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Mikojan-Gurevič MiG-21

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Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21
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Prototypes and experimental aircraft
Je-1 (also referred to as Ch-1)
A design for an arrow-winged fighter aircraft equipped with the Mikulin AM-5A jet engine. The development work was initiated following a decision of the Ministry of Aerospace Industry, which in 1953 ordered the design bureaus OKB-51 (Sukhoi) and OKB-155 (Mikoyan) to develop a tactical fighter aircraft in arrow-wing (Je-1) and delta-wing design (see Je-4/Je-5). Development of the Je-1 was terminated in 1954. The poor thrust of the engine, which also did not have the possibility of using afterburners, led to the redesign of the Je-2 variant. Production of the prototype did not take place.

The Je-2 (also referred to as Ch-2, a designation in NATO code Faceplate[/i])
A fighter aircraft project whose development began in 1954 and was directly based on studies of the Je-1 type. The most significant change was the use of the more powerful Mikulin AM-9B powerplant. The Je-2 was armed with a trio of NR-30 cannons, while additional armament could be formed by a fuselage-mounted missile block UB-16-57 for unguided ARS-57 missiles. The aircraft was equipped with the SRD-1M Radal-M radar rangefinder, the SRO-2 Chrom type self-targeting transponder and the Sirena-2 radar warning receiver. The Je-2 prototype was completed on 25 December 1954, and the initial flight of the machine took place on 14 February 1955.

Je-2A (Issue 63, designation in NATO code Faceplate[/i])
In 1955, the prototype Je-2 was significantly modified by the addition of the more powerful Mikulin RD-11 engine. Therefore, the designation was changed to Je-2A. The armament of the machine was identical to its predecessor. The aircraft was equipped with the SRD-1M Radal-M radar rangefinder, the Barij-M type self-targeting transponder and the Sirena-2 radar warning receiver. The initial flight of the prototype, after modification to Je-2A, took place on 17 February 1956. On 28 July 1956, the second prototype, designated Je-2A/2, was completed and took to the air for the first time on 4 September 1956. While the Je-2A/2 was engaged in state trials, the USSR Council of Ministers issued a directive in July 1957 (?) ordering production of this type to begin at Plant 21 in Gorky. In operational service, these machines were then to carry the designation MiG-23. The production designation used at this factory was Izdělije 63. Although a total of 12 pre-production units were planned for 1957, 5 were eventually completed, with 4 others remaining in various stages of development. The machines produced at Gorky differed most from the prototypes in the use of the SRD-5M Baza-6 radar rangefinder and the SRO-2 Chrom radar warning receiver. In 1958, an order was issued to stop further work on this type.

In 1953, the Ministry of Aerospace Industries ordered the OKB-51 (Sukhoi) and OKB-155 (Mikoyan) design bureaus to develop a tactical fighter aircraft, in arrow-wing and delta-wing versions. Mikyan's delta-wing type was designated Je-5. The new machine was to be powered by the Mikulin AM-11 engine. Due to problems and delays in its development, OKB-155 decided to produce an aircraft identical to the Je-5, but powered by an available engine, so that tests to evaluate the delta-wing characteristics could be accelerated. This aircraft received the designation Je-4. The fuselage and tail surfaces were identical to the Je-2. Armament consisted of three NR-30 cannons, and one 500 kg bomb or ARS-57 unguided missile block could be suspended under the fuselage. The radar rangefinder was of the SRD-1M Konus type. The Je-4 was originally powered by an AM-5 engine, which was replaced by an RD-9I during modifications between 1955 and 1956. Flight tests were completed by the manufacturer in September 1956, with the Je-4 flying 109 flight hours.

Je-5 (Ch-5, I-500, Issue 65)
A tactical delta-wing fighter aircraft developed in parallel with the Je-2. It was originally known as the I-500, but was soon redesignated the Je-5 (some early development documents also used the Ch-5 designation). The first Je-5/1 prototype was built in 1955 and was fitted with an AM-11 engine. Armament consisted of three NR-30 guns. The first flight took place in January 1956. Between October 1956 and February 1957, the rear fuselage was enlarged to accommodate the R11-300 engine. Following a decision of the Council of Ministers in June 1956, serial production of the Je-5 type was to take place. However, at Plant 31 in Tbilisi only 10 units of the pre-series were produced in 1957. These were to enter operational service under the designation MiG-21. Mass production did not take place - the army relied on the prototype Je-6, or the later MiG-21F. A Je-5/2 version was also produced, used for ski landing gear tests.

The first prototype Je-6/1 was built on the basis of the previous Je-5. Changes included the installation of a more powerful R11F-300 engine and improvements to the aerodynamics of the front fuselage. Factory trials began in May 1958. The first prototype crashed during a landing manoeuvre on the 7th flight due to an engine failure. Test pilot V. A. Nefjedov died in hospital. The second prototype, the Je-6/2, was a rebuild of one Je-5 (MiGu-21) from pre-series production. A Je-6/3 was also produced, which joined the Je-6/2 in 1959 for state trials.

The Je-6/9
Serial MiG-21F modified so that it could carry a Type 244 tactical nuclear bomb on a BD3-55T underwing. Testing of the aircraft took place between 1960 and 1961.

The Je-6V (designation in NATO code Fishbed-E[/i])
A variant of the MiG-21F-13 with a shortened takeoff and landing range of approximately 300 to 350 meters. In 1961, two production MiG-21F-13 were modified to this standard, designated Je-6V/1 and Je-6V/2. Modifications included the installation of SPRD-99 auxiliary rocket motors, a wing boundary layer blowing system, increased keel area and a change in the location of the braking parachute.

The Je-7 (MiG-21P, designation in NATO code Fishbed-D[/i])
The weaknesses of the MiG-21F and F-13 were their inability to operate at night and in difficult weather conditions. Therefore, in the summer of 1958, the Council of Ministers commissioned the development of a new version of the MiG-21 equipped with CD-30 radar and two anti-aircraft missiles. The first prototype Je-7/1 made its maiden flight in August 1959, but was soon lost in a flying accident in late November 1959. Prototypes Je-7/2, Je-7/3, Je-7/4 were built. The Je-7 received the service designation MiG-21P. However, it saw serial production and operational service as the MiG-21PF.

Je-7PD (MiG-21PD)
A variant equipped with the lift engines from the MiG-23PD allowing for shortened takeoff and landing. The landing gear of the aircraft was designed as non-retractable. The first flight was made on 16 June 1966, with P. M. Ostapenko at the controls.

In 1961, OKB MiG began design work on a new fighter based on the heavily revised MiG-21PF. The powerplant was the R21F-300 engine. The most notable difference is the relocation of the engine air inlet to the lower fuselage. The first flight took place in April 1962. It was to be produced under the designation MiG-23, but mass production never occurred.

The Je-33
A more powerful lightweight version of the two-seat prototype Je-6U, which matched the performance of the MiG-21F-13. The aircraft was used to set records by Soviet female pilots.

The Je-50 (designation in NATO code Faithless[/i])
In February 1954, development work began by Mikoyan's design bureau on a new high-altitude interceptor, based on the Je-2 type. The main modification was made to the rear fuselage, where the Dushkin S-155 liquid-fuel rocket engine and its fuel installation were added. The first prototype, which was completed on 4 November 1955, was designated Je-50/1. Its first flight took place on 9 January 1956. Although a pair of NR-30 cannons were envisaged, the first prototype had measuring equipment installed in their shafts. The current power unit was an RD-9E engine. Following the crash of the first prototype, work began in July 1956 on the production of a slightly modified second unit, the Je-50/2. A third, more heavily revised prototype, the Je-50/3, was produced at almost the same time - production began in August 1956. This aircraft, unlike the previous two produced, no longer resembled a combat aircraft. It already had two NR-30 cannons in place of instrumentation. The Je-50 program was discontinued after an accident of the third prototype, which occurred on 7 August 1957 and killed test pilot V. P. Vasin.

Je-50A (Issue 64, MiG-23U)
A high-altitude interceptor fighter, compared to the Je-50 it was equipped with a more powerful R11E-300 engine. Other modifications affected the fuel system of the S-155 rocket engine. The armament consisted of two NR-30 cannons, and the radar was of the SRD-1M type. Work on the Je-50A began in late October 1956. Production of 30 units was scheduled for 1957, which were to enter operational service as MiG-23U. Due to problems with the production of the R11E-300 powerplant, the plans were changed to the production of 12 units, with 10 to go to the PVOS and the rest to the NII VVS GK for testing. However, a shortage of engines meant that only one unit was completed at Plant 21 in the autumn of 1957, with the other two at various stages of development. In the end, serial production did not take place.

Je-66 (Je-6T with R11F2-300 engine)
Prototype Je-6T/1 modified to set world speed records. The aircraft was lightened by removing cannons and other redundant systems. Propulsion was provided by the R11F2-300 engine. The world speed record was set by test pilot G. K. Molosov on October 31, 1959, the value was 2 504 km/h. In documents provided to the FAI organization, due to Soviet paranoia, the designation of the aircraft was given as Je-66.

Je-66A (Je-6T with R11F2-300 engine and U-21 rocket engine)
In 1959, the record-breaking Je-6T/1 (Je-66) underwent a modification, the main feature of which was the addition of a liquid-fueled U-21 rocket engine. In 1961, the aircraft set a new record for availability. In documents for the FAI, its designation was given as Je-66A.

MiG-21I (Issue 21-11, Analog)
A test aircraft used in the development of a transport wing Tupolev Tu-144. The MiG-21I type was built in two prototypes. The first was used in the development of an elevon control system for aircraft without tail surfaces. The second machine underwent tests at the Gromovo Aviation Institute. The first prototype was lost in an accident, the second eventually ended up in the Monin Aviation Museum.

Single-seat fighter, fighter-bomber and reconnaissance versions
MiG-21F (Je-6, Issue 72, designation in NATO code Fishbed-C[/i])
Single-seat attack fighter aircraft for operations in good weather conditions and with line-of-sight to the target. It was the first serial version produced from 1959 at Plants 21 and 31. The armament of the aircraft consisted of two NR-30 guns, under the wing it was possible to hang on two hangers an anti-surface armament consisting of two unguided missiles S-24, two bombs weighing up to 500 kg each or blocks UB-16-57 for unguided missiles S-5K and S-5M. 79 units of this version were produced.

MiG-21F-13 (Je-6T, Issue 74, designation in NATO code Fishbed-C[/i])
Single-seat attack fighter aircraft for operations in good weather conditions and with line-of-sight to the target. Production of prototypes designated Je-6T was completed in July 1960. The production designation of the type was Izdělije 74. The MiG-21F-13 version was directly related to the MiG-21F type. The main changes affected the armament. The F-13 variant removed the left cannon NR-30, leaving only the aerodynamic cowling. The cannon ammunition supply was reduced to only 30 rounds. In contrast, a rocket armament was added, carried under the wing and consisting of two R-3S anti-aircraft cruise missiles (in NATO code AA-2 Atoll). When attacking ground targets, the aircraft could use two missile blocks UB-16-57U for S-5M and S-5K missiles, two unguided missiles S-24, two FAB-100 / FAB-250 / FAB-500 bombs or two napalm tanks ZB-360. The radar rangefinder was of the SRD-5ND or SRD-5M type. The self-targeting transponder was of the SRO-2 type. Production was carried out at Plant 21 in Gorky (132 serial units were produced in 1960, 226 examples were produced in 1961, and 15 MiG-21F-13s were produced there in 1962). The MiG-21F-13 made its first public appearance at the Moscow-Tushino Air Day on 9 July 1961. After production of the MiG-21F-13 ceased at Plant 21 in 1962, production of this type moved to Moscow's Plant 30 Znamya Truda, where it continued until 1965.
Licensed production of the MiG-21F-13 was carried out in Czechoslovakia and China.

MiG-21PF (Je-7, Izdelya 76, designation in NATO code Fishbed-D[/i])
An attack fighter aircraft capable of operating at night and in difficult weather conditions. The aircraft was based on the MiG-21P (Je-7/1, Je-7/2) version, compared to which it differed by an increased fuel tank capacity of 380 litres, modifications to the nose and main landing gear, strengthening of some parts of the structure and a modified version of the radar. The first prototype MiG-21PF flew from the factory airfield of Plant 21 on 28 June 1961. The aircraft was equipped with the CD-30TP radar, which entered operational service under the designation RP-21. For combat against air targets, two radar-guided RS-2US or infrared-guided R-3S missiles could be mounted. Two blocks of UB-16-57U or two 100 or 250 kg bombs could be used to counter ground targets. One additional 490 litre fuel tank could be suspended from the sub-tank hanger. Production of the MiG-21PF took place at Plant 21 (between 1962 and 1968, production for the Soviet Air Force only) and Plant 30 (between 1964 and 1968, production for export only). The export machines bore the factory designation Izdělije 76 version A and differed from the aircraft destined for the Soviet Air Force by the use of different self-identification equipment and, most likely, "cut down" radar parameters.

MiG-21PFL (Issue 76 version A, designation in NATO code Fishbed-D[/i])
A variant based on the MiG-21PF assault [b:aaaa]MiG-21PF[/b:aaaa], which was made for the North Vietnamese Air Force. It was identical in armament and avionics to the MiG-21PF intended for export, except for a modified ARK-10 radio compass, a KSI heading system replaced by the newer KSI-2, and a dismantled radio rangefinder. This version was inducted into the North Vietnamese Air Force in April 1966, with the 921st Fighter Aviation Regiment "Sao Do" (Red Star) operating from Noi-Bai Airfield becoming the user of these machines.

MiG-21FL (Issue 76 version B, designation in NATO code Fishbed-D[/i])
A version of the MiGu-21PF intended for export to third world countries and non-Warsaw Pact states. The most significant modifications compared to the PF variant were as follows: increased SOP area, placement of a braking parachute in the SOP root, lower power R-11F-300 powerplant, R1L radar (export RP-21 without RS-2US). Production began at Plant 30 in 1965 and continued until 1968. Licensed production for the Indian Air Force began in 1966 at HAL in Nasik, India. The Indian aircraft were equipped with the more powerful R2L radars (export version RP-21M). MiG-21FL aircraft of the Indian Air Force were combat deployed during the 3rd India-Pakistan War in December 1971.

MiG-21PFS (Je-7SPS, Issue 94, designation in NATO code Fishbed-D[/i]/ Fishbed-F[/i])
A version of the MiG-21PF equipped with a wing boundary layer blowing system, which improved the aircraft's low-speed performance. The first 25 units were produced at Plant 21 in 1963. During the production of this version, three major modifications were made to the design. The first machines were equipped with a smaller SOP with a braking parachute at its root. Subsequent aircraft had an enlarged SOP and the original SK-3 ejection seat overlay. The last subversion was already equipped with a KM-1 seat and a two-piece cockpit overlay. MiG-21PFSs with a larger SOP were designated Fishbed-F in the West.

MiG-21PFM (Je-7SPS / Je-7M, Issue 94, designation in NATO code Fishbed-F[/i])
The successor to the MiG-21PFS, the modernization modifications were reflected in the installation of a more powerful RP-21M radar, an SRZO-2-type interrogator/repeater, and other minor modifications to the avionics and autopilot. Another change occurred in the area of armament. The aircraft could carry a barrel armament in the form of a GS-23 gun installed in a GP-9 underwing pod. After the type was introduced into service, MiG-21PFS from later series were retroactively re-designated as MiG-21PFM. This was due to the almost identical external appearance of both types. The main part of production at Gorkovsky Plant 21 took place between 1964 and 1966.
MiG-21PFMs intended for export bore the factory designation Izdělije 94A. The design of each aircraft varied according to the recipient country. Among the biggest differences was the installation of RP-21 radar variants with degraded performance.

MiG-21R (Je-7R, Izdělije 94R, designation in NATO code Fishbed-H[/i])
A tactical reconnaissance aircraft based on the MiG-21PFM type, external differences included a more robust fuselage spine (for fuel tanks and electronics) or REB housings at the wingtip, which were additionally strengthened to carry four hangers in total. The prototype Je-7R, designated "Red 78", entered government testing in December 1964.
Production of the aircraft took place between 1965 and 1971. The aircraft could be used for reconnaissance as well as fighter (using R-3S and RS-2US missiles) and anti-surface missions (it was possible to suspend UB-16-57 and UB-32-57 blocks, two bombs weighing up to 500 kg each or two unguided S-24 missiles). To perform reconnaissance missions, the D (for daytime imaging), N (for nighttime imaging), R (for radio reconnaissance) and T (with a television reconnaissance system) containers could be suspended. The aircraft were powered by R11F2S-300 engines, and some countries (including the Soviet Union) had their aircraft re-engined. These machines then used R13-300 powerplants.
The export version bore the factory designation Izdělije 94RA. It was equipped with the RP-21MA radar with degraded parameters. These aircraft were delivered to customers only with D and R containers.

MiG-21S (Je-7S, Issue 95, designation in NATO code Fishbed-J[/i])
In 1964, two MiG-21PFMs were modified at Plant 21 into Je-7S prototypes. The most noticeable visual change is the enlarged back and the use of four underwing hangers as in the reconnaissance version MiG-21R. A new RP-22 type radar was built into the fuselage, and the powerplant was an R11F2S-300 engine. With the new radar, the anti-aircraft armament was expanded to include R-3R missiles. MiG-21S were produced between 1965 and 1968 by Plant 21 exclusively for the Soviet Air Force.

MiG-21SN (Je-7N, Izdělije 95N, designation in NATO code Fishbed-J[/i])
It is a fighter-bomber version of the MiG-21S capable of carrying the RN-25 nuclear bomb. The prototype was produced in 1965, only a small number of machines of this version were produced for the needs of the Soviet Air Force. The aircraft was also referred to as the MiG-21N.

MiG-21SM (Izdělije 95M, Izdělije 15, designation in NATO code Fishbed-J[/i])
Modernization of the S version, consisting mainly in the installation of a new R13-300 engine and a fixed gun mount GS-23L as in the M version (see below). Production at Plant 21 began in 1969 and continued until 1974. During production, the factory designation was changed from Izdělije 95M to Izdělije 15. The reason was to confuse hypothetical spies.

MiG-21SMT (Divides 50, designation in NATO code Fishbed-K[/i])
A version of the MiGu-21SM with increased range, essentially the equivalent of the MiGu-21MT (see below) intended for service in the Soviet Air Force. The enlarged fuselage back allowed for more fuel, which resulted in an increase in range of the order of 200 to 250 km. However, other flight performance deteriorated compared to the previous version. Production at Plant 21 took place between 1971 and 1972.

MiG-21M (Je-7M, Issue 96, designation in NATO code Fishbed-J[/i])
Export version of the MiG-21S type. Powered by R11F2SK-300 engine. The development of this variant started at the time when the MiG-21S entered series production. The original RP-22 radar of the S version was replaced by the RP-21MA with degraded performance. Another modification was the fixed installation of the GS-23L gun, the ammunition supply was 200 pieces. There were 4 hinges under the wing. The only armament for combat against enemy aircraft consisted of R-3S, the R-3R variant was not released for export. The first nine production MiG-21Ms were built by Plant 30 in 1968. Production continued there until 1971. The M variant was also produced under Indian licence at the HAL mould plants. The first licensed MiG-21M was delivered to the Indian Air Force in February 1973. MiG-21Ms intended for export to Warsaw Pact countries bore the factory designation Izdelyje 96A. This variant was used by the Czechoslovak Air Force, where it was better known as MiG-21MA.

MiG-21MF (Issue 96F, designation in NATO code Fishbed-J[/i])
De facto it is an export version of the MiG-21SM type. The aircraft was equipped with RP-22 radar and R13-300 powerplant. The armament was expanded to include R-60 anti-aircraft missiles. Production of the type began at Plant 30 in 1970 and continued there until 1974. The following year, production moved to Plant 21 in Gorky. Licensed production also took place in India.

MiG-21RF (Issue 96R, designation in NATO code Fishbed-J[/i])
The MiG-21R aircraft fitted with more powerful R13-300 powerplants, the instrumentation and reconnaissance equipment remained virtually the same as the R version.

The MiG-21D / MiG-21DF
As each newer version of the MiG-21 led to an increase in weight, the Soviet Air Force command decided to create a lighter version designed for manoeuvre air combat. This was to be achieved by fitting a more powerful R13F2-300 engine and a lighter and simpler Kvant radar rangefinder to suit these purposes. This version, designated the MiG-21D (or MiG-21DF), was apparently a modification of the production MiG-21SM in 1969. No serial production was initiated.

The MiG-21SMF
Version based on the MiG-21SM type, equipped with a more powerful R13F2-300 engine. Testing of the prototype began in the autumn of 1970 and lasted until the summer of 1971. Series production did not take place.

MiG-21MT (Issue 96T)
An export version based on the MiG-21M, the main difference being an increase in fuel tank capacity. Plant 30 built an initial production run of 15 of this version in 1971. However, none of them reached customers abroad.

MiG-21ST (Issue 50)
Due to the poor flight characteristics of the SMT version, the spine was reduced (and thus the range reduced), which was identical to that of the MiG-21bis version. The ST variant was not newly produced, but was a modification of the existing MiG-21SMT. Externally, the ST version was virtually identical to the bis version.

MiG-21bis (Je-7bis, Issue 75, designation in NATO code Fishbed-L[/i]/ Fishbed-N[/i])
Version with more powerful R25-300 engine with 95 kN thrust, better RP-22M radar and other modifications. After the unfortunate experience with the SMT version, the fuselage back, which housed the fuel tanks, was reduced. Production at Plant 21 began in 1972 and continued until 1974.
The jets were produced for both the Soviet frontline air force and the PVOS air force. However, both services used these aircraft with minor differences. The PVOS introduced a version equipped with the Lazur-M guidance system. This difference was also reflected in the NATO code designation. The PVOS version was known as Fishbed-L, while the frontline version was codenamed Fishbed-N. The Issue 75A was the factory designation for export MiG-21bis fitted with the Lazur-M system. These machines were used by some Warsaw Pact states. Izdělije 75B were then export machines corresponding to the variant used by the Soviet Frontline Air Force.
Production of the Izdělije 75B also took place in India, where a total of 225 of this version were built between 1980 and 1987.
The MiG-21bis was the last production version of the MiG-21 series.

Two-seat trainer-combat versions
MiG-21U (Je-6U, Issue 66, Issue 66-400, Issue 66-600, designation in NATO code Mongol-A[/i]/Mongol-B[/i])
The development of the Je-6U prototype was based on the Je-6T prototype. The forward fuselage was redesigned up to bulkhead 18 to allow for the addition of a pilot's compartment for the instructor. The changes were reflected in the armament area. Due to the weight, the NR-30 gun was replaced by the A-12.7 machine gun (which was, however, fitted to the first series machines). The possibility of using R-3S missiles was retained. The first three Je-6U were produced at Plant 31 in Tbilisi in 1962. The Je-6U entered Soviet air force service as the MiG-21U. Between 1962 and 1966, MiG-21Us intended for export were produced by Plant 30 (under the factory designation Izdelye 66-400). The main producer for the Soviet Air Force remained Plant 31, where production of the U version ended in 1970. Later series bore the factory designation Izdelye 66-600 (in NATO code Mongol-B) and differed from their predecessors by the use of a larger vertical tailplane known from the MiG-21PFS and PFM types.

MiG-21US (Je-6US, Issue 68, designation in NATO code Mongol-B[/i])
Along with the development of single-seat versions of the MiG-21, the development of the "spar" was also underway. In 1966, the production of the Izdělije 66-600 began in Tbilisi, followed by the MiG-21US version, which featured a boundary layer blowing system. The aircraft was powered by the R11F2S-300 engine. The ejection seats were of the KM-1 type. The rear overlap was additionally fitted with a retractable periscope. Compared to the U version, the capacity of the fuel tanks was also increased. Between 1966 and 1970, Plant 31 in Tbilisi produced a total of 347 units of the US version for both the Soviet Air Force and foreign customers. The export version bore the factory designation Izdelya 68A.

MiG-21UM (Je-6UM, Izdělije 69, designation in NATO code Mongol-B[/i])
A prototype of this version of the Je-6UM entered government trials in 1968. Its serial production under the MiG-21UM designation began in Tbilisi in 1971. The machine was based on the MiG-21US type, from which it differed primarily by the use of the more powerful R13-300 engine. Production lasted until 1985 and yielded a total of 1,133 examples of this version.

Modernization from the first half of the 1990s, involving the Israeli companies IAI, Elbit and the Romanian company Aerostar. The modernization work was carried out to upgrade the MiG-21Mand MF of the Romanian Air Force to the standard of a multirole combat aircraft capable of using guided anti-aircraft and anti-surface munitions. The first prototype, however, was based on the MiG-21bis version. The aircraft was equipped with a Martin-Baker Mk.16 ejection seat and a new cockpit overlay. The avionics were of Israeli origin. These included a new transparent and multifunctional display in the cockpit, and the original radar was replaced by the EL/M-2032 type. The first flight took place in late 1994 and early 1995. Although the Cambodian MiG-21bis were to be upgraded, this did not happen for political reasons.

The MiG-21M/MF Lancer A / MiG-21UM Lancer B / MiG-21M/MF Lancer C
The MiG-21-2000 program, as originally intended, ultimately did not see any implementation. In 1994, the project was revised, with the upgrade receiving the new designation Lancer. The first flight of the prototype took place in May 1996. By April 2003, a total of 110 aircraft had been upgraded for the Romanian Air Force. 34 MiG-21M and 39 MiG-21MF, and 26 MiG-21MF were converted to the Lancer C version (EL/M-2032M radar) designed for fighter missions. The Lancer B is based on the MiG-21UM version, 14 machines were converted to this version.

MiG-21 Lancer III
Romanian-Israeli upgrade offered for export. Prototype built on the basis of the MiG-21bis. Several countries have expressed interest in this modification, but no concrete implementation has taken place.

Russian modernization having its roots in the early 1990s. Instead of the RP-22 radar, the Kopjo radar from NPO Fazotron was installed. This allowed the implementation of anti-aircraft missiles R-27R1, R-73 and R-77 (RVV-AE) into the aircraft's arsenal. The anti-surface armament could consist of Ch-31A, Ch-31P or Ch-25MP missiles, KAB-500Kr guided bombs or S-5, S-13 and S-24 unguided rockets. The first flight took place in the spring of 1995. Although the program did not see any serial implementation, it became the basis for the modernization of India's MiG-21bis.

MiG-21 Bison
The MiG-21bis[/b:aaaa] modernization for the Indian Air Force, based on the MiG-21-93[/b:aaaa], was a joint effort between Indian and Russian companies. The first flight of the prototype took place in October 1998. The radar is of the FK-04 Kopjo type as on the MiGu-21-93, the aircraft is fitted with a new cockpit overlay and avionics of French origin by Sextant Avionique. The armament may consist of GS-23L anti-aircraft missiles R-60M, R-73E, R-27R1, KAB-500Kr bombs, Ch-25MP missiles and S-5, S-8 and S-24 anti-surface weapons. The first flight of the MiG-21bis modified by India's HAL took place in 2001. By January 2006, 94 aircraft had been upgraded by the Indian Air Force.

MiG-21bisD / MiG-21UMD
Versions upgraded by the Romanian company Aerostar. The modifications mainly affected the communications and navigation equipment and took place in 2003. At the same time, the service life of the aircraft was extended by about 10 years. Eight MiG-21bis and four MiG-21UM were modified.

Modification of the MiG-21MF used by the Czech Air Force. The modification affected only the communication and navigation systems to make them compatible with NATO equipment.

1) Kolektiv: MiG-21, 4+, Prague, 1991
2) Gordon, J., Dexter, K., Komissarov, D.: Mikoyan MiG-21, Midland Publishing, Hincley, 2008
3) Gordon, J., Gunston, B.: MiG-21 Fishbed, Aerofax, Leicester, 1996
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