of a large Allied air force erupted at all airports in southern England, which, in support of Operation MARKET-GARDEN, were to clear the skies over the Netherlands. More than 1,000 heavy bombers attacked flak positions, while 1,100 Allied fighters tried to find signs of German Luftwaffe activity. The bomber fighters were to pave the way for 1,545 transport aircraft and 478 gliders, which were concentrated for this largest airborne operation in history. Shortly after noon, over 20,000 paratroopers began landing at designated landing zones near Arnhem, Grave, and Veghel, and XXX. the corps launched its attack on Eindhoven.

Allied operations in the Rhineland from 15 September 1944 to 21 March 1945 (III)

The Hürtgen Forest was an area made up of densely planted tall fir trees, deep ravines, high ridges and narrow paths, in short, an ideal terrain for long-term defense. The Germans thoroughly reinforced this natural obstacle by deploying large minefields and carefully preparing their positions, as they were well aware that the loss of Schmidt would open the way for the Allies to the Roer dams. As long as the Germans controlled the dams on Roer, they could flood the river valley, destroying the Allies' artificial bridges built over Roer, cutting off troops that had already crossed it.

Allied operations in the Rhineland from 15 September 1944 to 21 March 1945 (V)

Finally, when the 12th Army Group in its area controlled the west bank of the Roer River, Bradley could concentrate fully on preparations for Operation LUMBERJACK. Bradley's plan called for an attack by the 1st Army to the southeast toward the confluence of the Rhine and Ahr rivers, after which it was to turn south and join Patton, who would be advancing northeast across the Eifel region with his 3rd Army.

Alois Vašátko

Another biography of one of the many brave fighters in the ranks of the RAF.

American destroyer during World War II

Destroyers belonged to the most widespread class of warships during World War II. Mass-produced, relatively small and cheap vessels with their universal character have proven themselves in every event. Destroyers in the role of anti-submarine and anti-aircraft means accompanied not only the operational unions of heavy units, but also provided protection for merchant ships in the convoy service ...

American roots of the Soviet T-34 tank

In the second half of World War I, the tank was created as a support device for infantry, a kind of mobile stronghold, which was to allow the infantry to advance through enemy defensive zones with numerous wire barriers and multiple trench systems. The defensive zone reached a depth of several tens of kilometers and the whole area was shot by machine guns and cannons. During the advance, the slowly crawling tank not only provided the infantry with protection from the enemy's machine-gun fire, but also silenced enemy fireballs with its cannons and machine guns, dug passages in wire barriers and was able to fill the trenches with hats that he carried ...

Americans in the Kasserine Pass: a debacle or a useful lesson?

The struggle for the Kasserine Pass in February 1943 between inexperienced American troops and seasoned German veterans is often described, especially by American historians, as a catastrophic defeat. In reality, however, the Americans were able to quickly recover the lost territory. Even more valuable was the acquisition of valuable combat experience for other African and especially European campaigns.

An airplane that arrived too late

For the Japanese Empire, the famous proverb "too little and too late" applied in many ways during World War II. The fate of the Achi B7A2 Ryusei navy dive and torpedo bomber is a shining example of this.

An image of the enemy

Fight… kill! If it weren't for the Germans, there would be no Hitler! And therefore to declare a relentless struggle for all that is German and not to divide the Germans into state-forming and anti-state. There is and will not be a difference between the Germans.
Stanislav Fejfar, Diary of a Fighter, pp.68–69

Andrew Browne Cunningham

Admiral Sir Andrew Browne Cunningham, later Admiral of the Fleet Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, KT, GCB, OM, DSO.

"It takes the Navy three years to build a ship. It will take three hundred years to build a new tradition. The evacuation will continue."

Andrey Andreevich Vlasov

A biography of one of the most controversial figures in World War II, a man who teamed up with one devil against another. The hero of the Battle of Moscow, who became a symbol in captivity for Russia's fight against Bolshevism

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the example of the Kolín Region

Aryanization meant the transfer of property of the Jewish population into the hands of non-Jewish administrators and later owners. The "Aryanization" was based on the theory of the superior Aryan race, which was presented by the German nation and where Jews had no right to live, but were still considered enemies of the nation, as well as Roma and Lusatian Serbs. After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 to apply the Nazi ideology in full.

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the example of the Kolín Region 2.

2. Arization of Jewish property in the Kolín region On March 15, 1939, German military troops invaded the truncated Czech territory. Their task was to break a potential enemy and ensure a peaceful transition of the economic sphere and public administration under German control. According to Hitler's order, all executive power was entrusted to General von Brauchitsch, who then transferred it to his subordinates, General Blaskowitz for the territory of Bohemia, and General List for the territory of Moravia.

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the example of the Kolín Region: Conclusion

The Nuremberg Laws deliberately provided for the broadest possible definition so that the administrative authorities had a sufficiently free field of competence to maximize the Aryan profit, which benefited a large part of the German population. However, most of this activity served to fulfill the state coffers and the associated financing of the arms industry.

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the Example of the Kolín Region: Introduction

Aryanization meant the transfer of property of the Jewish population into the hands of non-Jewish administrators and later owners. Arization was based on the theory of a superior Aryan race, which was represented by the German nation and where Jews had no right to live, but were still considered enemies of the nation, as were the Roma and Lusatian Serbs. After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, nothing prevented him from fully applying Nazi ideology.

Armored trains in the Slovak National Uprising

Supporting means of combat 1. czechoslovak army in Slovakia. Armored trains were under the direct command of the army. Their construction was led by a lack of motorized artillery and tanks, although due to their easy vulnerability to the Air Force, they were no longer modern weapons.

Assalto! British Blitzkrieg

In the summer of 1940, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini watched with growing dissatisfaction the inaction of Italian troops stationed in Libya. After the death of Marshal Italo Balbo (killed in a S.79 bomber, accidentally shot down by Italian anti-aircraft artillery near Tobruk on June 28), Marshal Rodolfo Graziani became the new Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in North Africa. He tried to gather the necessary forces for the offensive required by Rome against Egypt. Finally, under threat of appeal, he reluctantly launched an attack on September 13, 1940.

Assault on Pearl Harbor

A brief history of military action that launched one of the most difficult conflicts in history - the Pacific War.

Attack on Crimea

When General von Manstein took over the 11th Army on September 17, 1941, he realized that the forces he had from the German highest command could not be enough for the current conquest of Crimea and the attack on Rostov. He therefore decided to occupy Crimea first, as it was a constant threat to the entire right flank of the German advantageous front. In the direction of Rostov, only contact with the retreating enemy was to be maintained.

Attack on Dieppe - Operation Jubilee

The situation of the Allies was gloomy in mid-1942. German troops penetrated deep into Russia, the British 8th Army was pushed back to Egypt in North Africa, and in the west, Allied troops stood facing the German, stationed on the other side of the English Channel.

Attack on St.Nazaire - Operation Chariot

The first months of 1942 were some of the darkest in the history of England. Her troops were pushed out of positions on all battlefields. There were constant reports of retreats and defeats from North Africa, Burma or Malaysia. Britain's survival depended on supplies being transported by slow and vulnerable convoys from the United States, which tried to slip through the lurking packs of Dönitz's submarines. The submarine war culminated.

Bachem Ba-349 Natter

As the situation of the Luftwaffe in the last months of the war was very desperate, it is no wonder that it constantly supported all sorts of projects which it was convinced could change the course of the war. Undoubtedly, these projects also include Bach's Ba-349 Natter (which translates as Viper), which won the tender over Messerschmitt, Junkers and Heinkel.

Battle of Britain

The Battle of Britain is the first purely air battle in the history of war. Its entire course took place only in the air, where it was also decided on the result. As it is named today, it was called Winston Churchill, who after the defeat of France declared: "The battle for France is over. I expect the battle for Britain to begin. " And history proved him right, indeed less than a month after the signing of the armistice between France and Germany, the RAF and the Luftwaffe fought in British skies.

Battle of Britain

Luftwaffe Between September 1939 and the summer of 1940, the German war machine rolled over much of Europe, and its blitzkrieg can certainly be considered effective. The Luftwaffe played an undeniable role in these victories. However, she always fought as part of the German war units. As in Poland and the Western campaign, it was faced with the task of gaining air superiority, but it is very important to realize that this happened at the same time as the Wehrmacht's advance. The Battle of Britain was to be different. The Luftwaffe first had to fight for air superiority on its own, and then it was Wermacht's turn.

Battle of Britain

In any battle, the outcome depends not only on good military leadership, but also on the technical capabilities of the weapons. It was in the Battle of Britain that it became clear how small technical differences could play a big role. Therefore, let us now look at what the Luftwaffe had at the time of the battle.

Battle of Britain

The task of the RAF was to resist the German attack and at the same time retain sufficient strength to defend in the event of an invasion of the British Isles. On her side stood tenacity, the desire to defend the homeland or fight the hated Luftwaffe, and the desire to persevere to a victorious end. The Battle of Britain was one of the decisive battles of World War II. St. v. and in the event of the defeat of Britain in this encounter, it is very likely that the face of Europe would look quite different today. Many of those who fought in this battle were well aware of this. Today, we can only look with admiration and respect at the men who made several combat sorties a day and often returned to their troops the same day after being shot down to take to the skies again to fight the Nazi threat.

Battle of Britain

In addition to the aforementioned Supermarine Spitfire Mk I and Hawker Hurricane Mk I, the RAF Fighter Command also used the Boulton Paul Defiant Mk I and the Bristol Blenheim MkI modified as a heavy (mostly night) fighter to defend the islands. The Spitfire and Hurricane make up the vast majority of all fighters, with the Hurricanes dominating the majority. Both types were justifiably very popular with British pilots.

Battle of Britain

The battle began on July 10 and ended on October 31, 1940, culminating on September 15. In various sources we can meet the dating of the battle mostly from July to October 1940, but sometimes also from August to October or December 1940.

Battle of Britain

Contents The Battle of Britain is the first purely air battle in the history of war. Its entire course took place only in the air, where it was also decided on the result. As it is named today, it was called Winston Churchill, who after the defeat of France declared: "The battle for France is over. I expect the battle for Britain to begin. " And history proved him right, indeed less than a month after the signing of the armistice between France and Germany, the RAF and the Luftwaffe fought in British skies.

Battle of Britain

The turning point that separates Phase 1 from Phase 2 is the Adler Tag. The German command set this day as the day when the RAF was to be brought to its knees and completely paralyzed in the next few days. The optimism prevailing among the German leaders was mainly due to a lack of information about the strength of the opponent.

Battle of Britain

A massive attack is planned for the first day. The weather has been very good since the morning, promising a challenging day for both parties.

Battle of Britain

Perhaps one of the readers is wondering why it is necessary to talk about a fourth phase, when it was already clear at the beginning of October that there would be no invasion.

Battle of Britain

In this battle, the RAF became the winner, even though the Luftwaffe had a noticeable advantage. With the exception of a few raids on landing units and Berlin, the British defended themselves exclusively, and it must be admitted that the tenacity of pilots, mechanics and other personnel not only at airports, but radar operators, ground observers, is admirable.

Battle of Bzura

The Battle of Bzura, also called the Battle of Kutna, was one of the toughest and bloodiest encounters in the 1939 Polish campaign.

Battle of Cape Esperance

In an effort to transport reinforcements to Guadalcanal on the night of 11. - 12.10. 1942, the American and Japanese cover groups clashed in a somewhat confused, short 34-minute encounter later called the Battle of Cape Esperance.

Battle of Guadalcanal (November 13-15, 1942)

On November 11, a convoy of 11 transport ships with reinforcements and material for the Japanese garrison on Guadalcanal (7,000 men, 31,500 artillery shells, provisions for 30,000 men for 20 days) assembled in the port of Shortland. The convoy was accompanied by a reinforced Tanaka's 2nd Destroyer Squadron (12 vessels) ...

Battle of Leyte (landings and ground operations)

The Philippine archipelago consists of more than seven thousand islands and islets and is only five hundred miles from the Asian continent. It occupies an extremely important position in relation to China and Japan. The largest island in the Philippines is Luzon. The island of Mindanao occupies the second position. Other important islands include Samar, Panay, Cebu, Negros and certainly Leyte. Description of landings and ground fighting in the Philippines.

Battle of Leyte (naval engagement)

The Battle of the Gulf of Leyte was one of the greatest naval battles of World War II in the Pacific and one of the greatest naval battles in history. It took place in October 1944 between the US and Japanese navies off the island of Leyte in the Philippines.

Battle of Matapan

Towards the end of March, a battle took place near Cape Matapan, in which the British dealt a severe blow to Italy. The Battle of Matapan is the largest naval engagement during World War II in the Mediterranean.

Battle of Midway

Practically simultaneously with the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese troops began occupying Thailand, the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, Hong Kong, Guam and Borneo. As early as December 10, 1941, two British warships were attacked off the coast of Malaysia.

Battle of Midway

A naval battle fought by aircraft, which marked a major turning point in the war in the Pacific.

Battle of Okinawa Part 2 - Combat Action

" The situation is really getting difficult. There are about 65,000-70,000 fighting Japanese drilled in the holes at the southern end of the island. I see no way to get them out of there but to blow them up yard after yard. "

Major General JR Hodge, Commander XXIV. Army Corps

Battle of Sokolovo: Czechoslovak infantry with rifles against German tanks

It's March 8, 1943. Four years of waiting are over. Soldiers of the 1st Independent Infantry Battalion are entrenched on both banks of the river Mža. Behind them are the strategic city of Kharkov, which was occupied by the Red Army. German forces are trying to get the industrial center. The most extended is the detachment of Captain Otakar Jaroš in the village of Sokolovo. The Germans are coming ...

Battle of the PQ-16 convoy

Immediately after the Nazi attack, the Western Allies offered material assistance to the Soviet Union. The shortest route that could take the material to the Russian front led by sea from the British Isles around German-occupied Norway to the only non-freezing Soviet port of Murmansk in the Gulf of Kola. The convoys that sailed on it were code-named PQ.

Battles of the bravest

Understanding the essence of special operations, in which a handful of the brave win over multiple superiority, is not easy.

Battles over Sedan

The actual day of judgment came for the crews of Fairey Battle light bombers from the Advanced Air Assault Army (AASF) on May 14, 1940. British pilots in obsolete aircraft and without proper security with their own fighters were uncompromisingly thrown directly into the epicenter of the ongoing battle, the Sedan area. The result was one of the largest massacres of RAF bombers during World War II.

Beaufighters and Operation Crusader - part 1

The operational activities of Beaufighters outside the Home islands are thus somewhat out of the interest of aviation historians and the general reading public. That this is not entirely justified is shown, for example, by the deployment of the 272nd RAF Squadron during Operation Crusader on the North African desert battlefield (Western Desert Air Force) in November and December 1941.

Beaufighters and Operation Crusader - part 2

November 19, 1941. The second day of Operation Crusader , an Allied offensive on the North African battlefield aimed at releasing besieged Tobruk. At the murmur of powerful engines, four Beaufighters Mk.Ic of the 272nd Squadron of the RAF took off from the LG.10 Gerawla field base in the morning at 6.40 am. The weather was unfavorable, as few would have imagined when saying the word "desert."

Beer coup 1923

After the defeat in World War I , Germany ceased to be a monarchy. The so-called Weimar Republic was created. It was in a huge crisis in the early 1920s.
As always, the unhappy economic situation was used by extreme forces. The importance of the extreme left represented by the communists has grown enormously. Sharply nationalist forces were formed against them. The struggle between the communists and the so-called Freikorps was a daily phenomenon on the German streets.

Belgian fascism and nationalism part 1

Fascism was the only major ideology of the twentieth century that emerged with the century itself. It was a synthesis of organic nationalism and anti-Marxist socialism, a revolutionary movement based on the rejection of liberalism, democracy and Marxism.

Belgian fascism and nationalism part 2

Brief description of the political situation in Belgium, political groupings of Belgium - Flemish National Union, Rex party, Verdinaso, DeVlag; a brief biography of the most important Belgian politician / soldier of the time - Léon Degrelle.

Bell (P-400) Airacobra Mk.I

During the strange war, the British Purchasing Commission traveled through American aircraft factories in search of suitable aircraft for the RAF. Among other things, he got to the Bell company in Buffalo, which showed the British its prototype of a high-altitude fighter with excellent flight characteristics and speeds exceeding the then magical 400 miles per hour, ie 644 km / h. The British did not let themselves be persuaded for a long time, and on April 13, 1940, an order was signed for 675 pieces of a new fighter with the designation P-400, referring to the stated speed of the aircraft.

Bernard Lebovič - Peters

Recently, I tried to write an e-mail to one of the addresses of the former Czechoslovak RAF pilots, Col. Peters to England. For a long time there was no answer, so I was already beginning to consider my attempt as unsuccessful. A few days ago, however, Mr. Peters called Honza, saying that he would arrive in Bohemia in a few days. After a very short stay in a military hostel in Juliska, he had to go to the spa, but we still managed to catch him and make an appointment ...

Bernartice 1942

The town of Bernartice in Písek area miraculously escaped the fate of Lidice, but it still paid a cruel tax for harboring paratroopers - 23 of their citizens were executed in the Lubský Forest near Klatovy and many others were deported or murdered.

Beroun 17. 4. 1945

Air strikes at the end of World War II were the only, but very dramatic reminder of the raging war horrors for a large part of Bohemia, not yet affected by direct fighting. However, the sad consequences of the bombings and the deep attacks, which focused almost exclusively on rail transport, often aroused mixed feelings among the population over the activities of their future liberators. However, it is clear that the effort to completely eliminate all traffic in the rear of the German troops was one of the main causes of the rapid end of the war and in its consequences caused the territory of Bohemia to avoid major fighting. The city of Beroun, but especially its railway station forming a junction of several lines, is a monument to this effort.

Bessarabia 1940-1941

Most of the history knowledgeable people usually associates Russian (Stalinist, Soviet) aggression with the joint invasion of Poland in 1939 in close cooperation with the German Wehrmacht and the subsequent invasion of neutral Finland. However, the violent secession of the northern territory of Romania in June 1940, known as Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, seems to have been the dust of oblivion in our region. But not in a country which, like the Poles, Finns, Lithuanians, Latvians or Estonians, experienced what it means to have the stamped shoes of the Stalinist empire.

Bielsky guerrillas

There has been a Jewish community in Belarus since the 14th century, with a large proportion of Belarusian Jews professing the Hasidic direction of Judaism. In 1941, the Jewish community numbered about 670,000 people. Immediately after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the mass extermination of the Jewish population began. About 100,000 Jews managed to escape, and some hid in the woods, where they joined the Soviet resistance. According to archival and published data, about 25,000 people remained in the Minsk ghetto at the beginning of 1942, and after the Nazi pogrom on October 21, 1943, virtually all prisoners were murdered. With the support of Belarusian patriots, only 3.5,000 people escaped from the Minsk ghetto and survived. In this desperate situation, a Jewish resistance group led by Tuvi Bielsky was formed.

Black Brigade - Part I. "1939 - The First Fight"

The Polish 1st Armored Division is undoubtedly one of the most famous units of the Polish army. The soldiers who served in it were participants in three campaigns of World War II - in September 1939 they defended Poland under the battle flag of the 10th Cavalry Brigade, then fought in France in the ranks of the 10th Armored Cavalry Brigade and after reorganization in Great Britain into the 1st Armored Division , participated in the last stage of the war in Western Europe. Throughout its existence, the division maintained the continuity of its traditions, its basis consisted of the same units, the same soldiers and fought under the command of the same commander - General Maczek.

Black Brigade - Part II. "1940 - French Intermezzo"

The Polish 1st Armored Division is undoubtedly one of the most famous units of the Polish army. The soldiers who served in it were participants in three campaigns of World War II - in September 1939 they defended Poland under the battle flag of the 10th Cavalry Brigade, then fought in France in the ranks of the 10th Armored Cavalry Brigade and after reorganization in Great Britain into the 1st Armored Division, participated in the last stage of the war in Western Europe. Throughout its existence, the division maintained the continuity of its traditions, its basis consisted of the same units, the same soldiers and fought under the command of the same commander - General Maczek.

Black Brigade - Part III. "1944 - From Normandy to Germany"

The Polish 1st Armored Division is undoubtedly one of the most famous units of the Polish army. The soldiers who served in it were participants in three campaigns of World War II - in September 1939 they defended Poland under the battle flag of the 10th Cavalry Brigade, then fought in France in the ranks of the 10th Armored Cavalry Brigade and after reorganization in Great Britain into the 1st Armored Division , participated in the last stage of the war in Western Europe. Throughout its existence, the division maintained the continuity of its traditions, its basis consisted of the same units, the same soldiers and fought under the command of the same commander - General Maczek.

Black Shirts - Camicie Nere, armed militia of fascist Italy

Italian militias of the fascist party and their involvement in the fighting in Abyssinia, Spain and on the battlefields of World War II. Description of individual militias, organizations, combat appearances ... etc. MVSN as an Italian counterpart SA, CCNN as an armed equivalent of the Nazi SS.

Blackburn Skua (1)

In 1934, the Ministry of Aviation (Air Ministry) issued specification O.27 / 34 for a multi-purpose on-board aircraft, combining the role of a fighter and a dive bomber. The result of the development was the Blackburn Skua aircraft, which at the time of the entry of the United Kingdom into the war with Germany formed the armament of two FAA squadrons. The following article deals with the construction of this unique aircraft.

Blackburn Skua (2)

The Blackburn Skua was a somewhat non-standard combination of fighter jet and dive bomber. In addition, designed for operations from the decks of aircraft carriers. You will find out how this "hybrid" proved itself during combat deployment during the Second World War in the following lines.


The campaign against the USSR under the name "Fall Barbarossa" began planning the Wehrmacht High Command at Hitler's command shortly after the end of the war in France, and on December 18, 1940, the leader signed the campaign plan. Under one sun, there was no place for two so different and yet the same ideologies, and the non-aggression pact was a "Nordic trick" that allowed the Nazis to conquer Western Europe.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (1)

The real history of our state in the twentieth century is basically not taught in schools until 1918. It also ceased to be politically correct to show what happened during the war here in the Protectorate and what happened after the war. In particular, any notes, photographs, or documents about Nazi crimes evaporated like steam over a pot. What a difference, for example, from Germany, where exhibitions are held on the crimes of Nazism, on the crimes of the Wehrmacht, children learn what Nazism or the Holocaust were…

Bloody Spring of 1945 (12)

The first defeat of the idea of Great Germany Three most successful Austrian lies:
1. Mozart was Austrian
2. Hitler was German
3. Austria-Hungary was broken by the Czechs

Bloody Spring of 1945 (2)

In order to further investigate what actually happened, we need to ask ourselves the basic questions that the world has known since ancient Rome and is used by forensic scientists today.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (8)

After the previous chapter, it would be "politically correct" to write something about those "good Germans" who did not participate in Nazi crimes and tried to either oppose or simply survive this terrible time.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (9)

It is not in anyone's power to describe and list all the places of horror that Nazism has brought to the world. Even the description of what happened in the original territory of Czechoslovakia is frightening and extensive, that it goes beyond today's ideas. To show the horror of that time, I will focus in this section only on a small, selected section of crimes, both spatially and temporally.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (4)

Overture, Act 1, or Blood is not water As the blogger "egon" wrote on the net: "A few days ago (October 2001), random pedestrians in front of TV cameras answered the question of when our republic was founded. As every year, some respondents have no idea events in 1918, and since many of us have forgotten what they taught us at school, let us recall the sequence of events leading to our independence. "

Bloody Years 1938-45 (5)

The rise of nationalism under Austria This is how Karl Marx put it for the Neue Reinische Zeitung in 1848. The quote was exactly as follows: "… irreconcilable struggle, war to the death of the Slavs, those traitors of the revolution… their extermination is needed, unbridled terrorism against them - not in the interests of Germany ( of course not, Karl .... ), but for the sake of the revolution… The situation between the Slavs and the Germans was already so tense at that time that the greatest revolutionary - Charles Marx ( himself considered a revolutionary and the GERMAN ) - immediately knew what to do with what he said, " Slavic splinters in the body monarchy ". So this comrades from Moscow and Prague somehow kept it secret from us …

Bloody Years 1938-45 (6)

Znojmo capitulated. We are going to Bratislava! Moravia, even though it has been a part of the Czech lands for more than a thousand years, is not Czech and everything is always a little different. It was no different in 1918.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (7)

Front-line veterans In general, not much is known about the Czechoslovak Army, which began in October 1918 to liberate and occupy the territory of the new Czechoslovakia. During the First Republic, it somehow "officially" pretended that the victory was brought by the legionaries. Under the communists, there was only talk of Czech Red Army men, and the legionaries were soldiers of imperialism or fought against the Bolsheviks, and the Great October Socialist Revolution was the only one that actually brought us freedom. Moreover, as far as I live, everyone is talking about cowardly Czechs. Fully in line with the views of Vienna's nationalist propaganda under Austria-Hungary and the post-February Communists. It is interesting that Hitler, as a soldier fighting in World War I, was very careful in his views on Czechoslovak soldiers and the nation as a coward during the war. During the Protectorate, he refused to involve any Czech soldiers in the war, although otherwise I would be willing to use Bosniaks, Albanians and Indians ...

Bloody Years 1938-45 (8)

Lost Heroes The maturity and self-confidence of a nation can be recognized by the way it evaluates its soldiers, even though they have been on various warring sides due to political and personal events. The young and new republics did not behave badly towards the soldiers serving the emperor, but adored mainly legionnaires. It was understandable then. We can say that if it were not for the brave Czech " Austro-Hungarian " soldiers who formed the basis of the new Czechoslovak army, the Czechoslovak Republic might never have emerged. Because it was created by diplomacy, supported by a substantiated force.

Boršov 17. 4. 1945

Today, on the edge of the forest near Boršov nad Vltavou and in the fields near the village of Záluží, we find small monuments commemorating the fatal accidents of two American pilots on April 17, 1945. The places are separated by the Vltava River, but the two sad events are closely related.

Brest air defense

Situation plan of the Polish air defense of Brest-Lithuania in September 1939.

Brest-Litovsk 1941

In June 1941, the 4th Soviet Army was located in the area of Brest-Litovsk, which "conquered" the Brest-Litovsk fortress on the Poles in September 1939 and then held a legendary joint parade with Guderian's divisions. The following article discusses its fate at the beginning of the German invasion.

Brigadier General Vladimir Prikryl

Biography of a member of the Czechoslovak legions in Russia and the commander of the 2nd Parachute Brigade. A man who, like many others, was imprisoned after 1948 instead of being rewarded for his work in the Czechoslovak foreign resistance.

British vehicle markings - Part 1

Have you thought about what the multicolored squares with and without numbers can mean, on British tanks and other armored and unarmored vehicles, and you didn't know? If you don't know or want to broaden your horizons, this series of articles is just for you!

British vehicle markings - Part 2

In the last part, we talked about the marking of vehicles at armored units, now we have the marking of infantry division vehicles!

BT fast tanks in combat

The American tanks of the designer Walter Christie indisputably laid the foundations of modern Soviet tanks. Soviet designers, workers and the entire production base gained a lot of experience in their modifications and production. It's time to show what the new tanks can do in combat.

BT-5 and BT-7 Continuers of the family

The production of the BT-2 tank initially faced considerable difficulties, but gradually gained momentum. Nevertheless, it was clear that the new tank, as copied from the American model, was not the most suitable for service in the difficult conditions of the Soviet Union. It was necessary to make changes.

Buffalo of the British Naval Air Force 1

The bulging Brewster Buffalos were the first fighter monoplanes aboard American aircraft carriers. However, the ships did not warm up for a long time on the ships and were quickly replaced by the more modern F4F Wildcat. The aircraft thus began its combat career in the air forces of Finland, Great Britain and the Netherlands. The following lines will introduce you to the work of the "buffalo" in the RAF.

Buffalo of the British Naval Air Force 2

The bulging Brewster Buffalos were the first fighter monoplanes aboard American aircraft carriers. However, the ships did not warm up for a long time on the ships and were quickly replaced by the more modern F4F Wildcat. The aircraft thus began its combat career in the air forces of Finland, Great Britain and the Netherlands. The following lines will introduce you to the work of the " buffalo " in the RAF.

Capitano Mario Visintini

An Italian fighter who became a legend of the remote battlefield of Italian East Africa in the fight against Allied superiority.

Captain Jaroš: he hated the communists, yet he became their icon

Hero of the Battle of Sokolovo. A soldier who hated communists and the communists wanted to get rid of him. He protested against the political abuse of the Czechoslovak unit in the Soviet Union and was eventually abused after his death. His name became a symbol of post-war propaganda in Czechoslovakia. That was Captain Otakar Jaroš. The article is part of a special at

Causa Karl Dönitz

His superiors and most of his subordinates praised him. When he was tried for war crimes, the Soviet prosecutor threw the word grand pirate at him and asked for his head. Witnesses to the Battle of the Atlantic are dying, Dönitz continues to divide German society.

Ceremonial military parade in Moscow, June 24, 1945

The Great Patriotic War, the long 1418 days and nights of bloody fighting between Nazi Germany and its satellites, and the Soviet Union and its allies. At the end of it, a magnificent parade took place in Moscow, commemorating the military successes and victories in this war - the defeat of Nazism. On the days when we commemorate the anniversary of the liberation of our country and the end of the Second World War in Europe, I want to show you how this parade went on Red Square.

Chamberlein's radio speech on the declaration of war on Germany on September 3, 1939

This morning, the British ambassador in Berlin handed over a final note to the German government, stating that if we did not receive a guarantee from it within 11 o'clock that it was ready to withdraw troops from Poland immediately, a state of war would be declared between our countries. I must now inform you that no such commitment has been made, and as a result, this country is at war with Germany.

Cholmondeley 1940 - Causes and course of one crisis of the Czechoslovak foreign army

When World War II broke out on September 1, 1939, we eagerly awaited the arrival of our military district commission and then joining the army. The month of September passed, then October and nothing smelled. We learned about the establishment of the Czechoslovak army in the town of Agde and the transfer of our boys from the Foreign Legion to this army. [...] More than once I turned to Captain Michal, Lieutenant Křen and others to tell me what will happen to us. Nobody explained anything to me. They just shrugged and did not speak. At that time, they probably already knew about the consequences of the non-aggression pact between Hitler's Germany and the Soviet Union [...]. It resulted in two extremely serious facts. The first could be called the division of Poland as a boy. So far secret. The second was an instruction from the Communist International led by Stalin to all communists not to take part in the capitalist war. Michal Durkaj, former Spanish interbrigadist, Prague 1985

Christmas in exile - How Czechoslovak pilots celebrated war holidays

Christmas 1940 was the saddest of my life. I received two letters before Christmas Day. One from Vlad [Kubíček] and the other from Mirek [Plecitý], who was already at the squadron as a sergeant-shooter. I was the first to open Mirek's letter, which began: " Dear Franta, I consider it my duty to tell you a very sad news, even though it will spoil Christmas for you and others, because I am sure you would learn from other boys. Jenda Křivda started last night on a mission last night. In a short time, they were forced to return for hitherto unexplained reasons. They landed with a bomb. For an unknown reason, however, Jenda's plane crashed just before landing in the forest and burned completely. […] Sorry to ruin your Christmas, but we're guys! "My hands were shaking and I couldn't even read the letter from the Government because of the tears in my eyes. It was a heavy blow to me. I lost my best friend… I sat on my bed for a long time and cried like a child. LOUCKÝ, František: I was left alone. Orbis, Prague 1946, pp. 41–42.

Circumstances of the origin of the first jet engines in Great Britain

The wonderful story of the birth of jet engines, the main stage of which began to be written in the 1930s (apart from some other research work, carried out in Sweden or Switzerland, for example), took place essentially independently in two places on our planet. The first place was research conducted in Germany, especially at Heinkel, led by a major pioneer of this type of aircraft propulsion Dr. Hans von Ohain, who eventually won the imaginary battle for the first takeoff of the aircraft, powered exclusively by jet propulsion. Frank Whittle, in particular, can be considered the second imaginary father of the jet engine. And it is precisely these circumstances of the development of the first functional English jet engines, which significantly contributed to the current form of aircraft propulsion, that this article is devoted to.

Citizens of Hostivice in RAF units 1939 - 1945

From 14 to 16 October 2005, friends from the Prague Aviation Archive (PLA) organized an exhibition in the Hostivice chateau focused on natives of Hostivice who served in the British Royal Air Force during the Second World War. In addition to the pilots themselves and their destinies, the secondary theme of the exhibition was aerial archeology.

City of Ghosts

Operation Barbarossa's plan envisaged the creation of three large formations, each of which was to attack in one of three strategic directions. Army Group North was to advance through the Baltics and conquer Leningrad. The Army Group Center was to destroy the main Soviet forces and advance directly to Moscow. Finally, the South Army Group was to advance as far as possible to Ukraine and destroy enemy ties. We will look to the north, where in the end everything turned out completely differently than the German command imagined.

Clay - Eva

The operation of the paratroop group Clay - one of the most successful landings in the Protectorate.

Code letters - Jagdverbände der Luftwaffe

From the spring of 1939 it was introduced for a new system of code letters for fighters (Kampfverbänden). The combination of numbers and letters in front of the side cross indicated the appropriate volume to which a particular machine belonged ...

Code letters - Kampfverbände der Luftwaffe

From the spring of 1939 the new code letter system for Kampfverbänden was introduced. The combination of numbers and letters in front of the side cross indicated the appropriate unit to which a particular machine belonged.

Colonel Werner Mölders

The most successful Legion Condor fighter in the Spanish Civil War with 14 victories. The ace of the Battle of France and Britain. The first fighter in the world to reach the limit of 100 victories. The First Fighter General became the first bearer of Diamonds with Swords and Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross of the German Wehrmacht.

Commando from the cannibal islands

When the fire of World War II also hit the Pacific, it seemed very unlikely that indigenous tribes from the remote Fiji archipelago would join the Allied effort to clear the occupied islands of Japanese.

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

Introduction The confiscation of Sudeten German property is sometimes referred to as a legitimate property sanction against the enemies and traitors of the Czech nation. On the other hand, in connection with confiscation, the denial of one of the basic democratic principles, which is the inviolability of private property rights, is sharply criticized.

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

1. Expulsion The confiscation of property followed the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans, which was a necessary precondition for it. In the first chapter I want to briefly deal with its course, the legislative aspect of the adopted solution. I want to point out how complicated and sometimes unresolved the process of deportation was and how the forced departure of the German population took place in Rumburk. When did the relocation in Rumburk begin? What was his speed, course? How many German residents were affected by forced departure?

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

3. Rumburk The town of Rumburk is located in the northernmost part of Bohemia in the Šluknov promontory. From 1850 to 1960 it was a district town and in the Sudetenland in northern Bohemia it was one of the most important municipalities. It represents the natural center of the Šluknov promontory, it is an important hub of road and railway transport. Until the Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938), Rumburk as a city in the Sudetenland was considered an indisputable part of the Czech state. Due to its location, however, it was surrounded by a German-speaking population.

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

4. RINCO Werke industrial confiscation My initial hypothesis is that the confiscation did not proceed according to a clearly defined plan, but was carried out suddenly, unsystematically, thus giving considerable scope for various illegal transfers of property. I will try to prove my hypothesis on the example of RINCO Werke. Will I try to answer the questions of why the national administration was imposed, the confiscation area and what was the fate of the company as a result? What are the powers of the national administrators, who had real power in the management of the business, in dealing with the confiscated property?

Conquest of Guam

If, on June 6, 1944, General Eisenhower feared the invasion of Allied troops into the depths of France on the newly opened Western European battlefield, in the Pacific his commanding colleagues Admiral Nimitz and General MacArthur had similar concerns about Operation "Forager," which they entrusted to Admiral Spruance. At the beginning of the summer of 1944, the situation became so mature that American Pacific forces could dare to attack the Marianas Islands - an "inner barrier" leading to further progress to the Japanese home islands.

Corpo Aereo Italiano in the Battle of Britain

One of the best documented episodes of the Battle of Britain captures the activities of Corpo Aereo Italiano when Regia Aeronautica had its forces stationed in Belgium. These forces were to assist the Germans in raids on targets on the Islands. It is not clear what the Italian High Command wanted to achieve by participating in this operation.

Count János Esterházy

Slovak nobleman of Hungarian nationality, politician, nationalist, but also a savior of many lives, dragged to the USSR after the war and dying in a communist prison.

Curtiss C-46 Commando

Curtiss Commando was born as a design for a 36-seat commercial airliner with a pressurized cabin, designated the "CW-20". Development began in 1936 with the Curtiss design team, led by George W. Page. The CW-20 was planned as a larger, more reliable and more powerful competitor to the Douglas DC-3, which was just entering service at the time.

Curtiss-Wright CW-21 or American Interceptor in the hands of Dutch pilots, part 2

The first Japanese raid on Java occurred on February 2, 1942. The Curtiss-Wrights remained on the ground that day. They first flew against the enemy the next day, February 3, 1942. The Japanese attacked seventy Mitsubishi G3M Nell bombers from Takao Kókútai, Kanoya Kókútai and 3. Kókútai, whose air cover was provided by forty-four fighters Mitsubishi A6M Reisen (Zero) from Tainan Kókúi. Kókútai.

Czech legend in the English sky

He was a pilot who did not exist before and will not exist. He alone engaged in a duel with the predominance of the enemy. He flew alone, unexpectedly attacking the Germans. He was the best shooter - whenever he pulled the trigger of his machine gun, a German crashed down ...

Czech meanings of Wehrmacht ranks

Given that in many media people still have to deal with many different versions of the meanings of the ranks of German soldiers of World War II, I decided to write a simple table based on the logic of the hierarchy of military ranks, and is not tied only to Czech or Anglo-American equivalents, which bring only confusion to the whole issue.

Czechoslovak Air Force in the Sudetenland crisis - general consideration

The Air Force was one of the six main weapons of the Czechoslovak Armed Forces, and in almost 20 years of its existence it has created a fairly exclusive position, recognizable at first glance by the color of military uniforms, a different side weapon and lavish professional badges. The specific position of the weapon was also given a special way of management, when the entire department of the Ministry of National Defense was set aside for them during the peace period. From 1934, the Air Force switched to a three-tier system of command at the level of a ministerial department - provincial headquarters - a military body, in 1936, the artillery of defense against aircraft was also incorporated into this structure.

Czechoslovak fighters in the Battle of France - 1940

The article describes the structure of the French fighter air force in the spring of 1940 and the incorporation of Czechoslovak fighters into it. Furthermore, the success of individual Czechoslovak fighters for individual fighter squadrons ( GC - Groupe de Chasse ) according to the type of aircraft.

Czechoslovak pilots in Soviet captivity 1939–1941

"Hunger forced us to beg for bread from the settlers, and on this occasion we learned from them that the Red Army had crossed the border on September 17 and was going to help Poland. We are all just scattered around the village when 28 Russian planes arrive at ground level. We do not know the situation, and when we see a red rocket fired from a plane, we know that a rage command has been given, perhaps the worst in my life. The planes bomb the village from low altitudes in all directions, this one is immediately in one sea of flames, stirred up by massive detonations of standing ammunition trucks. After the bombing, Russian planes occupy a different formation, the so-called 'wheel', and machine guns fire at every target in the village that still seems alive. After an hour of this furnace, where we can't see each other for smoke and a hundred dead and wounded, the planes take off and we get out of the village. Our last things were destroyed by flames, so I'm glad to meet Lt. Lenc, rtm. Fornůstek and des.Vyhnis. We are looking for our unit, but in vain. ” So were the words of Lt. Václav Kopecký, who later fell into Soviet captivity.

Czechoslovak soldiers in the first year of occupation

For a large part of the Czech population, Hitler's decree on the establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia did not mean the end of their hopes. On the contrary, it indicated the possibility of autonomous development. The aim of the day was to preserve everything Czech, to save the " autonomy " of the Czech nation at all costs. Demonstration church pilgrimages, celebrations with the imposition of Mach's remains in Vyšehrad and other events based on tense Czechism, agrarianism and Catholicism were held in accordance with the Protectorate government, whose representatives also took part in these events. Historian Jan Tesar described this period as a euphoria of " teary " and often sentimental national unity. It is also necessary to take into account the relatively considerable helpfulness of some high-ranking Nazi chiefs or the German occupation administration towards military personel.

Czechoslovakia in the autumn of 1938 from an economic and legal point of view

The autumn of 1938 is well known from the pens of historians in Czechoslovak history, when the first Czechoslovak Republic ceased to exist as a result of the withdrawal of the borderland and the second Czech-Slovak Republic was established. Therefore, I would not like to repeat all the known facts here. Until now, I would try to empathize with the attitude of a cold-blooded trader whose goal is to survive in the market, and with that let's always approach problems. Therefore, my dear readers for a moment get rid of any ideology. A few years ago, I read a book by the outstanding thinker Master Sun: "On the Art of War." In this book, I was drawn to the idea that everyone was to beat themselves. While victory is the result of the abilities of the winner and the inability of the loser.

Czechs in the service of the Luftwaffe?

"I report that yesterday in the officers' mess I've been asked by an English Flight Lieutenant - how many Czechs are said to be flying in the Luftwaffe against the RAF? I told him of course no one, as far as I know! But he quoted me the story of a German plane shot down last year over Malta, whose pilot was a drunk Czech officer who was taken to an English canteen, saying that he would rather fly for Hitler than work in a factory!"
Report of Squadron Leader (S / Ldr - major) Vlastimil Veselý from April 20, 1943 to the Inspectorate of the Czechoslovak Air Force in London.

Dam busters - Part II

Execution of the attack on the Möhne, Eder and Sorpe dams and the results of the Chastis operation

Defense of Brest in September 1939

In 1939, Brest was the capital of the Polish voivodship. It was an important transport hub and military center of the central section of the eastern part of Poland. In March 1921, on the basis of the Polish-Soviet treaty, it became part of Poland with its fortifications.

Defensive war of the USSR ? Part 1

The best defense is in the enemy's territory - a handbook of Red Army tactics.
Real Soviet plans to enter WWII and communist propaganda obscuring reality to this day. Controversy over the works of V. Suvorov

Defensive war of the USSR ? Part 3

The Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army will be the most offensive of any army that has ever attacked.
DRRA field regulations from 1939
Mines are a great thing, but they are a remedy for the weak, for those who defend themselves. We do not need mines, but means of demining
Marshal of the USSR G.I. Kulik, early June 1941

Deliveries of Sherman tanks to Great Britain and "17lb gun"

The Armed Forces of the British Empire were the largest foreign user of Sherman tanks. Out of the total production of 49,234 Shermans, a total of 17,181 pieces were delivered to Great Britain (this, of course, includes tanks that were used in units from the British dominions - Canada, Australia and New Zealand - and colonies, or in the Allied, e.g. Polish units).

Development of the American economy during World War II

Introduction The Second World War and most of the ensuing conflicts showed us that it is primarily air superiority that has a major impact on the end result of massive armed conflicts. On the example of aviation and the industry associated with it, I will approach the basic factors of the development of American economic development towards post-war dominance.

Development of the American economy during World War II

1 The pre-war state of the United States of America The economic situation in the United States was still not very positive at the end of the 1930s. The government failed to fully eliminate the problems arising from the Great Depression, which began in the autumn of 1929. President Roosevelt's New Deal, with which he took office in 1933, marked a significant change in the role of the state in a market economy. These changes were further supported by John Meynard Keynes' newly emerging economic theory, published in 1936 in The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money.

Development of the American economy during World War II

2. The course of US assistance to its main allies In this chapter, I will examine how the US has influenced its allies with its supplies of materials, equipment and weapons. Probably the best-known example of such assistance was the Lend-Lease program, but even before its creation and approval, the United States helped Britain and France to face the Nazi threat. Who was the main supporter of the assistance and what problems and obstacles did the approval and later course of the program have to deal with are further questions to be answered. We can therefore distinguish two periods of US assistance - before the approval of the Loan and Lease program and after the approval of this program.

Development of the American economy during World War II

3. Institutional organization of the US war effort The transformation of the economy into a war effort is not an easy task. Without a proper plan, the effort can become too chaotic and very ineffective. In this chapter, I will deal with the institutions and authorities that were involved in the transition to war production. There were many institutions, some lasting for years and others disappearing within a few months, their fields very often overlapping, so it is not easy to determine which was the most important in that area.

Development of the American economy during World War II

4. Building the aeronautical defense industry Sufficiently productive industrial production is a key factor for success in a modern war. After the not very successful 1930s, American industry faced a new challenge - to ensure sufficient production not only for the civilian sector, but above all to arm the United States itself. What methods of financing were used for the development of the industry, who were the owners and operators of the new factories? How the development took place in the aviation industry, whether there were significant problems affecting production. So what values of production were achieved? I will address these issues in this chapter.

Development of the American economy during World War II

Conclusion The sharp deterioration of the international situation after 1938 put US officials in a difficult situation. It was clear on this front that the possible continued expansion of Germany in connection with Japan could lead to a threat to American interests and positions. On the domestic front, the situation was perceived differently. An isolationist view prevailed throughout American society.

Development of the American economy during World War II

On March 11, 1941, the President of the United States signed the Lend-Lease Act. The name was not chosen at random: "The term loan and lease has been used to divert attention from the fact that the US government is financing weapons supplied to Britain and its allies."
World War II and most of the ensuing conflicts have shown us that it is primarily air superiority that has a major impact on the end result of massive armed conflicts. On the example of aviation and the industry associated with it, I will approach the basic factors of the development of American economic development towards post-war dominance.


Development of World War II jet engines at Heinkel

In this article, I would like to elaborate a comprehensive and interesting history of the development of jet engines at the German airline Heinkel before and during World War II. world war. According to my current information (unlike the relatively well-known jet projects Jumo 004 and BMW 003), this topic has not been developed in the appropriate breadth in our country, which is why I decided to deal with this topic using mostly foreign language sources.

Dewoitine D.520 02 - With everyone - against everyone

Due to the government's laziness, the most powerful French fighter got into production late. At the beginning of World War II, the units received only the first few pieces. After the defeat of France, the D.520 flew on various battlefields, under various insignia, on the side of the Axis and against it, against the Allies and on their side.

Dice and Poker: The most popular games of World War II

Man has a playful nature by nature, and this fact does not change even in times of war. Maybe just the opposite. Various card, table and gambling games are often one of the few ways to have fun and disperse even in modest conditions on the front line. Professor Patrick Costa discusses the more entertaining part of the lives of American soldiers in World War II in his blog. (paid advertising)

Did dissatisfaction with the diet result in an open uprising of the operational personnel of the 311th Czechoslovak Bomber Squadron?

When ( Ocelka ) left the dining room, Franta punched a fork and knife on the table and shouted what was enough for his throat: " We're not going to die for such food, guys! What do you call it? «The pilots agreed with him and everyone put down their cutlery. Franta climbed onto the table for everyone to see and hear, " Did you hear what the commander said? That he would not go anywhere for such food, and you rams would go to the slaughterhouse again; This must be done, either today or never. You know very well what raid awaits us again! Friends, we are not afraid to fly, we are not afraid of fascists, but we must not continue to suffer " ." KOCMAN, Vincenc: Fight without glory. Brno 1962, pp. 124-125.

Do you know the difference between commandos, rangers and green berets?

The country where the first modern special forces were born was Great Britain. (I emphasize the word "modern"!) In 1940, ten special units were set up for the Norwegian campaign with the mission of preventing the Germans from building submarine bases in Norway. This is how the famous commandos were created. The name was taken over by the British from the Portuguese through the Boers, who used it during the Boer War in South Africa to name their militias ...

Dornier Do 335 Pfeil 01 - Elegant tandem

Do 335 Pfeil was one of the fastest piston engine aircraft developed during World War II. Although the concept itself was older, the impetus for its completion was the deployment of fast British Mosquito aircraft and the deteriorating situation of Nazi Germany. The plane was to fulfill Hitler's vision of a fast bomber.

Dwight David Eisenhower

The life and work of a former commander in chief of Allied troops in World War II and a prominent post-war American president.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

Introduction “Just retribution to all direct and indirect, active and passive perpetrators of the war to teach all future and - to break up for good! Otherwise, an unprecedented massacre would have to take place between our nations after this terrible war! We can and must prevent this at all costs: ”This is how President Edvard Beneš saw the end of Czech-German coexistence on Czechoslovak territory after the end of the Second World War.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

1. Development of Jesenice until 1945 After the end of the First World War in 1918, the local Germans welcomed the creation of an independent province of Sudetenland, which should be part of the so-called German Austria. This step was strongly supported by the German Social Democrats. However, this did not happen, the Czechoslovak government wanted to preserve the historic borders of the republic, which included the Sudetenland, so the province was dissolved in December 1918.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

2. Circumstances and course of German displacement With the end of the war approaching, the issue of unfortunate ethnic composition in Czechoslovakia became more and more topical. A significant German minority, which after the census in 1930 made up approximately 21.9% of the population in the Czechoslovak Republic, by its behavior during the 1930s, especially during Munich and the subsequent establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, gave the Czech nations many reasons to accelerate its influence. One of the solutions was her displacement from Czechoslovak territory.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

3. Economic and social impacts of the expulsion of Germans Jesenice was one of the few areas where, in my opinion, the main problem was not to ensure the proper expulsion of Germans, but above all how to deal with this high population decline. The drastic loss of almost 85% of the population can already cause the demographic collapse of the region, so I would omit any moral assessment of the displacement of the German population and focus on the economic and social consequences of this process. However, I would like to start the chapter with the topic of the new settlement of Jesenice, which was necessary for the preservation of the district and its economic recovery after the Second World War, and which completely changed its national character.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

Conclusion One of the arguments for the expulsion of the Germans was that Czechoslovakia wants to get rid of national minorities that could threaten the position of Czechs and Slovaks in the future. He wants to start a new stage of history with a uniform composition of inhabitants made up of Czech and Slovak citizens. However, Jesenice was settled not only from Czechoslovak territory, but also from abroad. People from Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, re-emigrants from Ukraine and Volyn came here. The local people tried to de-germinate everything they could, while being forced to accept new customs and traditions from other nations. This composition destabilized the Jesenice region not only culturally, but also affected social relations between the inhabitants, who at first had no confidence in each other. I would describe this issue with the phrase "one stranger out the door, another through the window back".

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

The bachelor's thesis focuses on one of the turning points in the history of Jesenice, taking place in the years 1945 - 1947, when most of the local population was displaced from this almost German border area as part of the expulsion of the Germans. The first part of the thesis evaluates the development of Czech-German relations in the Jesenice region. The second part, in addition to the expulsion itself, analyzes in more detail the individual measures against the Germans together with the central Beneš decrees. The aim of the work is to evaluate the consequences of deportation, which is discussed in its third part. The main emphasis is placed on economic and social impacts, supplemented by a practical demonstration of changes in property relations in one of the Jesenice municipalities. The analysis also includes the replacement of the German minority with new settlers in the settlement process. The work is based on unpublished (archival, oral history) and published sources and professional literature, uses historical and economic methods (including statistical, biographical).

Eduard Martinko

Czech living in Croatia, achieved within JG 52 12 confirmed and 1 unconfirmed victories in the fighting on the Eastern Front.

Edward Lister Gimbel

Edward L. Gimbel was one of many Americans who took part in the fighting alongside the British after the outbreak of World War II, but ended his fighting journey in famous American 4th Fighter Group by being shot down over Prague.

Eights in our history

In the Czech nation, it is said that in the 20th century, the eight at the end of the century is fatal for us. However, this is not quite true - the eights, which signaled a certain breakthrough, we know from centuries past. For example, in 1348, Emperor and King Charles IV founded University of Prague - today Charles University. In May 1618, the evangelical nobles expelled two imperial governors and a scribe from Prague Castle - this defenestration was the beginning of the aristocratic resistance, which ended with the final subordination of the Czech lands to the Habsburg dynasty and their incorporation into the Austrian monarchy. In the turbulent year of 1848, when a number of uprisings broke out in Central Europe, the inhabitants of Prague also rose - their defeat led to the strengthening of the Austrian government. Ten years later, the National Theater in Prague began its activities - one of the symbols of patriotism. In 1878, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers 'Party was established in Prague - the first workers' party in the Czech lands.

Embarrassed entrée - combat baptism of Bomber Command RAF

3 minutes after noon on September 3, 1939, at a time when the state of war between the United Kingdom and Germany lasted only an hour, Blenheim Mk.IV serial number N6215 took off from the airport in Wyton from the 139. Squadron RAF. The plane, piloted by F / O AM McPherson, had a truly historic role - to make the first combat flight of the RAF over enemy territory in a new war. According to the instructions, the crew was to conduct a survey of Wilhelmshaven and airports in northwestern Germany.

Emil Fechtner

He achieved one of the first victories among Czechoslovak pilots in the Battle of Britain, a DFC bearer, died in a collision with another machine in October 1940.

Erhard Raus

Correct evaluation of opponents… courage to clear the field for a short time, if only a small group is in front of you, energy invested in sharp marches, audacity in sudden attacks, increased activity that great souls acquire in a moment of danger - these are the basis of such victories.

Ernst Barkmann

Some interesting facts from the life of this tank commander.

Escape from Auschwitz

Auschwitz - Auschwitz, Březinka - Birkenau. Names that still terrify and tremor even those who have never been there. Millions of those who were there never returned. Auschwitz is synonymous with the most terrible concentration camp, German hell in Poland near our borders. Here is the story of one of the few lucky ones who managed to escape from this factory to death.

Escape of eight Slovak pilots to Poland

"After the sad March 15, 1939 and March 17, 1939, when our friends from Bohemia left us, I decided together with cpl. Hrala and cpl. Rehák that we will leave Slovakia in any way, because we have seen how tragic the mistake was made by the Slovak representatives who put themselves in the service of Hitler. "
Cpl. Ján Lazar, July 29, 1941

Export of weapons from Czechoslovakia to capitalist foreign countries (1950–1960)

Traditions of the Czech, resp. of the Czechoslovak armaments industry dates back not only to the time of the first Czechoslovak Republic, but much further, to the times of Austria-Hungary. In the 1930s, Czechoslovakia was one of the ten largest arms exporters in the world, and during the Nazi occupation, the sector continued to grow and modernize. World War II did not do much damage to armaments companies in our territory, so it could boldly follow the pre-war parameters of exports.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

Introduction I chose the topic of the expulsion of Czech Germans after World War II for my bachelor's thesis because it is still a living topic. The alternating statements on the one hand of various Sudeten German expatriate associations and on the other hand of representatives of Czech society and the state must be registered by anyone who regularly reads newspapers and watches TV news. The debatable phenomenon of collective guilt and the even more debatable right to its collective punishment, the historical context of the so-called Beneš decrees, the dispute over the use of the term "expulsion", the obligation reminded by both parties of dealing with the past, they repeat in these statements. It is clear that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans to World War II. marked not only the lives of the generations he was directly affected by it, but also the political and economic context of the years to come and, in the context indicated above, our presence.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

1. Common history of Czechs and Germans in Bohemia and Moravia The first ethnically known inhabitants in the territory of today's Bohemia and Moravia were the Celtic Buoys. They attracted to this territory during the great migration of the Celts, which took place around 400 BC. About three hundred years later, they were expelled by the Germanic Marcomanni. During the migration of peoples, the Slavs settled in Bohemia. Due to the fact that they focused on agriculture, they chose mainly fertile areas in the interior of the Czech basin.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

2. Displacement of the Sudetenland on the basis of decrees of the President of the Republic Edvard Beneš In connection with the Second World War, two ethnic movements based on ethnic principles took place on the territory of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland. The first was the transfer of the Czechs originally living here to the interior of the republic after the Munich Agreement and the occupation of this territory by the Third Reich in 1938. The second was the expulsion of Sudeten Germans to Germany after World War II.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

3. Settlement of the Sudetenland An integral part of the expulsion of the Germans was the settlement of the border with new inhabitants. These were mainly Czech citizens or Slovak nationalities from the interior, which were to a lesser extent supplemented by Czechs coming from abroad, but also foreigners. There were certain Czech enclaves in the inhabited area, which persisted even during the occupation period. It was 10-12% of the total population of the Sudetenland.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

Conclusion In my bachelor's thesis I tried to describe to a given extent the story of the historical coexistence of Czechs and Czech Germans in a common state and the outcome of this coexistence into a tragic collision during and after World War II. The relationship between the two ethnic groups built for centuries did not survive the dramatic crossover of the territorial expansion of a united Germany and the re-search resp. the search for the state-sovereign identity of Czechs and Slovaks as directed by the Central European area of the 20th century.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

I chose the topic of the expulsion of Czech Germans after World War II for my bachelor's thesis because it is still a living topic and fed by many. The alternating statements on the one hand of various Sudeten German expatriate associations and on the other hand of representatives of Czech society and the state must be registered by anyone who regularly reads newspapers and watches TV news. The debatable phenomenon of collective guilt and the even more debatable right to its collective punishment, the historical context of the so-called Beneš decrees, the dispute over the use of the term "expulsion", the obligation reminded by both parties of dealing with the past, they repeat in these statements. It is clear that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans after World War II. marked not only the lives of the generations that was directly affected, but also the political and economic context of the years to come and, in the context indicated above, our presence.

F. Kriegel - politician who saved the Czechoslovak honor (1)

100 years ago, on April 10, 1908, František Kriegel was born in Stanislawów. It has made a remarkable impression on our modern history. The poor Jewish boy from Galicia was the only Czechoslovak top prisoner-politician who said NO! to Brezhnev in the turbulent days of August 1968 and did not sign the Moscow dictatorship and thus saved our Czechoslovak honor. The well-known Czech philosopher Karel Kosík once said that he tried to find a similar act in Czech history: it can only be compared to Jan Hus's actions in Constance.

F. Kriegel - politician who saved the Czechoslovak honor (2)

František Kriegel, a Czechoslovak politician who did not sign the consent to the dictates of Moscow in August 1968, would have lived to be hundreds of years old these days. In the second of the three parts, we will find František Kriegl during the Prague Spring and the invasion of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact. This portrait of František Kriegl was also published in a slightly different form in the exile "Roman" Letters and will be reminded by Letters No. 2/2008, published this month.

F. Kriegel - politician who saved the Czechoslovak honor (3)

František Kriegel, a Czechoslovak politician who did not sign the consent to Moscow's dictates in August 1968, would be 100 years old last Thursday. The final part of the recollections is devoted to the period after 1968, when the then communist regime tried to make František Kriegl's life unpleasant in every possible way. But they couldn't break him. His signature appeared among Charter 77 among the first. This portrait of František Kriegl was also published in a slightly different form in the exile "Roman" Letters and will be reminded by Letters No. 2/2008, published this month.

F6F Hellcat and its versions

Origin, development and version of one of the most successful American fighter aircraft of World War II.

Fall Weiss in Těšín area

On September 1, 1939, a small but industrially important part of Czechoslovakia from Bohumín to Jablunkov on the left bank of the Olza River, which was occupied by Poland and became part of it, did not witness fierce fighting on September 1, 1939. Despite its economic importance, the Poles did not intend to defend it steadily, but preparations for World War II and the course of its first day were recorded in municipal chronicles, Polish historiography, as well as in German war documents.

Fascist Spain and Portugal

Soon after the First World War, a new enemy of democratic and socialist forces emerged - fascism. It is a specific phenomenon of the first half of the 20th century. Fascism, in terms of ideology, absorbed everything that could be heard in the masses. His starting point was nationalism and chauvinism, and he did not despise extreme racism. His thoughts were always very flexible and willing to adapt to the situation. They always tried to get attention.

Father Palec

The founder of the Czechoslovak airborne army gen. Karel Paleček tried to ensure that his units were destined primarily for special operations.

Favorite myths and legends

At times, it is somewhat surprising how much better things are done with stubbornness - many authors stick to some information that is translated around certain war events, techniques or even the decisions of the highest commanders, without trying to verify them.

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 1

The first part of the series devoted to the fighting of the 1st Field Battalion at Sokolovo in March 1943 deals with the unhappy situation of Czechoslovak citizens who found themselves in Soviet labor camps. It is generally little known that about 80% of the members of the 1st Field Battalion were made up of gulag prisoners.

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 11

After hard fighting near Sokolov, Czechoslovak battalion was threatened with siege. That is why he was ordered to retreat, during which, however, there was no shortage of dramatic moments ...

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 13

Czechoslovak soldiers were ordinary people, as in all armies. There were heroes, there were cowards. Both are part of the complete history of the deployment of the 1st Field Battalion near Sokolov and there is no point in claiming that the second category did not exist. Nevertheless, it cannot be overlooked that there were only a few cowards, while there were many, many more those who did not leave their combat posts ...

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 14

The final part of the series about the first combat performance of Czechoslovak unit on the Eastern Front deals with the issue of Czechoslovak soldiers captured in Sokolov.

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 2

The second part of the article on the combat performance of Czechoslovak soldiers near Sokolovo reveals the desperate situation of Czechoslovak citizens in the gulags and the difficulties they had to deal with when they wanted to join the Czechoslovak units.

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 5

The very move of Czechoslovakia. unit to Kharkov, where she had deployed within the Voronezh Front, was not easy. The Soviet railways were badly damaged by the war, so the transfer to Valuiki station, from where the soldiers were to continue on foot, took three weeks.

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 6

Soldiers of the 1st Field Battalion left for the front as a fast unit, trained and designed to lead offensive combat. After the assignment of motor vehicles, it was to take part in offensive actions, which at that time were led by the Voronezh Front. However, the reversal in the situation at the front caused them to frantically have to start building defensive positions and wait for German tanks ...

Fight for Sokolovo - Part 7

Preparations for the fight culminate, the Czechoslovaks are building a defense, weapons are being deployed. The battle is coming.

Fighter aces

The concept itself was born in France. At the time of the Battle of Verdun, there was a need for a system that would encourage fighters and other pilots to try to surpass others in the number of shot down enemy aircraft. Major de Rose, Air Force Commander of II. Army, then replaced the hitherto inconsistent record of victories with accurate records and at the same time criteria were set for the recognition of achievements, primarily the testimony of their own ground troops. The pilot, who achieved five victories, was entitled to the title of ace ...

Fighter aces

War ... No other word better describes human helplessness. People know that wars are terrible and do nothing good, but they have led, waged, and are likely to continue to wage them. Although they make it possible to manifest the worst and best human qualities, they are undoubtedly the most terrible that mankind has created. They accompany the development of man from his creation to the present day. And because humanity still can't do anything about it, they will probably fight in the future.

Fighter aces

The ancient human desire to soar into the air, to free oneself from the gravity of the earth, to get closer to birds and to God, came true on December 17, 1903. On that day, a man rose into the air for the first time on a flying vehicle heavier than air.

Fighter aces

The situation in Europe in 1914 was unsustainable. The Imperial conquests of the Trojspolk intersected with the interests of the Trojdohoda. It was more than obvious that sooner or later there would be a conflict.

Fighter aces

It was obvious that the fighter must have very special characteristics. Above all, he must be faster, climb better and faster, and be able to operate at higher altitudes. Last but not least, he must be heavily armed and have very good maneuverability. These conditions clearly indicated the need for a high-performance engine and low weight for the entire machine.

Fighter aces

On the Western Front, the Allies prepared several offensive operations in 1915, which were basically to test the possibility of breaking the German lines.

Fighter aces

In the east, fierce fighting continued after the battle of East Prussia.

Fighter aces

At the end of the summer of 1916, German war pilots woke up a nightmare in the form of a French Spad S.VII biplane, with the words "Vieux Charles" written on the fuselage, crashing headlong to the stern of their aircraft.

Fighter aces

If it was a "material battle" on the ground near Verdun, then it was no different in the air. For the first time, larger aircraft formations began to compete here. The number of air battles was growing at a dizzying pace.

Fighter aces

In April 1917, General Nivelle, who succeeded General Joffre as commander in chief of the French army, planned to break through German defensive positions on the heights at the Chemin des Dames. It was an enticing goal, because if successful, Allied troops would control a wide area all around the heights. From here it was possible to see the whole Champagnes plain and it was possible to secure the bridgehead of the river Aisne. However, this plan was doomed to failure from the beginning.

Fighter aces

English pilots and mechanics wasted time telling terrifying stories in the haunting monsters of the hangars, waiting for orders. They whispered about planes that had returned to the airport with a dead crew, planes that had been missing for weeks and yet were seen again and again in the air, heralding losses in the ranks of the unit, or pilots who, although long dead, they came to the canteen without a word and left again, and sooner or later everyone they met also went to the realm of oblivion. However, none of these fables were more horrible than the legend of the " Red Baron . "

Fighter aces

In addition to the famous victories, however, came the first defeats.

Fighter aces

After the Battle of Cambrai, the winter of 1917/18 took place without dramatic events.

Fighter aces

Knightly battles were irretrievably a thing of the past. Gone are the days when lone predators gliding across their rivals in the sky, this time when the famous masters were competing, was over.

Fighter aces

Because Italy did not receive a guarantee of territorial gain from the Triple Entente at the beginning of the war, it declared its neutrality on August 3, 1914, despite the German pressure.

Fighter aces

The German General Staff, aware of the stalemate on the Western Front, tried to resolve the conflict on another battlefield.

Fighter aces

In September 1918, the RAF headquarters decided that Major Barker had done enough for the British Empire. He was therefore promoted to the rank of Lieutenant - Colonel (Lieutenant Colonel) and appointed commander of the Aviation School of Higher Pilotage in Hounslow, England.

Fighter aces

After heavy losses, the offensive at Ypres finally stopped. However, RFC pilots did not have many opportunities to rest, because on April 20, 1917, a tank offensive was launched at Cambrai and RFC squadrons were designed to directly support ground troops.

Fighter aces

At that time, there was also stagnation in the chemical war. The soldiers of both sides were no longer surprised, experience taught them to use protective masks quickly and effectively.

Fighter aces

While Collishaw was on vacation in Vancouver, another excellent British fighter was at home in Canada. He was William Avery Bishop, known throughout France, Britain, Canada and the United States as "the incredible Billy Bishop" - an ace with 47 kills.

Fighter aces

The massive German spring offensive on the Western Front in 1918, which has been mentioned several times, was made possible mainly by the events that took place in the autumn of the previous year in Russia. War operations on the Eastern Front required a different approach in all respects, including air combat. Mass air battles over the Western Front completely overshadowed the air battles taking place in the East. Nevertheless, a number of excellent aces served on both sides of the front.

Fighter aces

On the evening of August 3, 1919, the day the British pilots held a farewell dinner for their Russian friends, Kazakov appeared in the hangar and ordered his Camel to prepare for flight.

Fighter aces

On January 1, 1918, World War II entered its final year, although of course the men at the front had no idea. However, they prayed fervently for it. But the last year of the war was to be as horrible as any previous one. The fighting continued with unabated force, and modern flying knights were still racing over the front. The riders on the winged horses raced again and again into their aerial battles. They flew and flew, chasing through the clouds, living in the air and dying in the fire.

Fighter aces

In the summer of 1918, German pilots found a fallen French pilot in a clip from a French newspaper, which was referred to as a German fighter as an "ace es" . Attached was his photograph and name - Lieutenant Udet. After Richthofen's death, Ernst Udet really had the most victories of all living German pilots. He then fought to stay in this position, and in the end he succeeded. He became the most successful living German fighter and the second most successful overall. However, this was preceded by three years of hard air fighting.

Fighter aces

When Udet was on vacation, Richthofen fell. In JG I, some personnel changes took place and Udet was appointed commander of Jasta 4, belonging to JG I. On the eighth of June, in addition, Lieutenant Hermann Göring, then an ace with 21 victories, took command of JG I. However, his appointment was not deserved so much by his abilities as by his acquaintances in high places.

Fighter aces

On May 8, 1918, Coppens had little time when, after three fruitless attacks on the "sausage", the Germans cut off the balloon and it struck Coppens' Hanriot from below. Fortunately, the fighter slipped on its cover ...

Fighter aces

In the last months of the war, the Allied Air Force clearly demonstrated its numerical and material superiority. The German Air Force, although remaining combat-ready and dangerous until the end, could no longer stop them. In the case of some Allied pilots, the war turned into complete hunts for German aircraft and competition for the championship in the tables according to the number of victories.

Fighter aces

It's almost unbelievable that I survived these exciting dangers then ... But you can handle a lot when you're young.
Arthur Gould Lee, Camel pilot at the 46th RFC Squadron in 1917-18