This bachelor's thesis, The Circumstances of the Nordic Separation in the Field of Security Policy after the Second World War, aims to point out the main historical determinants and factors leading to the final separation of the Nordic security policies and also to put the basic concept of separation in a broader context and analyze the circumstances. which preceded it, and to outline the consequences of this separation. What were the different security interests of the Nordic countries? How has the view of individual states on the question of ensuring their own security before, during and after the end of the Second World War changed? And what expectations did the engaged states have of the new order?
The roots of the Nordic states' affinity must be traced to a long common history and a number of similar elements that have played a role in the development of individual states. From prehistoric times they were inhabited by Germanic tribes ( except Iceland, which was inhabited only by the Celts and Vikings in the 9th century ) and they communicated in the same language, which later resulted in very close Nordic languages. The only exception is Finnish, the Finno-Ugric group based in Finland was later joined by the Swedes, and Finland came under Swedish administration and cultural influence.
Compared to other European regions, the Nordic region suffered relatively little in the war. Sweden was completely spared the war, which was able to provide extensive economic assistance to neighboring Scandinavian states, especially Norway, during the occupation, but especially after the liberation. In the first post-war months, Denmark and Norway, and to a lesser extent Sweden itself, faced economic difficulties with inflation, high domestic debt, a shortage of goods and, above all, a lack of mineral fuels that traditional British and German suppliers could not provide, unemployment and declining production. . All the Nordic states have suffered as a result of the weakening or loss of their traditional trading partners, have found themselves in trade and financial dependence on the United States, and it is therefore not surprising that all three Scandinavian governments adopted the Marshall Plan in June 1947.
Overview of basic data of the Nordic countries
Although the paths of the Nordic countries in the field of security policy were divided, the circumstances of this separation were not destabilizing either for relations between the Nordic states or for the tense conditions of the Cold War.
The Nordic countries are specific for their cohesion and long historical ties, yet especially after World War II we can observe some divergent security policy trends related to the signing of the Washington Treaty and the division of the Nordic region into North Atlantic, Denmark, Norway and Iceland Sweden and Finland, while the situation in Finland is complicated by the special relationship with the Soviet Union provided for in the 1948 Treaty.
List of abbreviations. List of literature and other sources.
At the very end of the Winter War (it raged from November 30, 1939 to March 13, 1940 ), Soviet pilots reported reports of clashes with " Spitfires ." Relatively often, pilots riding Polikarpov's I-153 competed with such marked aircraft. These were both pilots of the Baltic Air Force ( VVS KBF ) and members of the Air Force ( VVS RKKA ), especially members of two fighter regiments of a special air group ( OAGp ) operating from Estonian bases. Soviet reconnaissance and intelligence, however, made a serious mistake in identifying enemies, as the Soviets identified the machines as " Spitfires ."