Berlin was divided into four occupation zones. The Western Allies expressed their determination to maintain West Berlin. In June 1948, Stalin had land access roads closed. The Allies set up a grandiose air bridge ...
The real history of our state in the twentieth century is basically not taught in schools until 1918. It also ceased to be politically correct to show what happened during the war here in the Protectorate and what happened after the war. In particular, any notes, photographs, or documents about Nazi crimes evaporated like steam over a pot. What a difference, for example, from Germany, where exhibitions are held on the crimes of Nazism, on the crimes of the Wehrmacht, children learn what Nazism or the Holocaust were…
Personal memory of how it was in April 1945.
"The Slavs, or us. And because we are stronger, the choice will not be difficult! ” R. Tannenberg
The first defeat of the idea of Great Germany Three most successful Austrian lies:
1. Mozart was Austrian
2. Hitler was German
3. Austria-Hungary was broken by the Czechs
In order to further investigate what actually happened, we need to ask ourselves the basic questions that the world has known since ancient Rome and is used by forensic scientists today.
Werwolfs (and Volkssturm) from 1944 to 9 May 1945.
The Final Infernal Phase of War - Death Marches.
The fates of those who "were not gods".
Do skeletons excercise?
The Germans are the Germans are the Germans.
After the previous chapter, it would be "politically correct" to write something about those "good Germans" who did not participate in Nazi crimes and tried to either oppose or simply survive this terrible time.
It is not in anyone's power to describe and list all the places of horror that Nazism has brought to the world. Even the description of what happened in the original territory of Czechoslovakia is frightening and extensive, that it goes beyond today's ideas. To show the horror of that time, I will focus in this section only on a small, selected section of crimes, both spatially and temporally.
Munich agreement - whose loss was it ?!
History of Germans in Bohemia
A fundamental book about Czechs that Czechs do not know.
Overture, Act 1, or Blood is not water As the blogger "egon" wrote on the net: "A few days ago (October 2001), random pedestrians in front of TV cameras answered the question of when our republic was founded. As every year, some respondents have no idea events in 1918, and since many of us have forgotten what they taught us at school, let us recall the sequence of events leading to our independence. "
The rise of nationalism under Austria This is how Karl Marx put it for the Neue Reinische Zeitung in 1848. The quote was exactly as follows: "… irreconcilable struggle, war to the death of the Slavs, those traitors of the revolution… their extermination is needed, unbridled terrorism against them - not in the interests of Germany ( of course not, Karl .... ), but for the sake of the revolution… The situation between the Slavs and the Germans was already so tense at that time that the greatest revolutionary - Charles Marx ( himself considered a revolutionary and the GERMAN ) - immediately knew what to do with what he said, " Slavic splinters in the body monarchy ". So this comrades from Moscow and Prague somehow kept it secret from us …
Znojmo capitulated. We are going to Bratislava! Moravia, even though it has been a part of the Czech lands for more than a thousand years, is not Czech and everything is always a little different. It was no different in 1918.
Front-line veterans In general, not much is known about the Czechoslovak Army, which began in October 1918 to liberate and occupy the territory of the new Czechoslovakia. During the First Republic, it somehow "officially" pretended that the victory was brought by the legionaries. Under the communists, there was only talk of Czech Red Army men, and the legionaries were soldiers of imperialism or fought against the Bolsheviks, and the Great October Socialist Revolution was the only one that actually brought us freedom. Moreover, as far as I live, everyone is talking about cowardly Czechs. Fully in line with the views of Vienna's nationalist propaganda under Austria-Hungary and the post-February Communists. It is interesting that Hitler, as a soldier fighting in World War I, was very careful in his views on Czechoslovak soldiers and the nation as a coward during the war. During the Protectorate, he refused to involve any Czech soldiers in the war, although otherwise I would be willing to use Bosniaks, Albanians and Indians ...
Lost Heroes The maturity and self-confidence of a nation can be recognized by the way it evaluates its soldiers, even though they have been on various warring sides due to political and personal events. The young and new republics did not behave badly towards the soldiers serving the emperor, but adored mainly legionnaires. It was understandable then. We can say that if it were not for the brave Czech " Austro-Hungarian " soldiers who formed the basis of the new Czechoslovak army, the Czechoslovak Republic might never have emerged. Because it was created by diplomacy, supported by a substantiated force.
You will surely wonder how the Czech nation has a historical relationship with Brandenburg, but it is so. After all, Brandenburg was in its essence part of the Czech state for longer than Subcarpathian Russia was part of Czechoslovakia and only slightly less than Slovakia.
You will surely wonder what kind of historical relationship the Czech nation has to Brandenburg, but it is so. After all, Brandenburg was in its essence part of the Czech state for longer than Subcarpathian Russia was part of Czechoslovakia and only slightly less than Slovakia.
Introduction I chose the topic of the expulsion of Czech Germans after World War II for my bachelor's thesis because it is still a living topic. The alternating statements on the one hand of various Sudeten German expatriate associations and on the other hand of representatives of Czech society and the state must be registered by anyone who regularly reads newspapers and watches TV news. The debatable phenomenon of collective guilt and the even more debatable right to its collective punishment, the historical context of the so-called Beneš decrees, the dispute over the use of the term "expulsion", the obligation reminded by both parties of dealing with the past, they repeat in these statements. It is clear that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans to World War II. marked not only the lives of the generations he was directly affected by it, but also the political and economic context of the years to come and, in the context indicated above, our presence.
1. Common history of Czechs and Germans in Bohemia and Moravia The first ethnically known inhabitants in the territory of today's Bohemia and Moravia were the Celtic Buoys. They attracted to this territory during the great migration of the Celts, which took place around 400 BC. About three hundred years later, they were expelled by the Germanic Marcomanni. During the migration of peoples, the Slavs settled in Bohemia. Due to the fact that they focused on agriculture, they chose mainly fertile areas in the interior of the Czech basin.
2. Displacement of the Sudetenland on the basis of decrees of the President of the Republic Edvard Beneš In connection with the Second World War, two ethnic movements based on ethnic principles took place on the territory of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland. The first was the transfer of the Czechs originally living here to the interior of the republic after the Munich Agreement and the occupation of this territory by the Third Reich in 1938. The second was the expulsion of Sudeten Germans to Germany after World War II.
3. Settlement of the Sudetenland An integral part of the expulsion of the Germans was the settlement of the border with new inhabitants. These were mainly Czech citizens or Slovak nationalities from the interior, which were to a lesser extent supplemented by Czechs coming from abroad, but also foreigners. There were certain Czech enclaves in the inhabited area, which persisted even during the occupation period. It was 10-12% of the total population of the Sudetenland.
4. Economic consequences of the expulsion of Sudeten Germans on the economy of the given areas The expulsion of the German population had a huge negative impact on Czechoslovak industry. In some industries, predominantly Germans worked before the war.
Conclusion In my bachelor's thesis I tried to describe to a given extent the story of the historical coexistence of Czechs and Czech Germans in a common state and the outcome of this coexistence into a tragic collision during and after World War II. The relationship between the two ethnic groups built for centuries did not survive the dramatic crossover of the territorial expansion of a united Germany and the re-search resp. the search for the state-sovereign identity of Czechs and Slovaks as directed by the Central European area of the 20th century.
List of used sources
I chose the topic of the expulsion of Czech Germans after World War II for my bachelor's thesis because it is still a living topic and fed by many. The alternating statements on the one hand of various Sudeten German expatriate associations and on the other hand of representatives of Czech society and the state must be registered by anyone who regularly reads newspapers and watches TV news. The debatable phenomenon of collective guilt and the even more debatable right to its collective punishment, the historical context of the so-called Beneš decrees, the dispute over the use of the term "expulsion", the obligation reminded by both parties of dealing with the past, they repeat in these statements. It is clear that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans after World War II. marked not only the lives of the generations that was directly affected, but also the political and economic context of the years to come and, in the context indicated above, our presence.
Elite Infantry Award for Bravery - Gold Clasp for close combat, was often valued among soldiers higher than the Knight's Cross, because it could not be obtained other than by spending the prescribed 50 days in the fight of man against man. The Knight's Cross nevertheless remains the most famous German order for bravery from the Second World War, but was sometimes awarded to commanders in the crowd as an award for the activities of the entire subordinate unit, which, however, does not otherwise reduce its value to the bearer. Both of these exceptional orders were simultaneously granted to only 98 exceptional soldiers.
The Soviet trophy service was born during the war - but at the end it was already a very powerful component.
On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed German Chancellor, and this date is therefore considered the moment of the Nazis taking power in Germany. However, the path from the republic to the dictatorship is not so simple and the process of taking power took place over a longer period.
Short history of the oldest German infantry unit.
1. Definition of Fascism and Nazism The word fascism is derived from the Latin fasces and is a designation for a bundle of rods tied around an ax, worn in front of ancient officials by ancient officials as a sign of their important social function. We also have the Italian name fascio o otep or bundle, which was used by Italian revolutionaries in the nineteenth century and during the First World War also by many Italian activists engaged in various activities. However, the fascist movement Fasci di Combattimento, which is the subject of this work, originated in Milan on March 23, 1919, when war veterans, futuristic intellectuals and trade unionists, led by Mussolini, met in the Milan Industrial and Trade Union building in Piazza San Sepolcro to "declare the war of socialism because it opposes nationalism ".
Introduction The power structure applied after the rise of fascism in Italy is to some extent different from that applied in Nazi Germany. Nevertheless, many social science theorists tend to combine both types of ideology in interpreting fascism. In my bachelor's thesis, I want to try to answer the question which of these two regimes, in practical application, came closer to its ideological conception of the relationship between the leader and the party.
2. The concept of the state The Fasci di Combattimento movement originated on March 23, 1919, when about three hundred people gathered to declare war on socialism. However, the path to seizing power was very thorny for the Italian fascists in the following years - yet they managed to take power eleven years earlier than the Nazis in Germany.
3. The principle of leadership According to contemporary testimonies, Mussolini had charm, the ability of skilful political compromises and at the same time a refined instinct for self-preservation mixed with good organizational ability and intuition for the effective delegation of competencies. Compared to Hitler, however, he was more of an executive administrative worker than a type of orator who toured mass meetings and enchanted crowds with fiery rhetoric. Hitler lacked precisely that diligence and consistency in carrying out the normal official duties of the head of state, on the other hand, he was a better strategist, a more energetic leader and orator, and, unlike Mussolini, he needed the ability to build absolute authority. He was able to work with the masses through mass public meetings and the terrorization of opponents by Nazi troops.
4. The party As stated in the first chapter, the Italian fascists did not strive from the beginning, they even opposed the establishment of fascism through parliament. Fasci di Combattimento originated in its essence as an "anti-party", without a specific political agenda. This character of political formlessness is summed up in Mussolini's article published in a Catholic newspaper in the summer of 1918, which stated "we dare to be revolutionaries and egalitarians, (...) all according to circumstances, time, place and environment."
5. The relationship between leader and party According to Nazi and fascist ideology, authority was established, which can be simply described by Joseph Goebbels' famous statement "One nation, one empire, one leader" ("Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer"). The will of the leader on the basis of this thesis should merge with the will of the state, it should be ubiquitous, generally binding. Both the Nazis and the fascists justified this with an irrational argument that it is the leader who is best able to interpret the will of the nation. The question of whether the will of the whole nation can be identical with the will of the individual in the form of a duce or a Führer remained unanswered.
Conclusion Both ideologies examined have developed dynamically since their inception, and within them there has been a constant feud of conflicting ideological elements. This makes it impossible for us to grasp the ideologies objectively, but in any case it was a completely new line of thought. The movement that emerged from these directions was a phenomenon that interwar Europe, influenced by the belief of modernity in unlimited progress, did not anticipate, had no experience with, and was therefore unable to respond adequately to its destructive effects. Fascism and Nazism represented a radical departure from contemporary liberalism, which failed as a social and economic system of modernity as a result of World War II.
The power structure applied after the rise of fascism in Italy is somewhat different from that applied in Nazi Germany. Nevertheless, many social science theorists tend to combine both types of ideology in interpreting fascism. In my bachelor's thesis, I want to try to answer the question which of these two regimes, in practical application, came closer to its ideological conception of the relationship between the leader and the party.
1 Introduction Energy security is a very often used term not only on the political scene in the Czech Republic, but in all countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The number of gas crises that the region has witnessed in recent years, which have seriously undermined the ability of some states to provide the most basic services to their citizens, has intensified considerations of energy as a central part of the security architecture. Tensions in the Arab world, the accident at Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant, dwindling global fossil fuel reserves and growing energy demands in newly industrialized countries are just some of the current challenges posed by a very specific geopolitical situation in the Central European region: the dominance of two strong players. with which the region borders.
2 The concept of energy security Most authors believe that the concept of energy security first appeared in 1973, at the time of the first oil shock, when the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, the forerunner of OPEC) declared an oil embargo during the ongoing Yom Kippur War to countries supporting Israel. As a result of this embargo, the price of oil quadrupled overnight, dragging the developed world into a deep, prolonged recession accompanied by high inflation. The Islamic Revolution in one of the world's largest oil fields, Iran, and the ensuing war with another oil power, Iraq, in the late 1970s, intensified thinking about energy as a key sector of international security.
3 Dimensions and components of energy security The fact that the understanding of EB in the media and political discourse is very simplified and deals only with partial aspects of the whole, while completely ignoring others, is not surprising. Unfortunately, this is also the case in a large number of professional publications. Sometimes EB is considered synonymous with European dependence on Russian gas supplies, other times only the issue of oil is emphasized, while other raw material resources are neglected, and in some cases EB is narrowed to greenhouse gas emissions and the global warming they cause. It is also very common to focus exclusively on the external dimension of EB and to completely ignore the internal one.
4 Germany and its influence on the energy security of Central Europe Germany, together with the Russian Federation, is one of the most important players in the European energy field and the influence of its policy on the EB of Central European countries is considerable. The following part of the thesis focuses on the current energy policy of Germany, explains its effects on Central Europe and tries to recommend to the V4 countries measures that should be taken in response to German energy goals.
5 Conclusion The first and probably the most important finding from the analysis of the EB situation of the V4 countries is that despite the existence of a number of potential and direct threats the situation is by no means critical and concerns, often bordering on hysteria, which part of the public have are unfounded. The governments of the V4 countries have a wide range of external and internal energy policy instruments in their hands, which they can use effectively to ensure their long-term energy security.
List of abbreviations, pictures and literature
Energy security is a very often used term not only on the political scene in the Czech Republic, but in all countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The number of gas crises that the region has witnessed in recent years, which have seriously undermined the ability of some states to provide the most basic services to their citizens, has intensified considerations of energy as a central part of the security architecture. Tensions in the Arab world, the accident at Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant, dwindling global fossil fuel reserves and growing energy demands in newly industrialized countries are just some of the current challenges posed by a very specific geopolitical situation in the Central European region: the dominance of two strong players. with which the region borders.
The efforts of the West German Chancellor to normalize relations with the countries of the Eastern bloc in the 1960s and 1970s.