Grušin Okťabrjonok

Grushin Oktyabryonok
Грушин Октябрёнок
Grušin - avietka Okťabrjonok Grushin - avietka Oktyabryonok
Originální název:
Original Name:
Грушин - авиетка Октябрёнок
experimentální letoun experimental aeroplane
DD.MM.1936-DD.MM.1936 Moskevský letecký institut, Moskva /
Období výroby:
Production Period:
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
Vzlet a přistání:
Take-off and Landing:
CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání CTOL - conventional take-off and landing
Uspořádání křídla:
Arrangement of Wing:
jednoplošník monoplane
Uspořádání letounu:
Aircraft Concept:
tandemové křídlo tandem wings
pevný fixed
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
kola wheels
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost prázdného letounu:
Empty Weight:
295 kg 650 lb
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
? kg ? lb
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
400 kg 882 lb
6,0 / 4,41) m 19 ft 8 ¼ in / 14 ft 5 ¼ in 1)
4,125 m 13 ft 6 ⅜ in
? m ?
Plocha křídla:
Wing Area:
12,801) m2 137.781) ft2
Plošné zatížení:
Wing Loading:
? kg/m2 ? lb/ft2
pístový piston
Počet motorů:
Number of Engines:
Salmson o výkonu 40,5 kW/55 k Salmson, power 54 hp
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
? ?
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
115 km/h v ? m 71 mph in ? ft
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
95 km/h v ? m 59 mph in ? ft
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
? m/s ? ft/min
Čas výstupu na výšku:
Time to Climb to:
? min do ? m ? min to ? ft
Operační dostup:
Service Ceiling:
? m ? ft
? km ? mi
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
? km ? mi
- -
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
- -
1) V údaji rozpětí znamená číslo před lomítkem přední a za lomítkem zadní křídlo. U údaje nosná plocha jsou také v některých pramenech udávány hodnoty přední / zadní křídlo: 7 m2 / 4 m2 1) In the column wingspan, the number in front of the slash means front wing, the second number is for rear wing.
Some sources state datas for front / rear wing as well: 75 ft2 / 43 ft2.
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Grušin - avietka "Okťabrjonok"

Грушин - авиетка Октябрёнок
the End of the twenties and thirties of the last century it was carried in the sign of the "people's aircraft". The idea of building a "flying motorcycle" or "flying car", which you could get each, was struck many designers around the world. Therefore, it is clear that they did not avoid the soviet Russia. A great inspiration has become a popular Celestial flea (Le Pou du ciel) French elektroinženýra Henri Migneta, supplied both as a kit or only as a set of drawings, according to which you could interested the plane stand alone. These so-called avietky were often at the origins of separate design activities of a number of people, including even the future big names of the world of air structures, such as And. Also. Mikoyan, To. Samarin, N. Also. Pavlov (А. И. Микоян, К. Самарин и Н. А. Павлов), who built their own model, called also Okťabrjonok, or And. N. Tupolev, With. In. Iljuschin, And. With. Yakovlev, A. To. Antonov (А. Н. Туполев, С. В. Ильюшин, А. С. Яковлев, О. К. Антонов) and more.

In 1935 in the OKB-1 MAI, led by P. D. Grušinem, had taken to designing light aircraft in the competition of projects of aircraft with little power, organized Osoaviachimem and the race carries the name of Aviavnita (Осоавиахим, завод им. Авиахима). The basic requirements imposed on the project, were: maximum flight safety, the wide availability of piloting (the possibility of piloting persons without special air preparation), the suitability of the aircraft for training flights of pilots, and - most importantly - low price of the aircraft and its operation.

Work on Okťabrjonkovi how the machine was named, included the calculations, the construction of the ofukovacího model, elaboration on the various design schemes. Eventually, that created a plane with an interesting aerodynamic scheme: a tandem monoplane with hornoplošným the arrangement of the bearing surfaces. Even this machine was remotely influenced by the popular at the time Mignetovou "Heaven by a flea". But it wasn't even so much an imitation, but rather about inspiration. Celestial lark had the classic tail surfaces and the supporting surface, hinged imposed on the beam above the fuselage and its movements are controlled. Unlike her, the plane " Okťabrjonok ", was the front and rear wings attached firmly to the hull, but on the front wing were all over the span of the trailing edge of the front wings made a slit elevony - flaps. Rear wing carried no controls. In contrast to the "Heavenly fleas", in which the front wing was attached to the hull of the plane by using the horizontal hinge on the beams and was associated with the control lever, Okťabrjonok had wings positioned relatively high above the longitudinal axis and a fundamentally new control system. Control of the aircraft is carried out only elevony on the front wing, which carry out functions of high-rise rudders, flaps, rudder and ailerons. Due to this in the plane Okťabrjonok were removed the shortcomings of the "innate" Heavenly fleas: loss of longitudinal stability and the entrainment of the aircraft to steeply dive (from which the "Heavenly fleas" have failed to come out, (the effectiveness of the action of the pivoting of the articulated suspension of the front wings sharply waned); managing high-rise area on the front wing even with the growth of the angle of the dive to maintain its effectiveness in all flight modes. It was found during the blowing off Okťabrjonka in the wind tunnel and confirmed by flight tests.

The location of the vertical control surfaces on the front wing allowed to get the advantageous properties, in particular during the landing, and significantly reduce the tendency to spontaneous cornering. Work on the plane actively participated in P. Also. Blandov, P. In Semenov, And. And. Lebedinskij, And. Also. Grinčik (П. И. Бландов, П. В. Семенов, А. А. Лебединский, А. И. Гринчик ) and more.

The first take-off Okťabrjonka took place 23. October 1936. Test pilot And. Also. Zhukov (chief-pilot of the plant Aviachima - А. И. Жуков ) quickly gained a height of 1000 m. the Aircraft has made several flybys over the airport, slid, made the eights, proved the stability and reliability. During the takeoff acceleration of the aircraft amounted to around 50-60 m, overrun on landing - only 15 m. October 30, after takeoff from the airport of the aero club MAI in Chimkach (Химки), And. Also. Zhukov flew on Okťabrjonkovi over the institute and performed a variety of figures over the Tušinským the airport. On Okťabrjonkovi flying instructors flying club And. Lebedinskij and With. Cholobcev (А. Лебединский, С. Холобцев). On Okťabrjonkovi in the aero club graduated overall program of air preparation and its creator P. D. Grušin (П. Д. Грушин.)

Initially it was assumed on the plane to install the engine, which was developed at the motorářské the faculty of MAI at the OKB-2, but he wasn't ready for the beginning of the competition, therefore Okťabrjonok flew initially with three-cylinder two-stroke engine Aubier-Dunne (27 to. with, identical to that which powered and the Celestial flea Henri Migneta), and then with twin-cylinder air-cooled engine Bristol-Cherub (30 to. s). The aircraft was still somewhat podmotorován, its takeoff weight was 400 kg place of the calculated 230 kg. Was required a more powerful engine, and so after some editing has been definitively mounted engine Salmson with a performance of 45 PCS. During the adjustments have been strengthened, wing spars and keel, added shock absorbers the chassis and made a new rudder with an enlarged flat.

In accordance with the idea of people's "flying car" was to ensure the possibility of storage in any garage or shed wings originally Okťabrjonka made as folding. Front sklápělo up, back to back along the fuselage. During editing of the design was from the tilting of the wings dropped. Years ago Okťabrjonka were successful, but the tandem scheme nezajišťovalo so high aerodynamic fineness as the scheme of monoplane with a large wingspan and conventional tail surfaces. Yet she was avietka with success utilized in the course of the next several years. The model did not fly flew well, was unpretentious and allowed to pilot it, even people with minimal experience, enough to pass just the basic training on the airplane -2. Even at large angles of dive remained stable and without tendency to fall into a tailspin.

With the engine Salmson aircraft Okťabrjonok passed trials in VVÚ VVS (Научно‐Испитательный Интитут Военно Воздшных сил - НИИ ВВС). Tested the machine P. M. Stefanovskij (П. М. Стефановский). Due to successful testing, the aircraft was recommended for the equipment of the army staff as a staff - connecting.

The public was Okťabrjonok first introduced at a may day parade, when he was prisoner on the lorry at the head of the parade of workers MAI. In 1938 the air of a military parade in Tušinu among other cutting-edge aircraft before the numerous visitors showed my flight as well as light aircraft of the moscow university students Okťabrjonok..
Grušin Okťabrjonok - Třípohledové schéma
pramen -

Třípohledové schéma
pramen -

Grušin Okťabrjonok - Okťabrjonok vedle dopravního Kalinin K-5-M17F -

Okťabrjonok vedle dopravního Kalinin K-5-M17F -

Grušin Okťabrjonok - barevný pohled

barevný pohled

Grušin Okťabrjonok -
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