List of author's articles

1956 Sinai War

The plan for the Sinai campaign was adopted by the Israelis in early October 1956, and its main goal was to put an end to terrorist incursions into Israel from Egyptian territory and force Egypt to end the blockade of the port of Eilat. However, after a secret agreement with Britain and France, the plans were amended on October 25 so that the Israelis, in agreement with them, could get as close as possible to the Suez Canal ...
🕔︎ 12.01.2004 👁︎ 43.870

1st Punic War I

When the entire Apennine Peninsula came under Roman rule, the spheres of interest of Rome and Carthage intersected, dominating virtually the entire western Mediterranean and the adjacent coast. The power struggle of these two ancient state units lasted over a hundred years, during which there were three wars called Punic wars. The story of the first of them begins with the Mamertins, a rather strange group of Sicilians who had nothing to do with Rome or Carthage - except that they dragged these powers into a protracted war.
🕔︎ 13.06.2006 👁︎ 53.542

1st Punic War II

Fighting in Sicily ( 264 BC - 261 BC )
🕔︎ 14.06.2006 👁︎ 26.198

1st Punic War IV

Fighting in Africa (256 BC - 255 BC)
🕔︎ 14.06.2006 👁︎ 22.736

1st Punic War V

Fighting in Sicily (254 BC - 249 BC)
🕔︎ 14.06.2006 👁︎ 21.047

1st Punic War VI

The last phase of the fighting (248 BC - 241 BC)
🕔︎ 14.06.2006 👁︎ 20.837


Agathocles was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse and self-styled king of Sicily.

🕔︎ 18.10.2023 👁︎ 1.401

Anthony Robert Eden

Minister of the British War Cabinet for WWII and then Prime Minister.
🕔︎ 26.01.2007 👁︎ 8.680

Appius Claudius Caudex

Consul Appius Claudius Caudex. Like many of his participants, only much is known about this man's life in connection with his involvement in the First Punic War, which is relatively extensively described in the sources.
🕔︎ 06.02.2006 👁︎ 7.730

Austerlitz 2005

a short report on the reconstruction of the Battle of Austerlitz on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the Battle of the Three Emperors.
🕔︎ 06.12.2005 👁︎ 21.960

Battle of Lissa July 20, 1866

In the War of 1866, Austria and its German allies, on the one hand, and Prussia and its German allies, together with Italy, on the other, faced each other. Although the decisive clash took place on the northern battlefield, near Hradec Králové, the naval clash that took place on the island of Lissa ( now Vis ) on the southern battlefield was more important for Austrian-Italian relations than the battle of Hradec Králové.
🕔︎ 05.08.2006 👁︎ 28.027

Carthaginian commander Hannibal Gisco

Commander of the Carthaginian fleet during the First Punic War. He was crucified for his unsuccessful defense of Sardinia.
🕔︎ 25.05.2007 👁︎ 9.755

Chamberlain to the nation after the annexation of Austria March 24, 1938

I will now turn to a situation that we are particularly interested in this afternoon. His Majesty's Government has expressed the view that recent events in Austria have created a new situation, and we consider it appropriate to state the conclusions to which our reflections on these events have led us.
🕔︎ 13.01.2004 👁︎ 21.157

Chamberlein's radio speech on the declaration of war on Germany on September 3, 1939

This morning, the British ambassador in Berlin handed over a final note to the German government, stating that if we did not receive a guarantee from it within 11 o'clock that it was ready to withdraw troops from Poland immediately, a state of war would be declared between our countries. I must now inform you that no such commitment has been made, and as a result, this country is at war with Germany.
🕔︎ 13.01.2004 👁︎ 34.776

Churchill address to the nation after the evacuation of Dunquerke 4.6.1940

Our efforts will not stop or falter. We will fight to the end. We will fight in France and in the seas and oceans; we will fight in the air with increasing force and confidence. We will defend our island at all costs; we will fight on beaches, landing sites, in fields, in the streets and in the hills.
🕔︎ 13.01.2004 👁︎ 39.777


The crucifixion was one of the most cruel punishments in Rome, and it is associated with one of the most important figures in world history - Jesus Christ was crucified, among other things. However, there are several myths and half-truths about the crucifixion; This article seeks to present the real facts about this brutal punishment.
🕔︎ 10.05.2004 👁︎ 71.221

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (2)

The foundations of the structure of the republic already existed at the end of the royal period. They were created by what we call the " reforms of Servius Tullia " - they are attributed to the penultimate Roman king Servius Tullius.
🕔︎ 16.11.2004 👁︎ 28.828

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (3)

All three types of people's assembly passed into the republic unchanged. The Comitia curiata , the oldest of them, lost almost all its power through the " Tullio reform " and was maintained rather out of tradition.
🕔︎ 16.11.2004 👁︎ 22.347

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (4)

The basic engine of the development of Roman society in the earliest times was the unequal position of patricians and plebeians. While the patricians ruled on most state affairs, the plebeians were personally free but subordinate citizens of the Roman Republic.
🕔︎ 16.11.2004 👁︎ 34.382

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (5)

Given that the plebeians could also have been military tribunes, it seems that the establishment of tribunes was a temporary solution to the internal crisis. In 438 BC, however, the Romans reached for him again, this time all year round, and from 434 BC, when the tribune again took office instead of consuls, until 367 BC, the election of regular consuls was the exception.
🕔︎ 16.11.2004 👁︎ 22.276

Development of the Roman Republican Establishment (6)

The state system, which arose from a complex period of internal disputes, already formed the basis of what is called the high ( or classical ) Roman Republic. From 287 BC, after the civil riots (the last Art Nouveau ), all differences between the plebeians and patricians were officially erased through Lex Hortensia , which for the most part only legally recognized the factual situation.
🕔︎ 16.11.2004 👁︎ 23.682

Falklands 1982

Ten-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and its territorial dependency, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

🕔︎ 20.01.2004 👁︎ 57.098

German-Soviet non-aggression pact 23.8.1939

The Government of the German Reich and The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics desirous of strengthening the cause of peace between Germany and the U.S.S.R., and proceeding from the fundamental provisions of the Neutrality Agreement concluded in April, 1926 between Germany and the U.S.S.R., have reached the following Agreement ...

🕔︎ 13.01.2004 👁︎ 43.663

Hamilkar Barak

As a member of one of the most important families of Carthage, Hamilkar was destined to pursue a career as a politician and military leader. It is first mentioned in sources when in 247 BC he became commander of the Carthaginian forces in Sicily, where after many years of fighting in the first Punic war of Carthage, only the ports of Drepana and Lylibaeum, both besieged by the Romans, remained.
🕔︎ 06.02.2006 👁︎ 8.345

Hanno the Elder

We do not know much about Hanno the Elder, as well as about a large part of the Carthaginian commanders who participated in the First Punic War. He was the son of Hannibal Gisco and he enters the scene of the First Punic War at its beginning (summer 264 BC). Either he was in Sicily when the war began and took command of the army sent from Africa at Acregauntum (a Carthaginian allied city) after the Romans had expelled the Carthaginian garrison from Messana and taken the city themselves, or he arrived in Sicily with that army. In any case, he made an alliance with the traditional Carthaginian enemy (and Roman ally) Hieron of Syracuse and marched with the Syracusans to Messana to retake it. When he refused the Roman ultimatum, the Roman consul Appius Claudius Caudex declared war on Carthage - thus officially beginning the First Punic War.

🕔︎ 13.07.2023 👁︎ 1.526

Hiero II of Syracuse

Hiero II was the Greek tyrant of Syracuse, Magna Graecia, from 275 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon. He was a former general of Pyrrhus of Epirus and an important figure of the First Punic War. He figures in the story of famed thinker Archimedes shouting "Eureka".

🕔︎ 18.10.2023 👁︎ 1.231

Hitler in Obersalzberg to sign the German-Soviet Pact on August 24, 1939

The decision to attack Poland was made in the spring. Originally, there were fears that due to the political situation we would have to strike at the same time against England, France, Russia and Poland. We could not afford such a risk. Göring showed us that his four-year plan would fail and that we would be on the brink of strength if we did not win in the coming war.
🕔︎ 13.01.2004 👁︎ 22.549


Jugurtha was a king of Numidia. When the Numidian king Micipsa, who had adopted Jugurtha, died in 118 BC, Jugurtha and his two adoptive brothers, Hiempsal and Adherbal, succeeded him. Jugurtha arranged to have Hiempsal killed and, after a civil war, defeated and killed Adherbal in 112 BC.

🕔︎ 18.10.2023 👁︎ 1.425

Karel Bednařík

I had the honor to meet in person at a discussion organized by the Jakub Škoda Grammar School in Přerov, with one of the Czechoslovak pilots participating in World War II in the ranks of the RAF. Therefore, I will try to supplement the biography of this man with information and interesting facts that I heard at this discussion.
🕔︎ 05.11.2019 👁︎ 4.608

Ladislav Rašín

I swore allegiance to the Czechoslovak Republic and I will remain loyal to it until my death.

🕔︎ 16.09.2020 👁︎ 4.283

Lubomír Jasínek

On October 24, 1942, he was dropped with Závorka and Srazil near Kopidln in the Jičín region. He became involved in the group's activities and managed to successfully establish contact with London. Due to the activities of the confederates Čurda and Nachtmann, the Gestapo managed to track Jasinek and Závorka down in Rovensko pod Troskami. Here, on 15 January 1943, the Gestapo surrounded them at the swimming pool in the house of the lifeguard Lukeš.

🕔︎ 07.06.2022 👁︎ 2.972

Marcus Atilius Regulus

Marcus Atilius Regulus is another of a number of historical figures who appear on the stage of history during the first Punic War and whose life we know practically nothing about. In the case of Regulus, all we know is that in 267 BC he was consul and celebrated his triumph for conquering Brundisum.
🕔︎ 28.03.2006 👁︎ 8.566

Mašín brothers - the facts

A brief summary of the facts about the more controversial actions of the Mašín brothers during their resistance activities against the communist regime in the first half of the 1950s.
🕔︎ 29.05.2006 👁︎ 205.101

Munich Agreement

Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy, in view of the agreement already reached on the withdrawal of the Sudetenland from Germany, have agreed on the following conditions for such withdrawal and the measures resulting therefrom ...
🕔︎ 13.01.2004 👁︎ 70.978


Recently, the seventieth anniversary of the September 1938 events leading to the abandonment of the Czechoslovak border and its extradition to Hitler's Germany without a fight passed. On the occasion of the perpetual discussion on " we should have defended ourselves ", which the anniversary unleashed again, I decided to write this brief article on the Polish defense of the fortified area near Mława from September 1939, which offers many parallels with the situation of Czechoslovakia a year earlier and its military. options.

🕔︎ 02.10.2008 👁︎ 44.625

Nazi takeover of Germany (1930-1934)

On 30 January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of the German Reich, and this date is therefore considered the moment when the Nazis took power in Germany. However, the path from republic to dictatorship is not so simple and the process of taking power took place over a longer period.

🕔︎ 12.10.2004 👁︎ 83.261

Přerov Uprising on May 1, 1945

The town of Přerov has been an important Moravian railway junction since the second half of the 19th century. As a result, its strategic importance to the German occupiers was considerable. Especially in a situation where World War II was coming to an end and the Germans tried to evacuate as many soldiers, civilians of German nationality and property from the reach of the Red Army to the west, to areas occupied by the American and British armies. Virtually all railway routes from Moravia to Bohemia passed through Přerov; In Bohemia, Prague was a similarly important railway junction - this is the main reason why the German command decided to unconditionally keep these two strategic cities in power for as long as possible, preferably until the end of the war. In both places, brave insurgents tried to stop them.
🕔︎ 19.04.2005 👁︎ 59.598

priest Ambrož Hradecký

When the Hussite movement began to develop in the Czech lands, its most significant manifestation was the gatherings of people in various mountains to preach. Such gatherings took place, for example, on the site of the later Tábor or in northern Bohemia on Oreb, where they were led by the priest Ambrož.
🕔︎ 06.02.2006 👁︎ 9.417

Ptolemaios II. Philadelphos

Ptolemy II he was the son of one of the generals of Alexander the Great, Ptolemy, who after Alexander's death became the ruler of conquered Egypt. In many ways, he was the opposite of his father - he was more interested in science and art than in war, to which the fact that he received an education from Strabo, one of the most important representatives of Aristotle's school of philosophy, certainly contributed greatly.
🕔︎ 15.01.2006 👁︎ 9.763

Publius Claudius Pulcher

With half the Roman fleet from Lylibai (124 ships), with 10,000 fresh troops on board, the consul decided to unexpectedly attack Carthaginian Admiral Adherbal in another Sicilian Carthaginian port of Drepan, which at the time had only about 60 vessels at its disposal.
🕔︎ 06.02.2006 👁︎ 7.885

Remembrance of Petr Vintar Zlesák

Not so long ago, on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of this server, I mentioned that the most valuable thing you can get from it are friends.
🕔︎ 05.07.2008 👁︎ 12.667

Rewards and honors in the Roman army

An integral part of the military environment is the habit of rewarding especially brave deeds with awards that certainly provide the wearer with both real benefits and moral credit. A similar practice was known to the ancient Romans.
🕔︎ 11.06.2005 👁︎ 50.204

Roman gladiators

Gladiators are a component of Roman culture, which is probably the most widespread in the general consciousness of ancient Rome. There are innumerable myths and half-truths about gladiators that some of us have encountered, perhaps unknowingly. This article tries to deal with gladiators during the Roman Republic without mythization and, if possible, without distortion, although with such a large lapse of time it is difficult to bring real facts to light from under the deposits of legends. I can only promise that I tried to do it as best I could.
🕔︎ 19.11.2006 👁︎ 84.692

The allied corps in the Roman army

The Roman army was the best in the world at the time. Above all, it allowed a small city-state to grow into a vast empire. The organization of the Roman army was complicated and gradually evolving; In this brief article, I will focus on the role of the so-called Allied Corps in the Roman army.
🕔︎ 14.09.2005 👁︎ 33.283

The directive for the exercise plan on river Weser - conquest of Norway and Denmark 1.3.1940

The development of the situation in Scandinavia requires that all preparations be made for the occupation of Denmark and Norway by parts of the German armed forces. This operation should prevent British intervention in Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea; it should also provide us with a supply of ore from Sweden and give our navy and air force a wider boarding area against Britain.
🕔︎ 13.01.2004 👁︎ 25.991

The Roman calendar as the basis of today's calendar

In this article I will discuss the Roman calendar in relation to the calendar of today. The aim is not to give an exhaustive description of the Roman calendar, but to try to explain the origins of some things that we take so much for granted that we hardly think about them - for example, why the year begins on the first of January, why the months are called what they are called in many of the world's languages, why February has 28 days, why July and August have 31 days, even though they are right after each other in the calendar, why a leap day is added to February once every four years...

🕔︎ 30.06.2005 👁︎ 51.294

The Russian countryside or why Stalin collectivized agriculture

A brief outline of the situation of the Russian countryside at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, which led to one of the greatest crimes of the Bolshevik regime - the violent collectivization of the peasantry.
🕔︎ 12.02.2007 👁︎ 41.711

The terrorist attack on the USA 9/11/2001

On 11.9. In 2001, an event took place that affected almost the entire world and, although we do not realize it, it spoke to the lives of many of us. There were suicide airstrikes on US targets in live television. The aim of this article is not only to recall the course of events, which most of us remember in outline, but mainly to show not so notorious connections.

🕔︎ 05.08.2007 👁︎ 88.570

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

There is an inexhaustible number of Masaryk's biographies, political and personal, Czech and foreign, abroad, celebratory and critical, extensive and concise. There is no point in adding another, notabene brief one to them. Nevertheless, on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the founding of Czechoslovakia, I wanted to commemorate Masaryk. In the end, this intention took the form of two articles, which I try to show - each time from a different angle - that the personality of Tomáš Garrigu Masaryk is extremely interesting. While in this text I have tried to show some of the best known and most profaned chapters of his life in contexts that are forgotten over time, in the other I have turned to the part of his life that is least known - his childhood and youth. I wanted to show the conditions in which he grew up and matured, what shaped his personality at an early age, where many of his later attitudes, opinions and beliefs stem, and last but not least, that he was a man of flesh and blood like the rest of us.
🕔︎ 19.10.2008 👁︎ 45.941

World War I - Part 9


... In 1929 comes the world economic crisis, which will only exacerbate all problems, and the world is heading for another world war ...
🕔︎ 27.09.2004 👁︎ 39.708

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