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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5)

CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5)

     
Název:
Name:
USS Yorktown
Originální název:
Original Name:
USS Yorktown
Kategorie:
Category:
letadlová loď
Třída:
Class:
Yorktown
Kódové označení:
Pennant Number:
CV-5
Loděnice:
Builder:
Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport News
Založení kýlu:
Laid Down:
21.05.1934
Spuštění na vodu:
Launched:
04.04.1936
Uvedení do služby:
Commissioned:
30.09.1937
Vyřazení ze služby:
Decommissioned:
07.06.1942 potopena / sunk by I-168
Velitel:
Commander:
30.09.1937-16.06.1939 McWorther, Ernest Doyle (Captain)
16.06.1939-05.02.1941 Gunther, Ernest Ludolph (Captain)
05.02.1941-07.06.1942 Buckmaster, Elliott (Captain)
Jednotka:
Unit:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR ?
Posádka:
Crew:
2217
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
 
Standardní výtlak:
Standard Displacement:
20194 t
Plný výtlak:
Full Load Displacement:
25893 t
Délka:
Length:
251,38 m
Šířka:
Beam:
33,38 m
Ponor:
Draught:
7,92 m
Pancéřování:
Armour:
boky: 63-102 mm
paluba: 37 mm
přepážky: 102 mm
prostory kormidelního zařízení: 102 mm
velitelská věž: 51-102 mm
Pohon:
Propulsion:
 
Typ:
Type:
4x parní turbína Parsons
9x kotel Babcock & Wilcox
Výkon:
Power:
89484 kW při ? ot/min
Šrouby:
Propellers:
4
Zásoba paliva:
Fuel Load:
7607 t
Výkony:
Performance:
 
Rychlost:
Speed:
60,2 km/h
Dosah:
Range:
23150 km při rychlosti 27,8 1) km/h
Výzbroj a vybavení:
Armament and Equipment:
 
Výzbroj:
Armament:
8x 127 mm L/38 kanon Mark 12 na lafetě ? (8x I)
16x 28 mm L/75 kanon Mark 1 na lafetě Mark 2 (4x IV)
24x 12,7 mm kulomet Browning M2 na lafetě Mark 3 (24x I)


1941
8x 127 mm L/38 kanon Mark 12 na lafetě ? (8x I)
16x 28 mm L/75 kanon Mark 1 na lafetě Mark 2 (4x IV)
24x 20 mm L/70 kanon Mark 4 na lafetě ? (24x I)
24x 12,7 mm kulomet Browning M2 na lafetě Mark 3 (24x I)
Vybavení:
Equipment:
Ostatní:
- H2 Mod. 0 (hydraulický katapult)

Letová paluba:
- rozměry: 244,45 x 26,21 m
- letadlové výtahy: 3
- zbraňové výtahy: ?
- katapulty: 3


1940
Radary:
CXAM-1 (vzdušný přehledový radar)

Ostatní:
- H2 Mod. 1 (hydraulický katapult)

Letová paluba:
- rozměry: 244,45 x 26,21 m
- letadlové výtahy: 3
- zbraňové výtahy: ?
- katapulty: 3
Nesená letadla:
Aircraft Carried:
90

- Grumman F2F-1
- Boeing F4B
- Vought SBU Corsair
- Great Lakes BG-1
- Grumman JF Duck
- Vought O2U Corsair
- Vought SB2U Vindicator
- Brewster F2A Buffalo
- Douglas SBD Dauntless
- Douglas TBD-1 Devastator
- Grumman F4F Wildcat
Poznámka:
Note:
pojmenována po: Bitva u Yorktownu (1781)

1) 15223,4 km při rychlosti 37 km/h
Zdroje:
Sources:
PEJČOCH, Ivo - NOVÁK, Zdeněk - HÁJEK, Tomáš: Válečné lodě [4] (1. vydání, Praha, nakl. Naše vojsko, 1993, ISBN 80-206-0357-3)
HRBEK, Ivan - HRBEK, Jaroslav: Loďstva států účastnících se druhé světové války (1. vydání, Praha, nakl. Naše vojsko, 1994, ISBN 80-206-0245-3)
ZALEWSKI, Krzysztof: Lotniskowce II. wojny światowej cz. II (1. vydání, Warszawa, nakl. Wydawnictwo Lampart, 1994, ISBN 83-901273-5-0)
www.history.navy.mil
www.chinfo.navy.mil
https://www.navsource.org/archives/02/05.htm
http://www.uscarriers.net/cv5.htm
www.hazegray.org
https://uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5511.html
https://uboat.net/allies/warships/class/236.html
navalhistory.flixco.info
www.nationalgeographic.com/midway/
www.ibiblio.org
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Yorktown_(CV-5)
en.wikipedia.org



upravil: FiBe (17-FEB-2022)
URL : https://www.valka.cz/CV-USS-Yorktown-CV-5-t12929#300117Version : 0

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Datum dislokace
Date of Dislocation
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URL : https://www.valka.cz/CV-USS-Yorktown-CV-5-t12929#690505Version : 0
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History of the USS Yorktown (CV-5)




Construction and early service




After experience with carriers converted from Lexington-class battlecruisers and the small carrier USS Ranger (CV-4), the U.S. Navy commissioned two new carriers that were fast, versatile, and capable of carrying the same number of aircraft as the much larger Lexington-class ships at a significantly smaller displacement. Among other things, the construction of new aircraft carriers was intended to help reduce the number of unemployed during the Great Depression.


Both ships began construction in 1934[/b:aaaa] and the first of the class, after which the entire class was named, was launched May 21, 1934[/b:aaaa] at the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport News, VA .


The then First Lady of the United States, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, christened the new vessel USS Yorktown (CV-5) after the place where George Washington defeated English General Charles Cornwallis in War of Independence in 1781[/url]. This began a new tradition whereby US Navy aircraft carriers were named after the locations of historic battles or historic warships.


After commissioning on 30.09.1937 at Naval Base Norfolk, the ship's first commander was Navy Captain Ernest McWhorter. USS Yorktown (CV-5) then sailed on training cruises off the coast of Virginia and in the Caribbean Sea. The test period ended on 06.03.1938, when the carrier arrived back in Norfolk and was placed in the shipyard the following day for modifications and troubleshooting.



USS Yorktown (CV-5) 30.09.1937 during commissioning ceremony at Norfolk Naval Base[/i].



After completing repairs in autumn 1938, USS Yorktown left the shipyard and operated off the US East Coast until February 1939.


As the flagship of the 2nd Carrier Division, she, along with her sister ship USS Enterprise (CV-6), participated in February 1939 military exercise "Fleet Problem XX"[/i]. During this exercise, one group represented a European power attempting to invade the Caribbean coast of the United States, while the other group defended the coast. The 26th President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt Jr. watched the operations from aboard the heavy cruiser USS Houston (CA-30).


After the exercise, it was decided to move USS Yorktown (CV-5) to the Pacific Ocean. On 20 April 1939, the ship left Hampton Roads, transited the Panama Canal a week later, and landed at San Diego Air Force Base in California a few days later.


In April 1940, USS Yorktown participated in another major naval exercise, dubbed "Fleet Problem XXI"[/i]. This exercise this time simulated primarily the defense of the Hawaiian Islands. In September of that year, USS Yorktown became one of the first six ships (and the first carrier) to have the new CXAM-1 radar installed.


The carrier operated in the Pacific and around the Hawaiian Islands until spring 1941.


At this time, the success of German U-boats in the Atlantic was peaking and the US Navy decided to reinforce the Atlantic Fleet. The USS Yorktown (CV-5) became part of the reinforcements, along with the battleships USS New Mexico (BB-40), USS Idaho (BB-42) and USS Mississippi (BB-41), three light cruisers and 12 destroyers.


On April 20, 1941[/b:aaaa], the carrier left Naval Station Pearl Harbor and sailed for the Atlantic, escorted by three destroyers. During the night of 06.05.1941 to 07.05.1941 she passed through the Panama Canal and 12.05.1941 the ships arrived in Bermuda.



USS Yorktown (CV-5) at San Diego Base in June 1940, before sailing for Hawaii[/i]



Beginning of the war




To defend U.S. neutrality, USS Yorktown (CV-5) sailed successively on a total of four patrols, transiting the area between Newfoundland and Bermuda. She spent almost the entirety of the year there.


On 02.12.1941, USS Yorktown (CV-5) arrived in Norfolk and was caught up in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 07.12.1941.


New anti-aircraft guns 20 mm L/70 gun Mark 4 were mounted on the ship, and 16.12.1941 USS Yorktown (CV-5) left Norfolk for the US West Coast at top speed. She arrived in San Diego on 30.12.1941 and became the flagship of the newly formed Task Force 17 (TF-17), under the command of Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher.


On 06 January 1942, USS Yorktown (CV-5) sailed with an escort from San Diego to escort a convoy carrying reinforcements to Tutuila Island in the American Samoa archipelago.


USS Yorktown, along with sister ship USS Enterprise (CV-6), departed American Samoa on 25.01.1941, to Task Force 8 (TF-8), formed around USS Enterprise (CV-6), separated from Task Force 17 (TF-17), formed around USS Yorktown (CV-5), and sailed for the Marshall Islands.


USS Yorktown (CV-5) and her escorts departed 31 January 1942[/b:aaaa] for the Gilbert Islands. 01.02.1942, at 05.17 local time, 11 Douglas TBD-1 Devastator torpedo planes and 17 Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers took off to attack Japanese ships and shore-based equipment on Jaluit Atoll. However, a violent storm made the mission impossible and several aircraft were lost.


Additional aircraft from the USS Yorktown attacked targets on Makin and Mili atolls.


The attack came as a complete surprise to the Japanese, so the attacking aircraft met no significant resistance, with only one flying boat, Kawanishi H6K, attempting to attack American destroyers sent to search for the downed airmen. However, anti-aircraft fire repelled it without causing any damage.


Another seaplane Kawanishi H6K took advantage of low clouds to attack the USS Yorktown (CV-5) itself, but was shot down by patrolling Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters.


A second planned raid on Jaluit Atoll was called off due to another violent storm and approaching dusk. Task Force 17 (TF-17) then left the area.


USS Yorktown (CV-5) subsequently sailed to Pearl Harbor for refueling and resupply and 14 February 1942 headed for the Coral Sea.


06.03.1942 met up with Task Force 11 (TF-11), grouped around the aircraft carrier USS Lexington (CV-2), under the command of Rear Admiral Wilson Brown, and the entire group headed for Rabaul and Gasmata (Surumi in Japanese) on New Britain to attack these Japanese bases. This was an action to cover the Australian landings at Nouméa in New Caledonia, and also to gain new information on the Japanese advance.


While the massive convoy (two aircraft carriers, eight cruisers and 14 destroyers) headed for New Britain, the Japanese landed 07.03.1942 in Huon Bay, off the towns of Salamaua and Lae in New Guinea.


As soon as Rear Admiral Wilson Brown learned of this landing, he changed the target of the attack and 10.03.1942, when the Union was in the Gulf of Papua, gave the order to attack. Aircraft from USS Lexington (CV-2) took off first, and 21 minutes later, at 08.10[/b:aaaa], aircraft from USS Yorktown (CV-5) took off. The planes flew over the Owen Stanley Mountains (the central mountains of New Guinea) and after less than 2 hours attacked the Japanese ships anchored off Lae and Salamaua, returning to the carrier decks after the attack was over. Of the 104 aircraft, 103 returned safely, only one Douglas SBD Dauntless was shot down.


Task Force 11 (TF-11) then safely withdrew in a southeasterly direction.



USS Yorktown in the Coral Sea in April 1942[/i]


USS Yorktown (CV-5) with Task Force 17 (TF-17) then patrolled the Coral Sea area until April 1942, out of range of Japanese aircraft from land bases, ready to intervene at any time if necessary. Then in late April, the entire TF-17 detachment sailed to the dismantled port of Tongatapu in the Tonga Islands to resupply and make necessary repairs. USS Yorktown (CV-5) had been at sea continuously since 14 February 1942.



Battle of the Coral Sea




Battle of the Coral Sea - Part I

👤Luky 🕔26.08.2005

The Battle of the Coral Sea, from 4 to 8 May 1942, was a major naval battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and naval and air forces of the United States and Australia. Taking place in the Pacific Theatre of World War II, the battle is historically significant as the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other and the first in which the opposing ships neither sighted nor fired directly upon one another.

Preparations for the battle and an overview of the forces deployed in this battle.

Display article

Battle of the Coral Sea - Part II

👤Luky 🕔05.09.2005

The Battle of the Coral Sea, from 4 to 8 May 1942, was a major naval battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and naval and air forces of the United States and Australia. Taking place in the Pacific Theatre of World War II, the battle is historically significant as the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other and the first in which the opposing ships neither sighted nor fired directly upon one another.

The beginning of the battle and the first clashes between the Japanese and American fleets.

Display article

Battle of the Coral Sea - Part III

👤Luky 🕔11.09.2005

The Battle of the Coral Sea, from 4 to 8 May 1942, was a major naval battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and naval and air forces of the United States and Australia. Taking place in the Pacific Theatre of World War II, the battle is historically significant as the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other and the first in which the opposing ships neither sighted nor fired directly upon one another.

Battles of May 8 and the culmination of the battle.

Display article



Thanks to the cracking of Japanese codes and the ability to read Japanese dispatches, Admiral Chester William Nimitz, commander of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific, learned of the Japanese "MO" plan, which, among other things, called for a landing at Port Moresby, New Guinea on 03.05.1942. If the Japanese succeeded in this plan, they could directly threaten Australia and gain a base for further expansion.


Therefore, Task Force 17 (TF-17) with the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5) left Tongatapu on 27.04.1942[/b:aaaa] to 01.05.1942 to rendezvous southwest of the New Hebrides with Task Force 11 (TF-11), led by the carrier USS Lexington (CV-2), this time under the command of Rear Admiral Aubrey Wray Fitch. Taking tactical command of both forces was Commander TF-17, Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, aboard the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5).


The two crews refueled from escort tankers on 02.05.1942 and then split again when TF-17 with USS Yorktown (CV-5) headed west and, as previously arranged, was to rendezvous again with TF-11 on 04.05.However, on the morning of 03.05.1942 the Japanese landed on Tulagi Island (Solomon Islands) and Rear Admiral Fletcher received news of this action late that evening.


The entire alliance immediately changed course to the north and shortly after 7 a.m., 04.05.1942, 12 torpedo planes Douglas TBD-1 Devastator and 28 dive bombers Douglas SBD Dauntless took off from the deck of the USS Yorktown (CV-5) to attack the Japanese invasion fleet at 08.15. They sank the destroyer Kikuzuki, two minesweepers and several landing craft, and returned aboard the carrier at 09.30. An hour later a second attack wave of 11 torpedo and 27 dive bombers took off, but even this time the raid was not very successful - a patrol boat was damaged and two seaplanes were shot down. In addition, the attackers lost one aircraft, destroyed by anti-aircraft fire.


The third wave of 21 dive bombers sank only 4 landing craft. The planes returned aboard USS Yorktown (CV-5) at 16.32[/b:aaaa] and the entire force headed south, where they met Rear Admiral A. W. Fitch on the morning of 05.05.1942[/b:aaaa].


Shortly after the meeting between the two alliances, a fighter from the USS Yorktown (CV-5) shot down a Japanese reconnaissance seaplane, but the Japanese command was unaware of the loss of the aircraft.


The two services spent the day refueling and headed northwest in the evening.


On 06.05.1942 afternoon, Rear Admiral F. J. Fletcher information about a large group of enemy ships sailing towards the Jomard Strait east of New Guinea.


At 19.30, therefore, both alliances changed course to reach a position favorable for attack.


On 07.05.1942[/b:aaaa], Japanese reconnaissance aircraft discovered the tanker USS Neosho (AO-23)[/i], escorted by the destroyer USS Sims (DD-409), which had left Fletcher's union the previous day and was now in the area where the next refueling was to take place. Both ships were attacked by two waves of Japanese aircraft and sunk after noon.
At about the same time (08.15), reconnaissance aircraft discovered part of Japanese Rear Admiral Marushige's[/i] Federation, incorrectly identified as a carrier federation. At 08.26, aircraft from USS Lexington (CV-2) took off, followed half an hour later by a group from USS Yorktown (CV-5). En route to the target, 93 US aircraft spotted Rear Admiral Goto[/i]'s light carrier Shoho. Aircraft from the USS Lexington (CV-2) were the first to attack, but all of their torpedoes and bombs Shōhō missed. The pilots of the USS Yorktown (CV-5) were more successful. At 11.25, the first planes rushed to attack, and 11 minutes later, Shoho went down, after being hit by 14 bombs and 7 torpedoes. The attacking group lost three machines shot down by Japanese fighters, the rest of the aircraft returning to the carrier decks around 13:00.


This success, along with the presence of the American cruiser alliance along the route of the Japanese invasion convoy, prompted Vice Admiral Inoue[/i], commander of the entire Japanese operation, to turn the entire convoy back about Rabaul.


In the evening, 12 dive-bombers Aichi D3A and 15 torpedo planes Nakajima B5N Kanko from the aircraft carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku appeared in the vicinity of the American alliance. Fighter protection immediately intervened and shot down 9 aircraft while losing 3 of their own aircraft. The remaining Japanese bombers sought refuge in the thick clouds and fled to the mother ships. Their course took them directly over the two American carriers.


At 19:00, well after sunset, three aircraft approached the starboard side of USS Yorktown (CV-5) and signaled preparations for landing. The US carrier's crew assumed them to be their own fighters and responded. Only when they appeared over the ship's bow did the anti-aircraft gunners orient themselves and recognize the Japanese bombers. In the furious anti-aircraft fire that followed, however, the Japanese managed to escape. Twenty minutes later, three more Japanese bombers attempted to land on the USS Yorktown, whose pilots did not realize their mistake until the last moment. The planes flew over the flight deck at mast height and fled away at full throttle. This time, however, the gunners were more accurate and one Japanese bomber ended up in the waves.


On 08.05.1942 both adversaries sent their reconnaissance aircraft to search for the enemy, and both sides became aware of each other at about the same time (in the first half hour after 8am). Shortly after 9am[/b:aaaa], 39 bombers took off from USS Yorktown (CV-5), followed by 45 aircraft from USS Lexington (CV-2). At 10.45, a group of aviators from USS Yorktown (CV-5) discovered the Japanese fleet and at 10.57 swooped down on the carrier Shokaku. They succeeded in hitting the carrier with two bombs, and another hit was scored by a raid of aircraft from USS Lexington (CV-2). The carrier was thus severely damaged.


Meanwhile, the Japanese also found their target before 11:00, and 69 aircraft attacked the American ships. Both carriers increased speed to 30 knots and prepared to defend themselves. Despite the best efforts of the American pilots, the bombers managed to penetrate. The USS Lexington (CV-2) was hit by two torpedoes and 5 bombs, severely damaging her. The raging fires could not be contained after two explosions of gasoline fumes and the ship had to be abandoned after 17 hours[/b:aaaaa]. The burning derelict wreck was sunk by four torpedoes by the destroyer USS Phelps (DD-360).


USS Yorktown was more successful in repelling the attack. The naval captain, Elliot Buckmaster, maneuvered his ship superbly, and the first attack of eight torpedo planes met with no success. The carrier managed to avoid all the torpedoes.


The second attack at 11.24 was led by dive bombers and again most of the bombs missed the ship. One 400 kilogram bomb, however, hit the flight deck of USS Yorktown (CV-5) near the superstructure (island) and exploded in a magazine on the fourth deck, deep inside the ship. 37 men were killed instantly and an equal number were wounded. Fortunately, the resulting fire was not so serious and the emergency crews were able to extinguish it quickly. Except for a few spots where the armor plates covering the hull were damaged by bombs exploding in the water, USS Yorktown (CV-5) suffered no further damage. The Japanese paid for the raid on both carriers with the loss of 43 aircraft.


On the afternoon of 08.05.1942, Rear Admiral F. J. Fletcher orders from Admiral Ch. W. Nimitz to withdraw the two unions from the Coral Sea. While the tactical victory was won by the Japanese, as they managed to sink one heavy carrier and damage the other, while they themselves lost only a light carrier and suffered damage to the other, the strategic victory remained on the side of the Americans, as they managed to prevent the Port Moresby landing and the direct threat to Australia.


It was also important for future events that the Japanese were certain of sinking both American carriers in the Coral Sea.


The entire alliance headed east, where they split[/b:aaaa] on 11 May 1942[/b:aaaa]. A portion of the cruisers and destroyers sailed to the port of Nouméa, New Caledonia, USS Yorktown (CV-5) and the rest of the fleet continued on to the Tongatapu base in the Tonga Islands.



Battle of Midway




Thanks to decrypted Japanese dispatches, in May 1942 Admiral Chester William Nimitz received information that the Japanese intended to attack and occupy Midway Atoll, located in the North Pacific. Because the capture of this atoll would give the Japanese the opportunity to attack the Hawaiian Islands immediately, the American commander had to deploy all the naval forces at his disposal to defend the atoll.


The damaged USS Yorktown (CV-5), which was undergoing the most necessary repairs at Tongatapu, was ordered to return to Pearl Harbor on 18 May 1942. Upon arrival, on the afternoon of 27.05.1942, the ship immediately headed for Dry Dock No. 1 and was boarded by a group of specialists and Admiral Ch. W. Nimitz. After inspecting the damage, an estimate was made that it would take about three months to repair. Admiral Nimitz, however, with a serious face, ordered the ship repaired within three days. More than 1,400 men worked on the repair, some of them for a full 48 hours with little breaks. There was no time for thorough preparation and planning; new plates and transoms were laid directly on the damaged areas and adjusted on the spot. Due to the extraordinary consumption of electricity, power was intermittently cut for two nights in nearby Honolulu to ensure there was enough power for repairs. The enormous effort bore fruit, and less than 48 hours after the ship docked, the USS Yorktown 29 May 1942 was once again in the waters of the bay at 11:00.


28.05.1942 left Pearl Harbor Task Force 16 (TF-16), clustered around the carriers USS Enterprise (CV-6) and USS Hornet (CV-8), Task Force 17 (TF-17) with USS Yorktown (CV-5) following 30.05.1942 at 09.00.


The two alliances met about 350 nautical miles north of Midway Atoll, in a position code-named "Point Luck"[/i] on the afternoon of 02.06.1942. Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, aboard his flagship, USS Yorktown (CV-5), took command of the two unions. On board her at the time were 25 Grumman F4F Wildcat fighter aircraft, 37 Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers, and 13 Douglas TBD-1 Devastator torpedo planes.


On 03.06.1942, a Consolidated PBY Catalina reconnaissance plane discovered the invasion force heading for Midway Atoll in the morning and was attacked by Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers from the atoll airfield in the afternoon. However, the raid was not successful. The pilots of the four seaplanes Consolidated PBY Catalina were slightly more successful, as one of them managed to damage the tanker Akebono Maru[/i] during a night raid.


04.06.1942 in 04.30, a total of 108 aircraft took off from the decks of four Japanese aircraft carriers, Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu and Soryu, and carried out the first raid on American positions at Midway.
The Americans did not slack off either, and before the Japanese attack, several Consolidated PBY Catalina reconnaissance aircraft took off from Midway, From the deck of the USS Yorktown (CV-5), Rear Admiral Fletcher sent 10 dive bombers Douglas SBD Dauntless to reconnoiter before dawn.


At 0530 one Consolidated PBY Catalina discovered a Japanese carrier group and events got underway.


First from Midway and then, at 07.06, also from the carriers USS Enterprise (CV-6) and USS Hornet (CV-8), bombers took off and headed for the Japanese alliance.


At 07.28, the Aichi E13A seaplane from the cruiser Tone was also detected by the American carriers.


American bombers attacked Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo's carriers in several waves, but all raids were unsuccessful and the aircraft suffered heavy losses. An air group from the USS Yorktown remained in reserve aboard the ship for the time being. Reconnaissance aircraft Douglas SBD Dauntless returned without success, and only six Grumman F4F Wildcat fighter cover aircraft circled near the ship.


At 08.45, Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher gave the order to launch, and 12 torpedo planes Douglas TBD-1 Devastator (commanded by Corvette Captain Lem Massey[/i]), 17 dive bombers Douglas SBD Dauntless (commanded by Corvette Captain Maxwell F. Leslie[/i]) and six Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters (commanded by Corvette Captain John S. Thatch[/i]).


Due to the fact that the Japanese fighters were repelling the initial attacks from the Midway aircraft, USS Enterprise (CV-6) and USS Hornet (CV-8), by the time the aircraft from USS Yorktown (CV-5) arrived, they no longer had enough fuel or ammunition to repel them.


At 10.15, Corvette Captain Massey's[/i] torpedo planes attacked under fighter protection. The raid was unsuccessful, however, and only two Douglas TBD-1 Devastator and four Grumman F4F Wildcat aircraft made it back to USS Yorktown (CV-5).


At 10.35, dive-bombers Douglas SBD Dauntless attacked from USS Yorktown (CV-5), as well as 37 Douglas SBD Dauntless (commanded by Corvette Captain Clarence W. McClusky[/i]) from USS Enterprise (CV-6)), which were lost en route to their destination and found at the same moment as the aircraft from USS Yorktown (CV-5). This time, the Japanese fighters no longer had the forces to repel the raid.


Airmen from USS Yorktown (CV-5) hit the carrier Soryu with three bombs, while bombers from USS Enterprise (CV-6) destroyed the carriers Akagi and Kaga with bombs. The effects of the bombs were compounded by explosions of fuel and aerial munitions prepared on the decks of the Japanese ships for further raids.


The Japanese discovered at that time that they were facing not only two aircraft carriers, but also the USS Yorktown (CV-5), which they thought had been sunk in the Coral Sea. They managed to "get" the information from an American ensign who survived the crash of one of the planes from the USS Yorktown (CV-5).


Accordingly, 18 Hiryu dive bombers Aichi D3A and 6 Micubishi A6M Reisen fighters were launched from the remaining Japanese carrier to attack the American alliance.


Just before twelve o'clock, the planes from the raid returned to the USS Yorktown (CV-5). Four fighters landed first, and then Corvette Captain Leslie[/i]'s dive bombers were due to land. The planes had already signaled from the air the news of the destruction of three Japanese carriers, and Rear Admiral Fletcher immediately had 10 more dive bombers Douglas SBD Dauntless take off under the command of Lt. Short[/i], to also find Hiryu.


In the meantime, however, a Japanese attack wave was already approaching, and dive bombers waiting to land were ordered to regroup for defense and stay out of the direction of the anti-aircraft fire. The carrier turned aft to the attacking aircraft, increased speed to 30.5 knots and prepared to defend - the auxiliary 800 gallon fuel tank was dropped from the deck, the refueling systems were pressurized with carbon dioxide and the crew prepared for battle stations. Escort cruisers and destroyers also withdrew to the vicinity of USS Yorktown (CV-5) with anti-aircraft guns and machine guns ready.


By the time the Japanese bombers reached the ship, 10 of them had fallen victim to fighter protection. The others were shot down by anti-aircraft gunners from USS Yorktown (CV-5), followed by fire from the heavy cruisers USS Portland (CA-33) and USS Astoria (CA-34). The last six dive-bombers Aichi D3A made it over the ship and attacked. The first bomb missed the USS Yorktown (CV-5), but the second hit the deck, blew a 3-meter-square hole in it, and exploded on the starboard side of the ship near Elevator 2. The shrapnel killed 20 men manning the 28 mm L/75 Mark 1 anti-aircraft guns, and three aircraft caught fire in the hold below, which were fortunately, thanks to Lieutenant Emerson[/i], soon extinguished. Another bomb tore through three decks on the port side and exploded deep inside the fuselage near the bottom of the funnel. A violent fire broke out in the hold and the explosion disabled eight boilers. However, the crew of the last boiler (No. 1) remained on station and, thanks to their efforts, the ship had at least enough steam for emergency operation. The speed slowly began to drop until it settled down to only 6 knots.
The last bomb hit the middle elevator, punctured it and exploded on the fourth deck, 17 meters below the flight deck level, near the gasoline tanks and ammunition storage. However, with tremendous effort, firefighting crews managed to flood the magazine and prevent the fire from reaching the fuel.


At 12.16, the raid ended and clouds of thick smoke hovered over USS Yorktown (CV-5).



Deck of USS Yorktown (CV-5) shortly after bomb hits during the Battle of Midway, 04.06.1942[/i]



Of the Japanese aircraft, only five bombers and one fighter survived, and they returned to Hiryu and reported a fire on the American ship. Rear Admiral [i:aaaa]Yamaguchi[/i], commanding from aboard this last operational Japanese carrier, ordered the launch of all the aircraft he had left - ten Nakajima B5N Kanko torpedo planes and six Mitsuishi A6M Reisen fighters.


On the USS Yorktown, the repair crews went to work and within twenty minutes were able to use wooden beams and steel plates to patch the holes in the deck. However, the situation below decks continued to deteriorate and the aircraft carrier eventually ground to a halt. The ship's radar was also disabled, and Rear Admiral Fletcher ordered the waiting and circling bombers to land on USS Enterprise (CV-6) and USS Hornet (CV-8). Because the ship was unmanageable and badly damaged, the Federation commander had to transfer himself by boat to the heavy cruiser USS Astoria (CA-34). At the same time, USS Yorktown (CV-5) took the heavy cruiser USS Portland (CA-33) in tow.


Meanwhile, in the ship's hold, the crew, led by Chief Engineer Officer, Corvette Captain [i:aaaa]Jack Delaney[/i], worked on repairs to the propulsion system. The firefighting crews were also able to extinguish most of the fires, and it was even possible to start refueling the fighters present on the main deck.


By 14.02 the ship had already signalled her ability to cruise at a minimum speed of 5 knots, and a little later at 20 knots.



USS Yorktown (CV-) immobilized after air raids 04.06.1942 during the Battle of Midway[/i]


A short time later, radar from one of the escort cruisers detected a group of Japanese aircraft heading towards the American group. Four of the six patrolling Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters were sent to meet them, and were soon joined by ten fighters that took off from the carrier's deck. Eight of them had less than 23 gallons of gasoline in their tanks because refueling had to be aborted. The USS Yorktown (CV-5) was now cruising at 18 knots, the repairmen were able to replace the damaged steam pipes and the fires inside the hull were eliminated. The ship again prepared to repel the raid, and her escort vessels formed a tight circle in her vicinity.


Nine Japanese torpedo planes nevertheless managed to slip through the fighter cover, and since USS Yorktown (CV-5) showed no signs of damage at first glance, they pounced on her as the nearest suitable target. Despite heavy antiaircraft fire, at least six aircraft managed to penetrate, and four of them released their torpedoes. Captain Elliott Buckmaster tried to maneuver his ship as best he could, and two torpedoes were successfully avoided by USS Yorktown (CV-5).


At 14.44, however, first one and a few tens of seconds later a second torpedo hit the port side of the ship. USS Yorktown (CV-5) suffered extensive damage, with power generators destroyed, steam pipes and bulkheads cracked, and dozens of tons of water pouring into the ship's interior. The rudder, deflected fully to port at the moment of impact, locked up and the slowing ship traced a large arc on the surface. The USS Yorktown (CV-5) listed to port, initially by 17°, and after 20 minutes of the hit, the list was already 26° and increasing.


The chief engineer officer, Corvette Captain Jack F. Delaney[/i], notified Captain Buckmaster that all boilers were disabled and it was not possible to start the machinery to provide at least a minimum supply of power for the water and fuel pumps. At the same time, the commander of the salvage crews, frigate captain C. E. Aldrich[/i] informed the commander that without the pumps he could neither pump fuel nor fill the ballast tanks to compensate for the ship's list. Based on this information, the sea captain ordered E. Buckmaster at 14.55 for the crew of the USS Yorktown to abandon.



[USS Yorktown (CV-5) is hit by an aerial torpedo during the Battle of Midway, June 4, 1942 (photographed from the heavy cruiser USS Pensacola (CA-24))[/i]



The escorting ships sent their boats into which the wounded were lowered, and hundreds of crew members then climbed down ropes into the oil-covered water from the punctured fuel tanks.


The last remaining on the bridge were Sea Captain Elliott Buckmaster and his acting operations officer, Frigate Captain Irving Wiltsie[/i]. When the two doctors left the ship, it seemed the ship was alone. He then gave the Buckmaster Wiltsie[/i] the order to abandon ship, and himself searched all available spaces once more to make sure no one was left on board. Finally, he lowered himself aft on a rope into the water and swam to one of the rafts occupied by the survivors. By that time, the USS Yorktown (CV-5) was already heeled over so that the water was reaching the port side of the hangar deck. Soon they were all aboard the escort destroyer USS Hammann (DD-412), from where Buckmaster was transferred to the heavy cruiser USS Astoria (CA-34).


While USS Yorktown (CV-5) was having her worst moments, reconnaissance aircraft also discovered a fourth Japanese carrier, Hiryu. Twenty-four USS Enterprise (CV-6) dive bombers then took off from the deck of Douglas SBD Dauntless (including ten aircraft from the original USS Yorktown (CV-5)) and were followed half an hour later by a group of 16 additional Douglas SBD Dauntless aircraft from USS Hornet (CV-8). An hour later, all aircraft from USS Enterprise (CV-6) then destroyed Hiryu with four bomb hits, while aircraft from USS Hornet (CV-8) unsuccessfully attacked the escort ships.



The heavily listing and already abandoned USS Yorktown (CV-5) during the Battle of Midway, afternoon 04.06.1942[/i]



The End




On the afternoon of 04.06.1942, the remainder of Task Force 17 withdrew east, leaving USS Yorktown (CV-5) abandoned on the surface. Shortly thereafter, however, the destroyer USS Hughes (DD-410) was sent to guard the carrier. He was under orders to prevent anyone from boarding and to sink the carrier in the event of a fire breaking out on its deck or an acute danger of it falling into Japanese hands. The destroyer patrolled the wreck all night and came closer at dawn so that its commander, Corvette Captain Donald J. Ramsey[/i], could inspect the ship. The carrier's list had not increased since the evening, nor did it appear to have a raging fire. The destroyer's commander concluded that the USS Yorktown (CV-5) could be salvaged, and to that effect also informed Admiral Chester William Nimitz directly at Pearl Harbor. He immediately ordered the tug USS Navajo (AT-64), a former minesweeper USS Vireo (AM-52) (now serving as a tug and auxiliary), to proceed to the ship, patrolling east of Midway Atoll and the destroyer USS Gwin (DD-433), designated as a reinforcement to Task Force 16 (TF-16).


The message was also captured on Rear Admiral Fletcher's flagship cruiser, [url=/topic/view/24623]USS Astoria (CA-34). Navy Captain Elliott Buckmaster immediately organized a rescue party and, along with 29 officers and 141 sailors, boarded the destroyer USS Hammann (DD-412) which, accompanied by the other destroyers USS Balch (DD-363) and USS Benham (DD-397), sailed back to the USS Yorktown (CV-5).


Around 7 a.m., machine gun shots were heard from the deck of the USS Yorktown (CV-5). The crew of the USS Hughes (DD-410) at first assumed the shots caused the heat, but after a while the gunfire repeated and a figure was seen waving on the port side of the carrier. Corvette Captain Ramsey[/i] immediately dispatched a rescue party to the abandoned ship, which brought back two badly wounded sailors. They were initially presumed dead, but in the morning one of them regained consciousness and called for help with a burst from a machine gun. Both survivors were treated on the USS Hughes (DD-410), but one of them later died.


The destroyer's commander sent a group of men back to the USS Yorktown (CV-5) to search for other possible wounded, but none were found. However, a number of undestroyed classified documents and several undamaged cipher machines were found. This omission by the people responsible for their destruction could have had far-reaching consequences had the documents and machines fallen into Japanese hands. When Admiral Nimitz later learned of this discovery, he issued an order that tightened the regulations in place up to that time.


The nearest ship, USS Vireo (AM-52), arrived shortly before noon, and a steel towline was extended and attached to the carrier's deck. The small ship then USS Yorktown (CV-5) began towing at 2 knots to the east. After an hour, the destroyer USS Gwin (DD-433) arrived and some of its crew joined the rescue party from USS Vireo (AM-52) aboard the carrier. Together they then released and dropped into the sea any unnecessary heavy equipment (such as an anchor) that they could.


Earlier in the morning, however, the immobile USS Yorktown (CV-5) was discovered by a Japanese reconnaissance aircraft at about the same time that USS Hughes (DD-410) was rescuing the recovered sailors. The destroyer did spot the aircraft on its radar screen, and its commander even sounded an air raid alert, but when nothing further happened, the alert was called off and the aircraft was forgotten in the course of the day and subsequent events. However, the Japanese command received the report of the motionless carrier and sent the submarine I-168, which shelled Midway Atoll during the night to find and sink the USS Yorktown (CV-5). The submarine's commander, Corvette Captain Yahachi Tanabe[/i], calculated the course and planned the action for the early morning hours.


Around 06.06.1942[/b:aaaa], at about 2 a.m.[/b:aaaa], a group of three destroyers arrived at the carrier with a rescue party led by Navy Captain E. [url=/topic/view/31291]USS Hammann (DD-412) came alongside USS Yorktown (CV-5) before dawn and dropped her off on the deck of the listing ship. Captain Buckmaster then divided his men into several squads. The first squad was given the task of exploring the hold and attempting to right the ship's list. The second squad was tasked with dropping damaged and burned planes into the sea. The third detachment of men attempted to repair the anti-aircraft guns and man them in case of air attack. The last two groups, consisting of cooks and doctors with medics, were in charge of preparing food and locating and collecting the dead, along with identifying them.


Submersible pumps were moved aboard the carrier from the destroyer, and USS Hammann (DD-412) remained alongside USS Yorktown (CV-5) to provide electricity.
During the morning, one of the 127 mm L/38 gun Mark 12 guns on the port side was dismounted and dropped overboard, which, along with flooding part of the starboard compartments, reduced the ship's list by 2°. Five destroyers patrolled around the ship - USS Hughes (DD-410) and USS Gwin (DD-433), the incoming USS Balch (DD-363) and USS Benham (DD-397), as well as USS Monaghan (DD-354), which arrived during the night.


However, none of the destroyers intercepted the Japanese submarine I-168, which only found its target after noon. The submarine managed to slip through the escort undetected at 3 knots, and shortly after 1 p.m. fired a salvo of four torpedoes from a distance of about 800 yards to the starboard side of the carrier.


The torpedoes were seen simultaneously from the deck of USS Yorktown (CV-5) and from USS Hammann (DD-412), moored off the side of the large ship. The destroyer's commander, frigate captain Arnold E. True[/i], immediately gave the command to the engine room to move, and at the same time all of the destroyer's guns lowered their barrels to try and engage the incoming torpedoes. However, none of this succeeded.


The first torpedo missed the stern of USS Yorktown (CV-5), and the second hit USS Hammann (DD-412) amidships, tearing her starboard side apart. The remaining two torpedoes dug into the hull of the carrier in its center.
The destroyer sank in less than 4 minutes, and shortly after the water closed behind it, its depth charges exploded underwater. The massive explosion caused the death of a large number of survivors who managed to escape from the sinking ship. More than 80 sailors out of a crew of 190 perished.



[USS Hammann (DD-412) sinks after being hit by a torpedo from submarine I-168 (photographed from the deck of USS Yorktown (CV-5))[/i]



Two torpedo hits ripped a huge hole in the starboard side of USS Yorktown (CV-5), through which water poured into the ship. The explosions also caused damage to the auxiliary generator on deck and injured many men on board and inside the ship. The original list was soon equalized, but the ship was rapidly sinking deeper and deeper, and it became apparent that there was no salvage for her.


The tugboat USS Vireo (AM-52) cut the towline and came in close to board members of the rescue party lowering themselves by ropes to her deck. The last to launch was again the sea captain, Elliott Buckmaster. As the USS Vireo (AM-52) was about to depart, Chief Engineer Delaney[/i] appeared on the edge of the large ship's deck, and at the last moment, climbed a rope to the tug. When Captain E found out. Buckmaster, he was so unhappy that he was not the last to leave his ship that he wanted to go back and at least touch the hull of the USS Yorktown (CV-5).



Last moments of USS Yorktown (CV-5), 07.06.1942[/i]


The submarine I-168 fled the threatened area at top speed, and even a five-hour hunt for the remaining destroyers did not yield success.


The USS Yorktown (CV-5) stayed afloat all night, but by the morning of 07.06.1942 it was obvious she would not last long. The ship was heavily listing to port at dawn, then at 07.01 she slowly rolled over on her side and sank to the bottom at 30°46'00.00 "N 176°24'00.00 "W to a depth of about 5000 metres. Her flag flew at the mast until the last moment.


The flags of the surrounding ships were lowered to half-mast, and from their decks hundreds of men stood at attention watching the demise of the USS Yorktown (CV-5), many of them with tears streaming down their faces.


The wreck of the USS Yorktown (CV-5) was discovered by oceanographer Dr. Robert Ballard[/i] at a depth of 5,075 feet, upright, and surprisingly still in good condition.



Sources:
HUBÁČEK, Miloš: Pacific in Flames (3rd edition, Prague, Mladá Fronta, 2003, ISBN 80-204-0642-5)
HRBEK, Ivan - HRBEK, Jaroslav: Krvavé oceány: Od plan Barbarossa k bitvě u Midway (1st edition, Prague, Our Army, 1994, ISBN 80-206-0391-3)
www.chinfo.navy.mil
www.nationalgeographic.com/midway/
www.geocities.com
www.maritimequest.com
ibiblio.org
www.navsource.org/archives/02/05.htm
www.ibiblio.net
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USS Yorktown (CV-5)


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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - USS Yorktown (CV-5) je spuštěn na vodu dne 04.04.1936

USS Yorktown (CV-5) je spuštěn na vodu dne 04.04.1936
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - USS Enterprise (CV-6) a USS Yorktown (CV-5) během stavby v loděnici Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.

USS Enterprise (CV-6) a USS Yorktown (CV-5) během stavby v loděnici Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - USS Yorktown (CV-5) v loděnici Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. dne DD.06.1937

USS Yorktown (CV-5) v loděnici Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. dne DD.06.1937
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - USS Yorktown (CV-5) opravován na základně Pearl Harbor po bitvě v Korálovém moři v květnu 1942

USS Yorktown (CV-5) opravován na základně Pearl Harbor po bitvě v Korálovém moři v květnu 1942
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - poslední chvíle USS Yorktown (CV-5), 07.06.1942

poslední chvíle USS Yorktown (CV-5), 07.06.1942
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - převrácená a potápějící se USS Yorktown (CV-5)

převrácená a potápějící se USS Yorktown (CV-5)
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - převrácená a potápějící se USS Yorktown (CV-5) po Bitvě u Midway

převrácená a potápějící se USS Yorktown (CV-5) po Bitvě u Midway
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - hořící USS Yorktown (CV-5) během bitvy o atolu Midway

hořící USS Yorktown (CV-5) během bitvy o atolu Midway
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - hořící USS Yorktown (CV-5) během Bitvy o Midway, 04.06.1942

hořící USS Yorktown (CV-5) během Bitvy o Midway, 04.06.1942
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CV - USS Yorktown (CV-5) - USS Yorktown (CV-5) pluje zádí napřed během zkoušek v červenci 1937 poblíž Rocklandu (Maine)

USS Yorktown (CV-5) pluje zádí napřed během zkoušek v červenci 1937 poblíž Rocklandu (Maine)
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USS Yorktown (CV-5)






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upravil: FiBe (15-FEB-2022)
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USS Yorktown (CV-5)
- Hole in the deck left by one of the bombs that hit the carrier by Japanese dive bombers Aichi D3A in the Battle of Midway Atoll, 04.06.1942


Source:
www.asisbiz.com

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