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Hartmann, Erich

Hartmann, Erich

     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Hartmann
Jméno:
Given Name:
Erich Alfred
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Erich Alfred Hartmann
Fotografie či obrázek:
Photograph or Picture:
Hodnost:
Rank:
plukovník
Akademický či vědecký titul:
Academic or Scientific Title:
-
Šlechtický titul:
Hereditary Title:
-
Datum, místo narození:
Date and Place of Birth:
19.04.1922 Weissach /
Datum, místo úmrtí:
Date and Place of Decease:
20.09.1993 Weil im Schönbuch /
Nejvýznamnější funkce:
(maximálně tři)
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
veliteľ JG 71
Jiné významné skutečnosti:
(maximálně tři)
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
Jeden z 27 držiteľov Rytierskeho kríža k Železnému krížu s dubovými ratolesťami, mečmi a briliantami.
Stíhací eso; 352 potvrzených sestřelů.
Související články:
Related Articles:
Zdroje:
Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Hartmann
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Hartmann-Erich-t11282#401460Version : 0
MOD
     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Hartmann
Jméno:
Given Name:
Erich Alfred
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Erich Alfred Hartmann
Všeobecné vzdělání:
General Education:
DD.04.1928-DD.04.1932 lidová škola, Weil Im Schönbuch
DD.04.1932-DD.04.1936 Gymnázium, Böblingen
DD.04.1936-DD.04.1937 Národně politické instituce pro vzdělání, Rottweil
DD.04.1937-DD.04.1940 Gymnázium, Korntal
Vojenské vzdělání:
Military Education:
01.03.1941-DD.10.1941 Luftkriegsschule 2
01.11.1941-31.01.1942 přípravná stíhací škola 2
01.03.1942-20.08.1942 Jagdfliegerschule 2
Důstojnické hodnosti:
Officer Ranks:
DD.MM.1940 důstojnický čekatel
31.03.1942 poručík
01.07.1944 nadporučík
01.09.1944 kapitán
08.05.1945 major
12.12.1960 podplukovník (Bundeswehr)
26.07.1967 plukovník (Bundeswehr)
Průběh vojenské služby:
Military Career:
Automaticky vyplněné položky:
DD.02.1945-14.02.1945 Velitel : I. skupina Stíhací eskadry 53
01.02.1945-08.05.1945 Velitel : I. skupina Stíhací eskadry 52

Ručně vyplněné položky:
01.10.1940-01.03.1941 10. letecký pluk
21.08.1942-10.10.1942 Ergänzungs-Jagdgruppe Ost
DD.10.1942-DD.MM.RRRR JG 52 (pilot)
DD.10.1942-05.07.1943 III./JG 52 (pilot)
05.07.1943-12.08.1943 7./JG 52 (dočasný velitel)
12.08.1943-02.09.1943 7./JG 52 (pilot)
02.09.1943-30.09.1944 9./JG 52 (velitel)
30.09.1944-16.01.1945 4./JG 52 (velitel)
31.01.1945-08.05.1945 I./JG 52 (velitel)
01.02.1945-14.02.1945 I./JG 53 (výkonný velitel)
06.06.1959-29.05.1962 Jagdgeschwader 71 "Richthofen" (velitel)
Vyznamenání:
Awards:

17.12.1942

Železný kříž 1939 II. třídy
Iron Cross 2nd Class
Eisernes Kreuz II. Klasse
-

07.03.1943

Železný kříž 1939 I. třídy
Iron Cross 1st Class
Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse
-

13.09.1943

Čestný pohár za zvláštní úspěchy v letecké válce
Honor Goblet of Luftwaffe
Ehrenpokal für besondere Leistung im Luftkrieg
-

17.10.1943

Německý kříž ve zlatě
German Cross in Gold
Deutsche Kreuz in Gold
-

29.10.1943

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže 1939
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939
-

02.03.1944

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže s dubovou ratolestí
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub
420. držiteľ Dubových ratolestí.

02.07.1944

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže s dubovou ratolestí a meči
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern
75. držiteľ Mečov.

21.08.1944

Jmenování ve zprávě Wehrmachtu
Naming in Armed Forces Report
Namensnennung im Wehrmachtsbericht
-

25.08.1944

Společný odznak pro piloty a pozorovatele s brilianty
Combined Pilot and Observer Badge with Diamonds
Gemeinsames Flugzeugführer -und Beobachterabzeichen mit Brillanten
-

25.08.1944

Jmenování ve zprávě Wehrmachtu
Naming in Armed Forces Report
Namensnennung im Wehrmachtsbericht
-

25.08.1944

Rytířský kříž Železného kříže s dubovou ratolestí, meči a brilianty
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds
Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillianten
18. držiteľ Briliantov.

DD.MM.RRRR

Medaile za zimní bitvu na východě 1941-42
Eastern Front Medal 1941-42
Medaille Winterschlacht im Osten 1941-42
-

DD.MM.RRRR

Vyznamenání za dlouholetou službu (Wehrmacht) 4 roky
Long Service Medal (Wehrmacht) 4 Years
Dienstauszeichnung (Wehrmacht) 4 Jahre
-

DD.MM.RRRR

Frontová letecká spona denní stíhači - zlatá
Front Flying Clasp Day Fighters - Golden
Frontflugspange Tagjäger - Gold
s číslem 1300

Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Hartmann
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Hartmann-Erich-t11282#422230Version : 0
MOD
Oberst a. D. Erich "Bubi" Hartmann


(at the end of World War II he held the rank of Major)


* 22.04.1922, Weissach
+ 20.09.1993, Weil im Schönbuch


The most successful German fighter of World War II, during 1,404 combat sorties he took part in 825 aerial engagements and won 352 aerial victories (first on 5.11.1942, last on 8.5.1945 at Brno).


Sources:
https://www.luftwaffe.cz/hartmann.html
de.wikipedia.org



(Edited by RoBoT and M. Rak)
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Hartmann-Erich-t11282#35823Version : 0

Introduction




The Luftwaffe number one fighter ace.


Youth




He was born on 19 April 1922 in Weissach, Würtenberg. He belonged to the younger war generation. His father, Dr. Alfred Hartmann, was facing inflation, food shortages, political and economic chaos in Germany after returning from World War I, in which he had participated as a military doctor.


His uncle, then German consul in Shanghai, also came to Germany at this time to see the damage caused by the war. Erich's father insisted that he go with him to China to practice medicine. At first, Dr. Hartmann traveled there without his family to see if it was a good place. He found that compared to Germany, China was a complete paradise, and that the Chinese were eager to use his services, pay his bills, and held him in high esteem.


In 1925 the family and Erich came to China to see him. The eastern idyll did not last long when, after a few years, the first revolutionary movement of the Chinese nation began to manifest itself. Riots broke out, which gradually grew into an anti-colonial struggle. Agitation intensified. Fortunately, Dr. Hartmann was protected by two circumstances. Firstly, his position as a doctor in the community and secondly, his good deeds were not forgotten by the Chinese.


However, in 1929 the family had to return to Germany and settled in Weil. Dr. Hartmann came to visit them after almost a year.


Beginnings in the air




Elizabeth Hartmann was somewhat bored in Weil, so she joined the Böblingen Aero Club at Stuttgart Airport. Erich's mother, a talented pilot, obtained her pilot's license in a Klemm 27 sports plane. In this way his mother often took Erich on sightseeing flights, and he immediately fell in love with flying thanks to her. After the economic collapse in 1932, the beloved aircraft had to be sold, and the loss of the plane was a heavy loss for the whole family.


The following year, Hitler took power in Germany and a flying revival began. Hitler wished to arouse the enthusiasm for flying among the German youth, and so he insisted on founding gliding clubs.


In the year Mrs. Hartmann founded a gliding club in Weil and became an instructor herself. At the age of 14, Erich was an excellent sailplane pilot with a certificate. And by the end of 1937 he became a sailing instructor in the "Hitler Youth Aviation" - Flieger HJ.


In the Luftwaffe




He joined the Luftwaffe on 15 October 1940, in the 10th Training Regiment Luftwaffe in Neukuhren. On 1 March 1941, he then entered the LKS 2 air war school in Berlin-Gatow. By 1 November 1941 he had completed his fighter pilot training and then entered Fighter School 2 at Lachen-Speyerdorf. On 1 March 1942 he was already in Fighter School 2 at Zerbst-Anhalt. This was followed by the Fighter Replenishment Group East, Upper Silesia (20 August 1942[/i]), from where he was transferred to the Eastern Front on 10 October 1942 at the rank of Lieutenant to 7./JG 52.


On the front




His beginnings were not at all easy. In one of his first combat actions, he flew as the number of an experienced Ofw. Edmund Rossmann and made a number of basic mistakes. When deployed to attack a group of Soviet fighters, he failed to hold his ground, outflew his commander and hastily opened fire. He missed and found himself among the Soviet planes, which began to pursue him. Fortunately, he made it into the clouds, but although Rossmann maintained radio contact with him, he continued to fumble. After he broke out of the clouds, he spotted Rossmann's aircraft, but thought it was hostile and evaded him. Eventually, after running out of fuel, he had to make an emergency landing and damaged the aircraft without the slightest enemy interference. He was banned from taking off for three days, during which time he had to serve with ground personnel.


On 5 November 1942, he took off in his Schwarm against eighteen Il-2 fighters accompanied by ten LaGG-3 fighters. The first attack against the Il-2 failed when the armour deflected even rounds from the 20mm guns. In the following attack, Hartmann was more successful, hitting the oil cooler of the fighter at close range. However, he was soon forced to make another emergency landing as his aircraft was damaged and set on fire by debris from the exploded Il-2.


By mid-April 1943 he had completed 100 combat sorties, but his score was only 7 kills. On 30 April 1943 he shot down two LaGG-3.


Achievements[/nadpis]


His career began a steep climb at the Battle of Kursk. On its very first day, 5 July 1943, he scored four victories and two days later shot down four La-5 and three Il-2.


In August alone he achieved 49 kills (the same number, also for August, achieved by Maj. Walter Nowotny, 258 kills, B[/i]r), including seven on 7 August, and by 20 August his total had reached 90 victories.


This day, however, may have marked the definitive end for him. His aircraft had to make an emergency landing on its belly and Hartmann ended up in captivity, from which he managed to escape after only four hours after feigning injury. Two days later he arrived behind German lines, where he narrowly missed a bullet fired by a terrified guard. Three weeks later, he returned to combat flying.


On 2 September 1943 he was appointed commander of 9th /JG 52 when the previous commander, Lt. Berthold Korts (RK[/i]113 kills, RK[/i]), went missing on 29 August 1943 after aerial combat with P-39 Airacobras.


However, the eagerly awaited Knight's Cross did not arrive until late October after 148 kills. He shot down 150 aircraft on 13 December 1943 and reached the two-hundred victory mark on 2 March 1944 and was awarded the Oak Leaf Cluster the same day. He then took part in the retreat fighting in the Crimea, scoring six kills each on 5 and 7 May. A day later he took off from Crimea for the last time, with two mechanics in the fuselage of his Bf 109.


He intervened in further combat in Romania, where he shot down 43 aircraft from 21 May to 24 June, seven of them on 4 June alone, making him the fourth Luftwaffe fighter pilot to reach 250 kills.


During that time he also fought Mustangs the American 15. USAAF and scored several kills.


He was promoted to lieutenant on July 1, 1944. On August 24, he shot down eleven Soviet aircraft and became the first fighter pilot ever to surpass the 300-kill mark, when the table still led by Maj. Gerhard Barkhorn (301 kills, S[/i]) spent four months in hospital after being shot down in May 1944.


A day later Hartmann was awarded the Brilliant and banned from combat flying. His 9th /JG 52 was then taken over from 1 October 1944 by Lt. Hans-Joachim Birkner (117 kills, KIFA 14.12.1944, when his aircraft suffered engine failure shortly after takeoff[/i]).


He achieved the cancellation of the launches and from 1 October 1944 served as commander of the newly established 4th /JG 52, operating from airfields in Hungary from the end of the month. He ended 1944 with 331 victories.


On 1 February 1945 he became commander of I./JG 52 and his 4th /JG 52 was taken over by Lt. Friedrich Haas (RK, KIA 9.4.1945 after an aerial combat with Yak-9 over Vienna, whose parachute did not open due to the low altitude at which the duel took place[/i]).


In the same month he underwent short-term training in Lechfeld on the Me 262. But from 25.3.1945 he was back at the front again and continued to command I./JG 52.


On 17 April he was the only fighter pilot to score 350 kills and on 8 May 1945 he shot down his last aircraft, a Soviet fighter performing aerobatics over Brno. That same day, JG 52 surrendered to the Americans at Písek, and Hartmann was promoted to major the same day.


Captured




But already on 24 May he was surrendered to the Red Army. He had the hardest captivity of his life. The NKVD members inflicted psychological and physical torture on him. So much so that he demanded to be shot, which the Russians did not do, so he went on hunger strike.


When he was almost dying of exhaustion, the doctors put a hose with food in his mouth so that he wouldn't die. It was not until May 1946 that Hartmann received a cruel blow when he learned that his wife, Urschula "Ush" Hartmann, née Paetsch, had given birth to a son, Peter Erich, on May 21, 1945.


However, the little boy did not survive the harsh post-war years and died at the age of two years and nine months. The news came as a further blow when his father died in 1952.


With his health failing, he finally gained his freedom in 1955 as one of the last German prisoners of war after a visit to Moscow by Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.


Conclusion[/nadpis]


He then joined the ranks of the new air force and soon Ush gave birth to a daughter who was named after her mother, also Ush. He retired from active duty at his own request on 30 September 1970 with the rank of Colonel. He died on 20 December 1993.


He flew a total of 1,425 combat sorties, 825 of which were in aerial combat. And 16 times he had to make emergency belly landings because his aircraft was damaged by debris from downed Soviet aircraft. This was because Hartmann used tactics such that he fired only at point blank range. Yet he was never once wounded. A bounty of 10,000 rubles was placed on his head. The Russians tried to eliminate him, most Russians were afraid of him as soon as they heard "Karaya 1" on the radio. He was mostly known with a tulip-patterned plane on the nose as the "Black Devil of Ukraine".


And I forgot to add that Hartmann was nicknamed Bubi because of his "baby" face.


(Edited by RoBoT[/i])

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The discussion about the shoot down of 8.5.1945 has been moved here.
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Erich Hartmann
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Erich Hartmann
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Photo
Photo source
http://www.epier.com/browse/


In Revi it even says that in 1944 he accidentally shot down an Fw190,....he got 7 sharps for it. He took it pretty badly personally too.
Dolin
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