Brigade and Brigade Combat Team in the United States Army
The word brigade ( Brigade) came into English from French. Its original meaning was roughly like "those who fight." In the 15th century, the word first appeared as a term denoting a military formation larger than a regiment or squadron. In American military history, the brigade existed from the very beginning. On June 22, 1775, General George Washington set up the first units, called Brigades, within the Continental Army.
However, the brigades were soon forgotten and the organizational framework of the US Army consisted first of regiments ( Regiment) and for much of the 20th century regiments and divisions ( Division[/i:aaaaaa ]). In American military history, the meaning of the word did not deviate much, as brigades existed for most of history as temporary tactical and combat formations set up according to current needs. They were established as permanent headquarters only during the First World War, but already at the beginning of World War II, the divisions were triangularized. This transition from a square to a triple arrangement marked the end of the brigade level in the maneuvering divisions. The divisions no longer had two brigades of two regiments in their line-up, but only three directly subordinate regiments. But it was not the complete end of brigades in the US military. For armored divisions, there were so-called combat headquarters ( Combat Command), which can be perceived as a certain equivalent of a brigade. There were also separate brigades outside the divisional structure.
In the current army, the strike force consists of brigades and brigade combat teams ( Brigade Combat Team, BCT). Brigades exist mainly in the form of maintenance and security units and also as units of the Army Air Force. Brigade combat teams are then the basic deployable maneuvering unit and have three basic types - armored brigade combat team, brigade combat team Stryker (basically mechanized infantry) and infantry brigade combat team (basically motorized infantry). Infantry brigade combat teams are then further divided into three subgroups, light infantry, airborne and air strike teams. Each of the brigade combat teams consists of all-army battalions ( Battalion) of the appropriate type and support and security battalions. The brigade combat team can thus operate independently even outside the reach of its parent division. The BCT is normally commanded by a colonel, but if necessary, a brigadier general can be headed.
Vojáci z 1. praporu 121. pěšího pluku 48. pěšího brigádního bojového týmu zajišťují bezpečnost po přistání vrtulníku CH-47 Chinook po zásahu v jihovýchodním Afghánistánu. (Foto: U.S. Army)
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Brigades in the Continental Army
In the American colonies, each city built a militia company, and each district had a regiment that covered and controlled these companies. At the level of the colony stood an officer in the rank of general, who commanded all the regiments of the colony. The rank of this officer was mostly referred to as Sergeant Major-General, later abbreviated as Major-General. The need for units higher than the regiment was not felt, as the whole regiment rarely met to carry out the operation, let alone several regiments at once. As more cash was to be collected, special volunteer or militia companies were built according to quotas for each city in the colony. Even when the total force was greater than one regiment, no brigades were established. Several regiments were simply understood as an expedition and its headquarters was referred to simply as the army ( the army). It was headed by an officer known as the General and Commander in Chief of the Expedition. He used to be the only general in the whole group, unless he also had a representative in the rank of general. If part of the expedition was given a specific separate task, the command was delegated to one of the colonels of this dedicated part or was commanded by the deputy commander of the expedition.
The first brigades and brigade commanders appeared in North America during the Seven Years' War, during which the British government sent a large number of regular army units to its American colonies. Even the then British army did not have any permanent organizational unit higher than the regiment and built brigades only if it was necessary to command a group of more than three regiments. The forces stationed in Louisburg in 1757 consisted of 13 regiments of varying numbers of battalions and were assembled into three brigades. A year later, brigades also appeared in colonial units. The commander of the expedition against Fort Duquesne, General John Forbes, divided his forces into three brigades. Colonel George Washington was appointed commander of one of the brigades, which consisted of the 1st and 2nd Virginia Regiments - formations established as special militia units specifically for this operation. After the successful conquest of the fortress, the brigade and one of the regiments was abolished.
After the first skirmishes between the New England militia and regular British troops, the Continental Congress decided to build its own field army representing all colonies. Congress also decided in mid-June 1775 to appoint George Washington as its general and commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. After all, he was the only colonist who had experience in commanding a unit higher than the regiment. When General Washington took office, militia units besieged Boston and had the Battle of Bunker Hill behind them. These militia units were built by individual states, and the entire formation was highly decentralized in nature. Washington immediately began to establish order and organization according to its experience, immediately setting up brigades and divisions. Related to this was the appointment of the first brigadier generals and major generals by Congress. Unlike the British Army, the rank of Brigadier General in the Continental Army was a permanent rank.
Brigades and divisions were initially administrative and geographical components of the Continental Army. Washington divided the front around Boston into divisional and brigade sections. In addition, one division was kept in reserve. Each of the three divisions consisted of two brigades and each brigade had six or seven regiments. The brigade had an average of 2,600 members. In line with British practice, the brigades were initially perceived as purely tactical units of a temporary nature, and therefore were essentially assigned no staff. The basic administrative and tactical unit was to be the regiment. But the regiments were built by individual states from men who served on the basis of a time-limited occupation to service, so their strength fluctuated greatly. In practice, it was the brigade that became the basic tactical and administrative unit.The brigades were headed by a brigadier general appointed by Congress, mostly on Washington's recommendation, while the regiment commanders were appointed by the governors or parliaments of the individual colonies. Through the relocation of regiments, Washington kept the individual brigades at a relatively stable state, while the average numbers of the brigade gradually decreased from the original 2,600 to about 1,000 men.
This development in the position of brigades led to a gradual increase in its staff element. It was originally a junior officer, the so-called Brigade Major ( Brigade Major), which was based on the British tradition, when he was temporarily appointed one of the regimental captains. In the Continental Army, this became a permanent position with the rank of major. This officer acted as an aide. In the Anglo-Saxon understanding, Adjutant or administrator and Aide de Camp or general assistant and courier were simultaneously. In Czech, both functions are usually referred to as an aide. In 1779, the brigade major was replaced by two positions - an aide ( Aide de Camp) and a brigade inspector ( Brigade Inspector). At the same time, two new functions have been added. They were the Brigade Quartermaster ([a] Brigade Quartermaster[/i]), in charge of supply, and the Brigade Conductor of Military Warehouses ( Brigade Conductor of Military Stores), who took care of ammunition supplies and the proper condition of weapons.
Birth of the All-Army Brigade Concept
After the evacuation of Boston, the War of Independence became much more mobile, however, the brigade remained an essential element for Washington to run the military. Most division commanders at this time commanded three brigades, but it was not a dogma. The number of subordinate brigades changed according to current needs and possibilities. The brigade was ideally to have three regiments of 700 men, but this was mostly an unattainable state. Upon advancing to Trenton, Washington assigned part of the artillery to each brigade to provide direct support, a relatively innovative approach at the time. It was a kind of beginning of all-army brigades. The composition of the brigades and their ability to maneuver greatly contributed to the victory against Hessen mercenaries.
After Trenton, Washington formalized the concept of all-army brigades. Each brigade was to have an artillery company of eight to ten guns. The brigades were to be set up so that they could provide mutual fire support. The brigade on which the enemy attack was conducted was to hold positions and wait for the remaining brigades of the division, in cooperation with the nearest division, to carry out a concentration of forces and then a bypass maneuver. But if the Americans had quality and determined British troops against each other, they had to face the bypass effort themselves. The good mutual support of the brigades in such cases at least enabled a relatively orderly retreat. So far, the British had also been on top where it could provide them with support from the Royal Navy cannon. Initially, Washington's army did not succeed in offensive operations, however, the flexible structure in these cases at least allowed the timely detection of British counterattacks.
Number of brigades
Washington had the right to freely move regiments between brigades, but he was aware that it was advantageous to maintain as much stabilization as possible. Each state supplied a specified number of units on the basis of the allocated quota. If possible, brigades were assembled from regiments from one state. Brigades were marked with the name of the commander, then brigades from more populous states were marked with the name of the state and possibly also the serial number. The unique numbering was to return again only during the First World War. The number of brigades varied according to current needs, which was mostly based on the level of British military activity. With one exception, the British conducted military operations on only one battlefield at a time. This exception from the spring of 1777 forced the increase of brigades to more than 22. The number of brigades was maintained for some time at about the same number and began to decline after 1779. The number of brigadier generals was always higher than the number of field brigades.Some brigadier generals were entrusted with administrative functions and another part was no longer able to serve in the field, but it was still on the list of generals.
Washington's deployment of brigades was quite innovative and resembled how Napoleon used his corps twenty years later, revolutionizing the European way of waging war. Like Napoleon's corps, Washington's brigades were to be capable of independent action due to their composition and organization, but were primarily intended to be a flexibly interchangeable part of a higher whole. He therefore tried to keep the brigades in the same numbers and with the same composition to be a standardized item. He was headed by experienced generals who were able to lead brigades within a larger unit and independently. The brigades thus formed the cornerstone of Washington's way of conducting combat operations. Nevertheless, this role did not return to the brigades until about 200 years later.
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The period between the War of Independence and the Civil War
During the 19th century, the largest permanent military unit in the US Army was a regiment of ten companies. The brigades were only temporary formations set up in a situation where it was necessary to command more regiments, especially when there were more than three. This is somewhat surprising given the success of the Washington Brigades in the struggle for independence, but it must be borne in mind that shortly after the end of the fighting, the army was almost completely disbanded. Thus, the tradition of the brigade disappeared, and a short experiment with the Legion of the United States ( Legion of the United States) between 1792 and 1796 did not change anything. four sublegies ( Sub-Legion). The sublegia was headed by a brigadier general and its strength was prescribed for 1,280 men. It consisted of two infantry battalions, one rifle battalion, an artillery company and a dragoon company. In fact, it represented a de facto all-army brigade group. However, the army returned to the regimental system after 1796, and each regiment was composed only of members of one type of army.
Militia and volunteers
The Legion was not to be the only means of defending the United States. The Americans were based on a militia tradition, and Congress created a structure for higher militia units for use in the event of a war. This structure also included brigades and divisions. The infantry brigade was to have about 2,500 men in four subordinate regiments with two battalions of four companies. The brigade staff consisted only of the commander and his assistant, who was referred to as either a brigade major or a brigade inspector. However, this system remained only on paper and was not put into practice. No state has assembled a unit higher than a battalion for the Fed's service. Congress added one more component to the regular army and militia, volunteers. The deployment of militia units had a number of legal restrictions, so the existence of legally enshrined volunteers in the 19th century gradually became the primary way in which the United States mobilized a larger army for deployment in war conflicts.
The British-American War was still marked by the widespread deployment of militia forces. When the war began in 1812, Congress immediately began mobilizing. Volunteers and militia units were used. The largest permanent units were regiments. Brigades and divisions were much less formal than their predecessors during the War of Independence. Regiments were classified into brigades on the basis of the principle of seniority and brigades were numbered serial numbers based on the seniority of their commanders. The strength of the brigades ranged from 400 to 2,000 men. Regiments of the regular army, regiments of militia forces and volunteer regiments were mostly assembled into their own brigades and headed by a commander from the relevant component.
The regulations at least made it possible to assemble a brigade staff with a brigade inspector, a brigade sub-inspector, a brigade accommodation provider, a carmaster and a chaplain. In addition, the brigade commander had a brigade major and several aides. Before the outbreak of war, the army had one major general and two brigadier generals. Throughout the war, another 25 generals of the regular army were appointed. Several others held the rank of general temporarily with militias and volunteers. On average, the army maintained about twelve generals. The brigade was ideally to have 2,000 men in two regiments. The regular army grew from 7 pre-war regiments to 37 war regiments. Considering that some of the brigadier generals performed administrative functions, the army did not suffer from a surplus of generals.
Regulations from 1821 and 1841 - introduction of army corps
After the war, the army was reduced back to seven regiments. There were three brigadier generals left.However, the Army Regulations of 1821, authored by the very capable Brigadier General Winfield Scott, presupposed the existence of brigades, divisions, and now also Army Corps ( Army Corps). It was to consist of two or more divisions. The brigade was to have two regiments and its staff was to form only a brigade major. Brigades were to be numbered according to the seniority of their commanders, however, in official reports they were to be named after their commander. In 1841, the regulations were revised. They newly assumed a larger brigade staff, however, its composition was based on current needs. However, everything was only on a theoretical level, because the army did not actually have a larger unit than the regiment.
When the American-Mexican War broke out, the army had eight infantry regiments, two dragoon regiments and four artillery regiments. At the beginning of 1846, a cavalry rifle regiment was added. In 1847, another eight infantry regiments, one rifle regiment and one dragoon regiment were established. The war was to take place mainly on foreign soil, so militia units were not mobilized. Congress, on the other hand, allowed 50,000 volunteers to be recruited. There were only 18,210 of them actually called to the federal service, and many of them for only twelve months, as politicians expected short-term conflict. When it turned out that the war would last longer, 33,596 men were called in the second wave, this time with a commitment until the end of the war. Regular and volunteer units were not constantly formed by larger formations than regiments. In addition, volunteer units were organized in each state separately. Brigades were set up according to current needs.
Before the outbreak of war, the army had one major general and three brigadier generals, one of whom served as staff general. Two other officers had the honorary or temporary rank of brigadier general. It was a way to appreciate excellent commanders at the time. During the war, it was also used to denote commanders who commanded higher units composed of regular and volunteer units. The regular army entered the war with four field brigadier generals. During the war, this number increased to three generals in the permanent ( line) rank of brigadier general and three in the rank of temporary ( brevet). The volunteer unit had 42 regiments and twelve brigadier generals. During the war, brigades and divisions were formed, both for the regular army and for volunteers. There were mostly brigades of regiments from the same state. The commanders of volunteer higher units mostly also came from this unit. The regiments usually had about 500 men and were assigned to the brigades, mostly in pairs. The brigades were mostly supported by one or more artillery companies and some also by units of infantry. Regulations mandated that the brigade staff be assembled according to current needs, however, the president Polk determined with Congress that the staff should have a landlord and assistant, commissioner officer and assistant, surgeon and assistant and also a chaplain.
After the war with Mexico, the volunteers were demobilized and the regular army was reduced to eight infantry regiments, one cavalry rifle regiment, two dragoon regiments and four artillery regiments. The number of brigadier generals was reduced to four, one of which was the general accommodation provider. Once again, the army focused only on border surveillance, constabular activities and coastal defense. In 1857, President Buchanan decided to send a military expedition to Utah to suppress the Mormon uprising. The army formed a group of four infantry regiments, one cavalry regiment, one dragoon regiment and three artillery companies. The group had 5,606 men and was headed by Brigadier General Persifer F. Smith. He received the temporary rank of Major General for command of the expedition. The group was to be divided into two brigades led by Colonels Johnston and Harney in the temporary rank of brigadier generals.But Smith died before he could take command. However, the whole Mormon crisis ended in the same way through diplomatic means, so Johnston set out for Utah with significantly reduced force, and in the end there was no need to form brigades.
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Civil War and War with Spain
Civil War Brigades
During the American Civil War, the United States built more than 200 brigades. These were mostly part of divisions or army corps, after all, the division was then considered a basic administrative and organizational unit. It was also the first time that real army corps had been established, controlling two or more divisions. The corps kept their serial number even after moving to another headquarters. On the contrary, divisions and brigades had serial numbers within the corps or division, so they were renumbered. In official reports, they were referred to by the name of their current commander. Brigades deployed before 1863 on the western battlefield had serial numbers within the army. As in the previous war, the federal government called in a large number of volunteers. Regular army officers could take higher command positions in volunteer units than they had in the parent unit. The regular army may have grown, but the number of volunteers significantly exceeded the number of members of the regular units.
The brigades were initially composed of regiments from the same state or one component. However, combat losses and the non-existent system of their replenishment led to a fairly rapid abandonment of this practice. The commanders tried to maintain the number of teams in the brigades to about 2,000 men, which was achieved due to the decrease in members of the regiments by allocating an increasing number of regiments to individual brigades. Of the two regiments, the brigades got to five and a half regiments. In the end, there was a merger of brigades and higher units to maintain the required strength of individual formations. A certain anomaly was the Vermont Brigade, officially the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Division of the 6th Corps, which was established in 1862 and throughout the war maintained the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Vermont Volunteer Infantry Regiment, to which in 1864 the 11th Regiment was added. It was also caused by the fact that all her regiments were filled with a new team in 1864, when the old men's obligations ended.
During the war, the brigade was commanded by two permanent and four temporary commanders. During the war, 450 people were appointed to the rank of brigadier general in the regular army and volunteers. Theoretically, all brigades should be commanded by a brigadier general. However, this ideal state ran into reality in Congress. The army established the level of army corps and field armies ( Army), but the congressmen refused to appoint generals higher than the rank of major general, which was the standard rank of division commander. The only exception was the appointment of Ulysses S. Grant to the rank of lieutenant general in 1864. The major generals thus commanded corps and armies in addition to divisions. Brigadier generals then brigades and divisions. Sometimes, in that case, he was given the temporary rank of major general. The brigades were often commanded by the oldest colonels. They were often appointed to the temporary rank of brigadier general. The appointment of officers to temporary ranks was the responsibility of the President, who delegated this right in February 1865 to the Commanding General of the Army, Lieutenant General Grant.
Most brigades served as part of a division or corps, however, some of them retained special nicknames, although their official name has changed over the years. The 4th Brigade of the 1st Division of the 3rd Corps earned the nickname Iron Brigade ( Iron Brigade) in the 2nd Battle of Bull Run and was so named after it was officially renamed to 1. brigade of the 1st Division of the 1st Corps. Another example is the Irish Brigade ( Irish Brigade). But even these brigades did not last forever. They were dissolved due to non-replenishment of losses.
Although the brigades were purely tactical units, which were composed of only infantry or cavalry regiments, but during the war they also received the smaller staff. It consisted of two aides, an assistant, a surgeon, a dormitory assistant and a commissary officer. The staff had three wagons to transport supplies.Each subordinate regiment was entitled to another six chariots. The brigades received distinctive flags. The original elaborate but generic system from the beginning of the war was abandoned over time and the brigades received triangular flags. There was a corps symbol on them, and the colors on the flag indicated the number of the brigade and the superior division within the corps.
Infantry brigades consisted exclusively of infantry. Attempts at the beginning of the war with the allocation of artillery and cavalry units to brigades were soon abandoned. Artillery was commonly concentrated at the corps level in artillery brigades. However, they consisted of only four to six artillery companies and were commanded by a colonel or even a lower officer.
Before the Civil War, cavalry was rarely formed into higher units than the regiment and was divided into dragoon units, cavalry units and cavalry units. The first two units were to move on horseback and fight like infantry, and differed only in the established firearm. Cavalry units were to fight on horseback as standard. At the beginning of the war, these three parts were merged into one type referred to simply as cavalry. Cavalry regiments were mostly divided into individual squadrons, which fought independently outside the regimental structure.
Armies, corps and divisions had cavalry brigades or cavalry artillery brigades. Brigades were mostly made up of regiments of one weapon. The dysfunctional system of replenishment of regiments, where older regiments gradually lost their original strength, which was not properly restored, emphasized the brigades as basic combat units of standardized combat forces. The use of brigades in the Civil War thus followed the way they were used in the British-American and American-Mexican wars.
War with Spain
After the end of the Civil War, the numbers of the army were reduced and no formation larger than a regiment remained. In the 90s of the 19th century there was an internal reorganization of the regiments, which since then consisted of three battalions. When the army was mobilized for the war with Spain, it was based on the practice of civil war. Volunteers were called in and eight army corps began to form. The Army Corps was to have three divisions of three brigades. In some cases, the corps could have brigades directly subordinate to it. Such brigades were considered separate. The brigade was to have three regiments, but often had only two. Even during this conflict, the brigades were identified by a serial number within the division. Most brigades were composed of either regiments of the regular army or volunteer regiments, seldom were joined into a brigade regiments of both components. Most states and territories contributed at least one regiment, but not a single brigade was formed from units of one state or territory. The 8th Army Corps, which fought in the Philippines, had many non-standard organizations in many respects, due to the fact that it was primarily fighting counterinsurgency. The structure of the corps was much more flexible, artillery batteries were often assigned directly to brigades and some brigades were composed of a combination of cavalry and infantry regiments.
The brigades were to be headed by a brigadier general, but even this time due to lack of officers in the appropriate rank, he often served as brigade commander, colonel or lieutenant colonel. The war had two phases. The first from April to July 1898 against Spain and the second from 1898 to 1901 against the rebels in the Philippines. Some generals received two consecutive appointments, the latter sometimes at a lower rank. Most of the appointments for volunteer units were directed at senior officers of the regular army, in many cases they were called directly from civilian employment by former generals from the time of the civil war, from both armies. Even at the turn of the century, the maneuvering brigade remained a temporary formation with little or no staff and regiments of only one type of army. The structure of the brigade has not changed much over the centuries, although rapid progress has been made in the field of armaments.But the American tactics of deploying infantry and cavalry did not change much, and the organizational structure of the units was based on it. In the new century, however, technological progress could no longer be ignored.
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Brigade during the first world war
Reform from the beginning of the century
After a period of one century is the organizational structure at the brigade level basically unchanged. The time between the end of the fighting in the Philippines and the entry of the USA into the first world war was a period of many reforms of the armed forces. Inevitably it was bound to touch even the brigadier level. The brigade at this time prosadial as a permanent formation, with its own organic support units. After the end of hostilities on the Filipách were brigade repealed and the largest unit again became a regiment. But some military officials have noticed the shortcomings in the war against Spain and in addition they followed a european army, which were still more numerous and still more elaborate structure. Secretary of war Elihu Root had heard them and performed in their resort a number of reforms. In 1903 he established the general staff and his members focused their attention on higher units.
Emphasis on the division
In the period before the first world war he was in the armies of the european powers, the basic maneuver unit of the army corps, which normally consisted of two divisions of two brigades with two regiments. The choir contained units riding, engineer and field artillery. The us military, while similarly used a corps in the civil war and the war with Spain, however, army regulations of 1905 considered the basic unit of division. Prescription nenařizoval the establishment of a permanent higher units, however, abetted by the commander to the creation of the provisional brigades and divisions. Walking or riding division should consist of three brigades of two or more regiments.
The law of 1903 reformed the militia folder. She was newly referred to as the National guard. While the deployment of militia units was restricted by laws, which force the formation of volunteer units, the new law allowed to call National guard units into federal service and, subsequently, in the case of a state of national emergency to deploy without restriction. States should maintain the units with the same organizational structure and same level, what should the units of the regular army. It should be added that Pennsylvania has kept since the year 1879 a permanent division, even though with non-standard organizational structure, and New York joined in 1908 with the divisions of the standard structure, including the brigades. It was the first and in the degree of existing division and brigade in the history of the u.s. army. On the basis of the law took place the regular exercises of the units of the regular army and the national guard, to these could, if necessary, be deployed together and dokocne is assumed the emergence of a permanent upper units composed of lower units of both components. In 1909, divided the Ministry of war, the territory of the united states on eight circuits. Division and brigade should be formed from units of the two components according to their location in the headings. The involvement of the National guard was voluntary. Most states in the northeast united states agreed to participate in this system, however, no brogády eventually formed were not.
Between the years 1910 and 1914 were proposed and adopted by different proposals regarding the organization of the divisions. You should have the original serial numbers in the framework of the whole army. The allotment should be according to the date of the occurrence. On the contrary, the brigade should be should be numbered only within the division. The practical implementation of the creation of the division occurred in 1911 and that only to a very limited extent. Unrest in Mexico caused the preventive deployment of military forces on the border. Troops headed to Texas and California. The group of units in Texas was in San Antonio formed into Maneuver division (Maneuver Division). The division consisted of three infantry brigades and a separate cavalry brigade. Thirty-six coastal artillery rot was in Galveston linked to the provisional brigade, which was tasked ochrnau coast. In San Diego, california was formed another brigade, which had two battalions and small detachments of medical, fasteners and jezeckých units. After half a year were the brigade in June and July of 1911 abolished.
In 1913 he accepted the secretary of war Henry Stimson in the context of the overall reorganization of the organizational structure of the army proposal for the establishment of permanent divisions and brigades. The regular army had set up one cavalry and three infantry division. The national guard had to add additional twelve infantry and three cavalry divisions. Drawn were systematizační table internal organization of the division. That was supposed to have three brigades of three regiments. Equestrian brigade should have but only two regiments. This reveal of a deeper organizational and tactical considerations, but rather out of concern that the marching currents brigade of three cavalry regiments should a problem with the place on the roads. The brigade should now be numbered, as well as the division continuously in the context of the whole army. Infantry and cavalry brigade were numbered separately. Unlike previous návrhl was Stimsonův plan in the years 1913 and 1914 introduced into practice. The division in peace-time have only a commander and a small staff, the rest had to be supplemented from the subordinate units and the administrative part of the army. The division should be separately nasaditelnou vševojskovou unit, brigade vice versa should be composed only of the regiments of the relevant type of weapon. Division and some brigades were scattered throughout different crews, and could not be the implementation of mobilization considered operationally eligible. Test of the new organisation should take place soon, even before the completion of the reorganization.
the Mexican expedition
When the unrest in Mexico culminated in the February 1913 coup, ordered by president William Taft implementation of demonstration forces to the texas border. A newly-formed 2. division, the only division of three full brigades, therefore, shifted to the texan coast. In April 1914 he ordered the new president, Woodrow Wilson for the purpose of protecting american citizens and the interests of the naval operation against the mexican port of Vera Cruz. 5. the brigade from the assembly 2. division, reinforced by units of cavalry, field artillery, fasteners, aviation, engineer and ubytovatelské shortly after under the command of brigadier general Frederick Funstona in the harbor landed to support and partially relieve units of the navy and marine corps. Brigade at the time functioned essentially as a brigade combat team. Unit 2. division in Texas meanwhile, the shares 2. and 8. brigade. 6. brigade to on the contrary moved to Arizona. In October 1915 she was 2. the division demobilized after the Galveston hurricane killed several members of the division and subsequently, the public began to address the effectiveness of the deployment of troops on the border. In march 1916 made mexican bandits strike at Columbus, New Mexico. The commander of the the Southern department major general Funston ordered the commander of the 8. the brigade of brigadier general John Pershing, the invaders followed. Pershing formed for the purpose of conducting punitive expeditions provisional division, which formed his brigade reinforced by the next assigned unit. The division was formed in three brigades. You should not a standard organization, it was more about vševojskové volumes. One infantry brigade consisted of two infantry regiments and two engineer companies. Both cavalry brigades were then formed by the two driving regiments and two field artillery batteries. Cavalry brigade should be the main force to ensure their own pursuit of the bandits, infantry brigade should ensure the particular safety. In June 1916, while Pershing was preparing for the execution of the expedition, increased violence on the u.s.-mexican border to the extent that president Wilson decided to call into the federal service all the National guard units assigned to divisions and brigades according to the Stimsonova plan. With the exception of the units from the states of New York and Pennsylvania but it did not go smoothly. In August, therefore, the war Department ordered general Funstonovi to National guard units formed in ten makeshift divisions and six separate brigades. Borderlands, meanwhile, began to calm down and the first guardsmen could still fall back home. Most of it was from federal service released in march 1917, shortly after in February of Pershing's expedition returned from Mexico. Pershing subsequently replaced the general Funstona, who died suddenly, at the head of the Southern department. In his new role, he organized a unit in his department into three makeshift infantry divisions and jezecké brigade. In the April 1917 entry of the USA into the first world war, and Pershing, these division and brigade again disbanded, since the military system underwent another reorganization, this time before sending a large expeditionary group to Europe.
The armies of the major european powers joined in 1914 to the first world war with large braneckými armies, zorganizovanými around a corps of two divisions with two infantry brigades, two infantry regiments. The inclusion of the machine-gun units was different. In the German army had a infantry own a separate machine-gun platoon. A French regiment had only a machine gun platoon. The reality of trench warfare, which brought the assault on the buried infantry equipped with machine guns and supported by concentrated and rapid fire of artillery, to force organizational changes. The French and the Germans reduced the number of regiments in a division from four to three. From the operational point of view, these three regiments subordinated directly to the commander of the division, even if the Germans left the division, one brigade headquarters for the administrative management of the infantry regiments. The amount of machine guns was greatly increased. Each infantry battalion had kuloetnou company, so in the regiments were a total of three. American military analysts have studied the changes in the organization of the european armies, however, studies of the High school war, paradoxically, has recommended the organisational structure of the division, which is podovala the european division of the year 1914, therefore, a square division. That was supposed to have two infantry brigades of two infantry regiments. Even that was less than the previous division from the year 1913 with nine regiments. Machine-gun units should be present on the regimental, brigade and divisional level, however, when combat deployment, one machine-gun platoon may support one infantry battalion. The proposal was agreed, however, passed in the following two years a number of changes. The organization was based on the theoretical assumption that the division will be standard to defend or attack with two brigades in a row next to each other, with each brigade will have one regiment in the lead in the first echelon and the second regiment in reserve as a second sequence. Battalions should be deployed in a row, which should allow for defense in depth in the case of defense and in the event of an attack should the reserve battalion in case of need replace after some time the attacking battalion on the tip, or to ensure the occupied territories. The american brigade, therefore, represented the basic tactical unit for the management of trench warfare, while in the German, French and british army provide this role division. Brigade, square division was purely a tactical unit with no logistical or administrative functions. At the head stood the brigadier, who had a small staff of four pobočnících and eighteen members of the team. The brigade had two infantry regiments, an ammunition detachment, and a machine gun battalion. Infantry regiment had a command platoon, machine gun platoon, medical section and three infantry battalions of four rifle company. The inclusion of machine guns was hampered by the laws. The law on national defense of 1916 limited the numerical condition of the regiment. The army wanted to machine-gun company for each battalion. Add three more machine-gun company would require the abolition of the two rifle companies. Army this limitation is circumvented by the fact that each brigade had a machine gun battalion of three columns, which can according to the need to provide company to the individual battalions. Since even that wasn't enough for all the battalions. Another machine gun battalion of the division. In 1918, these were machine-guns from the divisional level moved brigades.
Numbering and the numbers of brigades
Army mobilized for deployment in the first world war 112 infantry brigades, all of which should merge as part of the division. The army consisted of the Regular army, National guard and National army. The national army was composed of conscripts and replaced in previous conflicts used by the Volunteer army. Divisions were numbered continuously with the numbers 1 to 25 were assigned to the Regular army, numbers 26 to 42 of the National guard, and the numbers from 76 for the National army. Brigade were also numbered continuously through the whole army. The regular army stood up the brigade with a number of 1 to 40, to another of the allocated span of has already happened. The national guard stood up the brigade with numbers 51 to 84 and 185. The national army then brigade with the numbers 151 to 184 and 184, 186, 192 and 194. Machine gun battalions were assigned to the numbers 1 to 100 in the Regular army, from 101 to 300 in the National guard and from 301 in the National army. Each division had three in a row numbered battalions. First for himself, the other two for the child of the brigade. Of 112 brigades, there were 88 shipped to Europe. Of them 58 had passed the fight, 14 were in France reorganised on the replacement units, 4 were skeletonizovány, from 10 has been moved the men to replace losses in other divisions, and 2 arrived after the end of hostilities. Mobilization and construction of the army lasted eighteen months and was stopped immediately after the signing of the armistice. Extensive calling up of conscripts and the need for their basic training necessitated the establishment of the replacement brigades for a division of the National guard and National army. Replacement brigade had usually two to seven training battalions, but some of the brigade had one or two training regiments.
The entrance of tanks to the battlefield brought organizational innovation - the tank brigade. Tanks were seen as a support weapon to the infantry, however, were included in their own battalions and brigades as a separate kind of weapon. Tank units were perceived as choral or military means. In Europe established the Tank corps, AEF, and in the U.S. Tank corps, National army. AEF has created a four tank brigades, which were initially named as 1. to 4. the provisional tank brigade. In November, 1918, they were renamed to 304. and ž 307. panzer brigade. Destroyer was but the lack of so 2./305. and 4./307. the brigade until the end of the war failed to form. Support tanks was initially carried out only at the battalion level or even lower. Separate tank battalions to support one or two divisions. AEF was formed ten light tank battalions and five heavy tank battalions. Each battalion was separately nasaditelnou unit designed to support brigade or division in the offensive operation. After a time it came to the deployment of the brigades. 1. brigade led by lieutenant colonel George Patton consisted of two light tank battalions, two repair and rescue rot and motorized detachments of maintenance. 3. the brigade under the command of lieutenant colonel Daniel Pullena primarily served as a liaison detachment to the French tanks, and occasionally as headquarters for frnacouzské tank units assigned to support u.s. forces. Patton's brigade was in September 1918, after amplification by the French group roughly equivalent to the american battalion, deployed during the offensive at St. Mihiel. Brigade were then supported with two battalions of the 1. and 42. division. Both teams then participated in the subsequent battle of the Argon forest. Patton's brigade was assigned as the support 35. the division Also. corps. Tank brigade, although they were sometimes deployed in the whole as a complete brigade, were pure tank formations, whose main purpose consisted rather in support of the activities of the corps than in the conduct of their own maneuvers. After the war was the Panzer corps and its brigades disbanded and the tank became a pure weapon for infantry support without a separate role on the battlefield.
Brigade, square division in battle
Brigade, square division had 8 000 men. It was the largest brigade in military history and in Europe in this respect was the equivalent of a French or british division. The allied commanders, if they had allocated the american division, often ignored american doctrine. The american division lined up as the only one in the entire choral sector, while lined up three regiments in line, and the fourth to advance for them, or all of the four regiments into one sequence. When deployed in the context of american higher volumes, the brigade was relatively inflexible formations intended to provide a continuous strike force for progress in the form of sufficient backups prepared to continue the forward motion after the loss or the terrain will slow down the initial sequences. A brigade of about six infantry battalions usually advanced with two extended banners, while the rest was kept in reserve to be able to be at the appropriate moment set to continue moving forward, or moved to places where there were identified weaknesses in the defense of the enemy. Although the army maintained a continuous front line, the brigade necessarily neutočila in one big line. The brigade commander therefore had to rely on different means to command and control. The brigade has already can't drive by personal contact with the brigade commander with subordinate commanders, since it is simply not seen. Tactical innovation has outpaced technological progress. Means such as couriers, courier pigeons or cable telephone connection were not sufficiently reliable and durable, so losing the connection and the subsequent breakup of coordination or even of the captivity of part of the brigades..
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the Interwar period and world war ii
the Retention of higher volumes in peace
Brigade, square division survived the demobilisation after the end of the first world war. The political leadership of the country decided to hold even in the peace period, the higher volumes. Several studies have indeed recommended the transition to trojkové arrangement, but the division held čtyřkovou structure. Careful numerical arrangement established in the entry into the war, fell apart during the two reorganization in 20. years and one of the reorganization in 1933. In addition, the brigade belonging to under 10., 11. and 12. the division were moved and subordinate to the Panama canal, Hawaiian and Philippine division. In the active condition was maintained only a minor part of the higher volumes. The brigades were seven cases. The rest of the divisional brigades was transferred to inactive status. National guard units were released from federal service and transferred back into the jurisdiction of the individual states. And here through the short-term confusion to keep the original structure of the divisions and brigades. Even here there have been several relocations and even the emergence of eight new brigades. The national army was demobilized, however, the designation of the volumes was used in the formation of a new federal backup folder, which the National army and the preceding volunteers replaced. The choir organized backups (Organized Reserve Corps). In the framework of the ORC was established twenty new brigades in the ten new divisions. During the war the army had in the state and the equestrian division. 15. cavalry division consisted of three jezedckých brigades, which persisted even after the deactivation of the division in 1919. In 1921 was established the new 1. equestrian division. This division had the internal structure of the also a square.
European experiments with motorization and mechanization and the activities of some domestic visionary new methods of conducting combat actions have led in the second half of the 20th. years leaders of the american army, to have also begun to paid to the possibilities of mechanization of cavalry and the new possibilities of the use of tanks on the battlefield. In 1928 the army at Fort Meade compiled a Experimental mechanized group (Experimental Mechanized Force), which consisted of an infantry battalion, two tank battalions and field artillery battalion. The grouping was commanded by a colonel, and this was actually the first germ of american modern vševojskového wiggle connector. Grouping was still in the same year dissolved. New grouping with the same name was created again in 1930, to be in the following year also dissolved. The then chief of the general staff, general MacArthur decided that each type of weapon has to develop its own approach to mechanization. The cavalry and infantry, therefore, work on this task separately. The cavalry in 1932 drawn up by the 7. cavalry brigade (mechanized) (7th Cavalry Brigade (Mechanized)), which became the first real american modern vševojskovou maneuver brigade. The american army now returned after 155 years, what then step out general Washington, when the brigades assigned their own artillery. The brigade was assigned 1. cavalry regiment, to which we added 13 more. cavalry regiment and 1. battalion 68. field artillery regiment. Cavalry regiments were armed with combat vehicles, which was the cover designation for the tanks, as you may have by law, only infantry. The brigade, although not assigned to any infantry, however, in 1936 she was assigned to 6. infantry regiment, which was also mechanizován. The artillery battalion had four batteries using polopásová of the vehicle. The brigade went through a whole range of exercises and maneuvers, in which was tested and validated the concept of mechanization. In 1940 it was reorganized on 1. an armored tank division. Of the tank units of the infantry was in 1940 formed a provisional tank brigade, was still in the same year reorganized the 2. an armored tank division.
Pressure on the transition from čtyřkové on trojkovou the organization of the infantry divisions still growing. In the years 1936 to 1939, therefore, the army used the 2. infantry division to test the functionality of the trojkové divisional structure. The results were positive, and then in 1939 began the process of reorganization of other divisions. The division is deprived of brigadier level and lost one infantry regiment. The three remaining infantry regiments were subordinated directly to the commander of the division. The process was introduced and federalizovaných divisions of the National guard that were mobilized in 1940 and 1941. The last division moved to a new structure in 1942. Brigade headquarters divisions of the Regular army was, in most cases, disbanded. The two divisions of the Regular army and the divisions of the National guard and divisions of the Organized advance was the brigade headquarters transformed into a divisional headquarters company or divisional reconnaissance units. The only exception was the 51. infantry brigade, which was part of the Massachusetts National guard. Its parent 26. infantry division was triangularizována, but the brigade for the time being remained. This is because the army needed to quickly deploy to New Caledonia forces, which would ensure the island against any possible japanese attempt to invade. Used then command 51. infantry brigade, which was now also referred to as Task force 6814 (Task Force 6814, TF 6814). The brigade set sail in January 1942, from New York, and at the beginning of march arrived in the Caledonia. The brigade initially had two regiments, two field artillery regiments and two ženijními regiments. Command of the brigade here took the other officer in the rank of major general, as the brigade was from April zesilována another infantry regiment and two other field artillery battalions. In may 1942 was the group renamed the Division Americal. Headquarters and headquarters 51. infantry brigade functioned as the command company, Division of Americal, although the renaming took place in may 1943. Another exception was the 1. equestrian division. She kept a square structure even up to the year 1949, although it was in the Pacific deployed as opěšalá division. Its regiments were numerically weaker, as the division was still organized partially according to a systematization for the equestrian division. The war also created two new brigades. Once was 1. paradesantní infantry brigade from 1942, which was in the following year, renamed on 1. airborne infantry brigade. To it were added 2 more. the airborne infantry brigade. Both served to support the training of new troops. When she was in 1944 sent overseas most of the nedivizních airborne troops, was 1. the brigade is cancelled. 2. the brigade was moved to the United kingdom, where he continued in the provision of training and it was cancelled at the beginning of the year 1945. The american army used during the second world war, even units with the designation of the group, with the exception of the cavalry served as the administrative enclosure independently operating battalions. Two of the new command instance, used during the second world war, however, the tactical manoeuvre brigade resembled. One case was a combat command of armored division and regimental combat teams.
Combat command of armored division
Armored division were a novelty and their internal layout is developed. The basic problem with which it was necessary to deal, was the inherent vševojsková the nature of such a division. Organizational structure based on a combination of a pure tank and a pure infantry regiments was initially introduced, but was soon abandoned. The requirement for rapid maneuver necessitated a deeper and more flexible combination of tanks, mechanized infantry and self-propelled artillery. Another problem was finding a suitable ratio between the quantity of tanks and infantry. The internal structure of the armored division has been amended several times, however can talk about two basic types - heavy and light armored division. Neither version had brigade headquarters, however, had a smaller, brigadier command similar to the so-called combat hqs (Combat Command), which should drive the deployment of combat teams, which was in a way anticipated the deployment of armored divisions. Heavy structure by the two armoured regiments of a total of six tank battalions and one armored infantry regiment of three infantry battalions. Of these battalions were drawn up combat teams to be allocated according to the actual needs of one of the two fighting headquarters (CCA and CCB). One headquarters commanded by brigadier-general, another a colonel. Regiments in its basic assembly was, therefore, mainly administrative level than the operating. In the fight leading to the fact that the headquarters of the armoured regiments served for the compilation of the task force and the armored infantry regiment, in turn, often functioned as an ad hoc third combat command. 2. and 3. the armored division retained by this structure, since at the time of the reorganization have already been deployed on the front line. The remaining thirteen divisions had passed in 1943 on the light structure. This abolished the regimental level. The division had three separate tank battalions and three separate armored infantry battalions. The division had two standard combat command headquarters (CCA and CCB), headed by a brigadier general and a colonel, and on the third the reserve combat command (CCR), headed by a colonel from the corps. In practice, it has many of the headquarters of the armored groups prior to their assignment to the armies and corps used to strengthen the CCR on the size of CCA and CCB. There was also the fact that the combat command was deployed separately from the parent division to support infantry divisions or under velitelstími corps. The combat command headquarters had its own organic units, however, often they were light obrěných divisions assigned to tank battalions, armored infantry battalions and armored field artillery battalions. So could the commander of the combat command to assemble the two piece group, with the battalions exchanged for one company. Infantry used to polopásová vehicles, artillery units were also self-propelled. In some of the divisions really were flexible turning of the assembly at the combat command, for a number of divisions was maintained more or less the same structure, which then, moreover, facilitated by the already mentioned deployment outside the parent division. The heavy division was the ratio of infantry to tank against infantry 2:1, for light divisions, it was 1:1. To heavy division, so he was often assigned to infantry regiment and company with semi-trucks for his move. Post-war analysis has recommended the abolition of combat headquarters and their replacement vševojskovými regiments. The army is, however, kept and carried out a reorganization of the lightweight structure of the armored division. She got after one another tank and infantry battalion. Infantry battalions were rozhojněny on the other platoon and the combat command received a few table seats in addition. CCA and CCB now led by brigadier-generals. CCR was renamed the CCC and put on the same level, however, he commanded him still just a colonel. Martial headquarters endured despite the many proposals for the reorganization of the armored divisions up to the year 1963. The introduction of the system of CARS brought in 1957, the only change in the designation of the battalions, which now fall under the shortsighted regiments.
Regimental combat teams
With the transition to trojkové arrangement of the divisions replaced the regiment of the brigade as the basic maneuver headquarters in the division. When it was necessary to construct for the execution of some operation grouping smaller than a division, use army news in the form of plukovních combat teams (Detained Combat Team). Towards the end of the war they had almost all nedivizní infantry regiments of the form of the MDGS. RCT is also applied in the divisions, as many of the divisional commanders preferring that the transition of all three of its regiments on the structure of the RCT, since it facilitate the mutual provision of regiments. The basis of the RCT was the infantry regiment reinforced with other support elements such as field artillery battalion, engineer company, medical company, and the jumper posse, which by default have a divisional headquarters. RCT but might get differently strong units anti-aircraft artillery or tank. Thus reinforced, the regiment was able to samostného the leadership of combat activities. The commander of the RCT was in most cases the commander of the infantry regiment. In some cases, was sent to brigadier general. A similar system worked even in the marine corps, where these groupings were referred to as brigades. Even the regimental combat teams survived the end of the war. After the war, even received a custom glove patches and were widely used during the Korean war. The end of the plukovních teams brought the introduction of pentomické division in 1957..
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Pentomic Division and ROAD
Pentomic Division Brigade
The post-war army retained its divisional structure, except for minor changes, even in peacetime. In 1949, the 1st Cavalry Division was reorganized into a triple organization. Divisions in this form also fought in the Korean War, and there was no major problem with that. Nevertheless, a fundamental reorganization came in 1958, which brought about the creation of the so-called Pentomic Division. It is a compound of words, which was to clearly express that the divisions will switch to a five or pentagonal arrangement and will be able to operate effectively on the battlefield, where nuclear weapons will be used. The Americans were aware of the fact that after the successful testing of nuclear weapons, the Soviets would introduce these means into armaments, and it is only a matter of time before they, like the United States, introduce tactical and operational-tactical means of nuclear attack into armaments. The divisions were therefore to have a sufficiently large team to be able to operate even after suffering significant losses. At the same time, they should be able to disperse quickly so that they are not an attractive and vulnerable target, and subsequent rapid concentrations, so that they can lead a decisive strike against the enemy. Regiments and battalions were not present in the pentomic division. These levels were replaced by so-called battle groups ( Battle Group), which were smaller than the original regiment and larger than the original battalion. At the head of the group was a colonel, who had four and later five rifle companies headed by captains.
This arrangement was based on the aforementioned needs of the nuclear battlefield, as well as on the experience of airborne divisions during World War II. The decisive positions at that time were the airborne commanders - the chief of staff was General Matthew Ridgeway, the commander of the 8th Army was General Maxwell Taylor and Commander VII. Corps was General James Gavin. Airborne divisions were triangular formations during the war, but this was mostly just a paper assumption. In practice, the divisions usually had, in addition to their three organic regiments, the allocation of other regiments and separate battalions, mostly two more regiments. The paratroop regiments were smaller than the infantry regiments, and if we take into account the losses in combat, these regiments corresponded in their numbers roughly to the newly introduced battle groups.
In 1954, the basic concept was developed and the following year, the first systematization tables were published, referred to as the Reorganization of the Airborne Division ([a:aaaaaa], ROTAD), the Reorganization of the Existing Armored Division ( Reorganization of the Current Armored Division, ROCAD) and Reorganization of the Current Infantry Division ( Reorganization of the Current Infantry Division, ROCID). Over time, there have been gradual adjustments and the release of newer versions. The first version contained a small brigade headquarters headed by a brigadier general, who was also deputy commander of the division. It was to be a backup command post, which was to manage, if necessary, units assigned by the division commander. It was not used in practice and was abolished in 1960. The armored divisions did not undergo major organizational changes, as their three combat headquarters were found capable of operations on the atomic battlefield.
Regiments and separate battalions ceased to be basic tactical units, at least in the case of tank, infantry and field artillery units. These were now battle groups, but over time they were turned into battalions. In order to preserve historical traditions and the possibility of building esprit de corps, there were regimental headquarters, which, however, had primarily an administrative character. Subordinate units then had serial designations within their regiment and regiment number. The regiment then assigned individual components to various battle groups.
The demise of the old regiments also destroyed the existing regimental combat teams. Renewed brigades took over their role. As part of the Regular Army, the 1st Brigade was established at Fort Benning and the 2nd Brigade at Fort Devens. The 29th Brigade in Hawaii, the 92nd Brigade in Puerto Rico and the 258th Brigade in Arizona were established under the National Guard. Non-divisional pentomic brigades were all-army brigades headed by a brigadier general. They had two battle groups led by colonels, a field artillery battalion and training. Each battle group had four rifle companies and one mortar battery. The 2nd Brigade also had two tank companies, two engineer companies and a reconnaissance company.
The concept of the pentomic division was in many respects considered temporary from the very beginning, and doubts about its applicability gradually increased. The management of the pentagonal division placed great demands on its commander. Modern means of communication made the situation partially easier for him, but even that was not enough. Although the division had armored personnel carriers, there were not enough to move the entire division at once. There was no command level between the captain and the colonel, which posed problems in human resource management. Another problem was that the armored and infantry divisions differed organizationally. In addition, the pentagonal structure was non-standard within NATO. The British adhered to their system of brigades and brigade groups composed of several battalions (mostly three) of administrative regiments. The French and Germans first copied the structure of the American armored divisions with their combat headquarters and then switched to a brigade structure. The brigades were all-army headquarters with a fixed structure with permanently assigned battalions and support elements. Although the German brigade was formally part of the division, the basic maneuvering unit at the operational level was the brigade in the main Western European armies.
The American Continental Command began working in 1960 on the concept of a new division. The following year, President Kennedy agreed on a concept referred to as the Reorganization Objective Army Divisions (ROAD) for immediate implementation. The army carried out a reorganization between 1961 and 1963. The ROAD concept brought a universal divisional structure, which was, depending on the combination of combat battalions, armored, mechanized infantry, infantry or airborne divisions. The brigades were now fully restored. Each division had three brigade headquarters with a serial number within the division. The new brigade was a combination of former divisional regiments of infantry divisions and combat headquarters of armored divisions. The brigade had battalions, commanded by a colonel and was a headquarters without its own organic units. The brigade was assembled according to the task assigned by the division commander, with the number of different maneuvering combat battalions to be between two and five. The brigade had no administrative or logistical functions. The division had three field artillery battalions, each of which was to provide direct support to one brigade as standard. Parts of the divisional security units were also to be assigned to the brigades as needed.
Battalion Task Forces and Company Teams
The mechanized infantry was the successor to the armored infantry units of the armored divisions. Mechanized battalions, equipped with enough of their own armored personnel carriers, could now be in any division. In brigades with a combination of tank and mechanized infantry battalions, the proven concept of task forces was embodied in battalion task forces and company teams. The battalion task force ( Battalion Task Force) was formed by the exchange of companies between the tank battalion and the mechanized infantry battalion. The ratio of tank and infantry companies in the battalion task force was determined according to specific needs. The company team ( Company Team) was similar to a lower level grouping. It was a company in which one or more platoons were exchanged for a platoon or platoon from a company of another type.
For the armored divisions, new brigades were created by renaming the former combat headquarters.In the infantry, mechanized infantry and airborne divisions, the first two brigades were created by building on the original brigades from the Square Structure and the third brigades were formed either as completely new units or by building on former divisional command companies, which disappeared during the transition to a pentomic arrangement. Some divisional brigades at the National Guard received special numbers referring to historical designations. This was the case mainly for brigades that were supplemented from several states. Separate brigades of the Regular Army received the numbers of former divisional brigades from the Organized Reserve. Four separate infantry brigades were created from deactivated reserve divisions. The brigades received the number of the relevant original square division brigade with a lower number. Separate brigades at the National Guard were designated either by the old brigade of the square division, or by the original division number, if they replaced the deactivated division. Some National Guard brigades received the number of the former infantry regiment. The reserve training divisions, which originally had training regiments, were also transferred to a brigade structure through the reorganization of these regiments.
Separate brigades have been part of the ROAD concept from the very beginning. They were to be deployed where the situation did not require the deployment of a complete division. Independent brigades were headed by a brigadier general and, like divisional brigades, were not to have any other organic units other than two to five maneuvering combat battalions. These were to be assigned by the division or corps to which the brigade would be assigned. However, the 173rd Airborne Brigade in Okinawa had an organic security unit since its inception. Airborne brigades were conceived as special task forces, which could be deployed independently. Within a short period, other independent brigades also received organic security units. They consisted of two to five maneuvering battalions, a command company, an armored cavalry company, an engineer company, a field artillery battalion and a security battalion. The 173rd Airborne Division also had a tank company.
While the military was reorganizing according to the ROAD concept, tests were conducted to integrate helicopters directly into the divisional structure. For testing purposes, the 11th Airborne Division was reactivated in 1963, which was renamed the 11th Air Assault Division and existed until 1965. Testing was successful and the concept was implemented so that in 1965 the 1st Cavalry Division became an aeromobile division. The aeromobile division has become another type of ROAD division. It differed from the others in that it had units with helicopters and originally also with aircraft. The division's own aircraft provided the opportunity for a rapid transfer of forces and the provision of fire support. Until 1968, one brigade also had a parachute qualification. The Divisional Aviation Group ( Aviation Group) consisted of two attack helicopter battalions (with UH-1 helicopters) and one attack support helicopter battalion (with CH-47 helicopters). Each helicopter battalion could transport an infantry or artillery division. The divisional air force could therefore transport about one brigade at a time. In 1968, the 101st Airborne Division was reorganized into an aeromobile division.
The reorganization according to the ROAD concept was barely completed when the fire test came in Vietnam. Separate brigades and brigade groups of selected divisions were the first to arrive. The first to arrive was the 173rd Airborne Brigade in May 1965, followed by the 1st Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division and the 2nd Brigade of the 1st Infantry Division. In the end, eighteen divisional brigades, five separate brigades and two brigades separated from the parent division passed through Vietnam. The last outgoing brigade was the 196th Infantry Brigade.
After all, Vietnam was in many ways a brigade war. These were flexibly moved from place to place, from operation to operation. Brigades with battalions capable of their own activities could be relatively easily moved by air and left relatively far from the division or shifted between divisions.A division was even formed from three separate brigades in Vietnam. It was the 23rd Infantry Division, also known as the Americal Division, which was reactivated as a superior rank for the 11th, 196th and 198th Infantry Brigades. The brigades kept the original numbers. The brigades in Vietnam or before moving to it underwent a reorganization, which consisted in the transition to light infantry. Heavy anti-tank weapons were not needed for counter-insurgency combat, and the number of vehicles also declined. On the contrary, in general, the number of battalions increased from three to four, and the internal organization approached the aeromobile division, which facilitated helicopter movements. The brigades also received in-depth patrol companies, which were later renamed the companies rangers. The 173rd Airborne Brigade received its own air company, which essentially became an aeromobile brigade.
The brigades set aside for service in Vietnam from the parent division received part of the divisional security units, bringing them closer to separate brigades. Each brigade was given responsibility for its own tactical area of operations ( Tactical Area of Operations, TAOR) with a number of fire bases, airfields and ground supply routes. In some cases, several brigades were deployed simultaneously, or a combination of air (helicopter and paratroop) and ground strikes. The 2nd Brigade of the 9th Infantry Division operated in the Mekong Delta as a special amphibious group called the Mobile Riverine Group ( Mobile Riverine Force, MRF). She underwent special training, had special equipment and special tactical procedures adapted to operate on vessels.
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The second half of the Cold War and its end
Flexibility, which was an inherent part of the ROAD concept, has proved its worth in Vietnam. The US still lost the war. Not so much on the battlefield as on the home front. So there seemed to be no reason to change the internal structure of the ground forces. But the military had to deal with a loss of power and a transition to a fully professional system. The result was pressure to move away from the brigade as a flexible task force tailored to the brigade as a fixed combat command with units of a certain type. The diversion manifested itself in the creation of divisions with brigades of various specializations, the deployment of divisional brigades overseas and the reinforcement of active divisions by reserve brigades. The pioneer of the division's project with heterogeneous brigades was the 2nd Brigade of the 9th Infantry Division, which underwent specialization training and differed from the remaining brigades of the division.
The reinforcement of the divisions by reserve brigades was inspired by a process that was applied during the Vietnam War. The Americans feared that the Communist bloc might decide to use the American deployment in Southeast Asia and try another action elsewhere. The US therefore needed to maintain a strategic reserve in sufficient numbers. They achieved this by mobilizing some separate brigades of the National Guard into the federal service, which they used to reinforce the divisions forming the strategic reserve. In 1973, a program called the Reserve Component Roundout Brigade Program () was launched. The Hawaiian 29th Infantry Brigade was the first to round up the emaciated 25th Infantry Division, which did not restore the 3rd Brigade after returning from Vietnam. The program eventually lasted until 1996.
In 1973, the army had thirteen divisions. In 1974, two mechanized infantry divisions and one infantry division were added. All were established from the beginning with only two brigades and supplemented by a reserve brigade. This structure lasted until the mid-1980s, when the 7th and 25th Infantry Divisions were reorganized into light infantry divisions of a new type. As part of this change, these divisions gained active third brigades. At the same time, two new divisions were created - the 6th Infantry and the 10th Mountain. Both were purposefully created with two brigades. The 6th Infantry Division received a separate 205th Infantry Brigade from the reserve unit, and the 27th Infantry Brigade was transferred to the 10th Mountain Division from the 42nd Infantry Division. As part of the move, the brigade was reorganized into a separate light infantry.
The program also covered units that formed part of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force (, RDJTF). In 1983, the RDJTF was renamed the Central Command, and in 1990 the concept passed a combat test. Respectively, he should have passed, but it did not happen. Neither the mechanized 24th Infantry Division nor the 1st Cavalry Division set out for Saudi Arabia with all three brigades. They used only both active brigades and left the third reserve at home. Instead, one separate brigade and one brigade from the armored division were used. This controversial step has called into question the decline of the entire program. Contingent units were removed from it in 1991 and in 1996 it was replaced by another program.
TRICAP - Division of Three Abilities
Already during the war, the army tested a new concept based on a division that had three brigades with different specializations ( triple capability). Specifically, it was an armored brigade, aeromobile brigade and air cavalry combat brigade. In 1971, the concept was tested at the 1st Cavalry Division. It now had one brigade consisting of three tank, one mechanized infantry battalion and a self-propelled field artillery battalion, one brigade with three aeromobile infantry battalions, a divisional air battalion and a towed field artillery battalion and one brigade with an air cavalry squadron and two paper battles helicopter battalion (with AH-1 helicopters).
Although maneuvering combat battalions and air battalions formally fell under the direct command of the division commander and were to be assigned to brigades, practically established three brigade headquarters with three specific structures and tasks, which directly controlled the assigned battalions. Divisional security units were divided through the divisional security headquarters among the brigades on the basis of specialization. The experiment ended in 1974. The emphasis was now more on the possible mechanized combat of armored units on the European battlefield, for which the TRICAP division was not suitable. The 1st Cavalry Division was thus reorganized into an armored division and the Air Cavalry Combat Brigade was changed to a separate 6th Cavalry Brigade with the organization of an air combat unit.
Advanced and rotating brigades in Europe
While the United States engaged in Vietnam, the Soviet Union increased conventional forces in Central Europe and, in addition, occupied Czechoslovakia in 1968, suppressing local political reform processes. The mentioned emphasis on Europe and armored units again brought a brigade built as a self-operating unit, despite the inclusion of the parent division. The mechanized 24th Infantry Division returned from Germany in 1968, leaving its 3rd Brigade. In 1970, the 1st Infantry Division returned from Vietnam, replacing the 24th Infantry Division in the United States and Germany. The original plan was for one brigade to remain in Germany and the rest of the division to return for regular exercises called the Return of Forces to Germany ([a:aaaaaa], REFORGER), with an exchange brigade. There was no exchange, but the brigade in Germany was renamed in 1975 to the 1st Infantry Division advanced ( 1st Infantry Division Forward), led by a brigadier general and part of the divisional units.
The army had been allowed by the congress to send more combat units to Europe, but this had to be at the expense of the security forces. The solution was to send combat units to a continuous series of six-month exercises. Combat battalions alternated during training sessions in Grafenwöhr, Wildflecken, Hohenfels and Wiesbaden, while security units remained the same. This saved the team and accommodation capacity in Germany. Battalions in Germany were under the auspices of the 3rd Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division, referred to here as Brigade 75, and the 4th Brigade of the 4th Infantry Division (mechanized division), which bore the designation Brigade 76. Part of the units for rotation was sent by the 1st Cavalry Division and the 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized Division).
An army study soon showed that the rotation of individual battalions was not suitable in terms of operational capability of the unit and it was decided to place brigades here permanently. The 4th Brigade of the 4th Infantry Division was permanently stationed in Wiesbaden in the spring of 1975. Although considered a corps unit of the 5th Corps, it was operationally assigned to the 8th Infantry Division, while the 2nd Brigade of the 8th Infantry Division, located in Baumholder near the border with France, was separated from its division and subordinated to the 5th Corps. The 3rd Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division was permanently deployed in Germany only in 1978. It was stationed in Garlstedt near Bremerhaven, making it the only American alliance in northern Germany. This brigade was referred to here as the 2nd Armored Division, and it also received a brigadier general and part of the division's security units. The 2nd Armored Division subsequently deactivated the now surplus 4th Brigade. The 4th Infantry Division retained its oversized brigade, as its 4th Brigade did not fall under it operationally.
Attempts to reorganize brigades in the 70's and 80's
After the Vietnam War, the army was to have the strength of thirteen active divisions. There continued to be separate brigades as a group to perform special tasks, as a force to defend a certain territory or as an element of reserve forces. The brigades were located in Alaska, Panama and Berlin. Brigades also existed at the Infantry School and the Armored School.There were a number of armored and infantry brigades in the National Guard and Army Reserves. Most of them were separate brigades from one state, which facilitated administrative proceedings. In the mid-1970s, the army expanded by three divisions with two active brigades, which were supplemented by a supplementary brigade. No new independent brigades were formed at that time. Between 1976 and 1988, several follow-up and parallel studies focused on the organizational structure were carried out. One of the results was the modification of the internal structure of maneuvering brigades, the creation of divisional air brigades and a change in the organization of security units.
The principle of brigades as flexible task forces according to the ROAD concept has been maintained. In 1973, the Command and Training Command was established, headed by General William DePuy. This headquarters became the driving force of studies and changes. DePuy was based on the Soviet increase in forces in the shadow of Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, the impact of modern weapons systems on the conduct of combat operations, as demonstrated by the Yom Kippur War, and the expected introduction of new weapons systems into the US military. It was a multi-purpose helicopter UH-60 Blackhawk, combat helicopter AH-64 Apache, tank M1 Abrams and infantry/cavalry combat vehicle M2/M3 Bradley.
Since May 1976, the Division Restructuring Study ([d:aaaaaa], DRS) has been conducted, focusing on the divisional and brigade operational structure. The 1st Cavalry Division was again chosen as the test unit. The study assumed a fixed brigade structure in armored and mechanized infantry divisions. Each brigade was to consist of three tank battalions and two mechanized infantry battalions. In the end, the DRS study was carried out in practice only with the 2nd Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Division, and the new commander of the training headquarters, General Donn Starry, finally, in agreement with the Chief of General Staff General Edward Meyer, completely stopped the test. Both transformed DePuy's concept of DRS into a new and broader study called Division 86 ( Division 86), which was subsequently further expanded - first to the Army 86 ( Army) study. 86) and then to the Army of Excellence program ( Army of Excellence, AOE).
The Armored and Mechanized Infantry Divisions began to make changes according to a Division 86 study in 1983, and then incorporated changes according to the AOE program. The conversion to AOE was completed for these units in 1986 with the establishment of air brigades. The new structure mainly affected the maneuvering battalions, while maintaining the principle of flexible brigades from the ROAD concept. Tank and mechanized infantry battalions were given a standardized structure and a fourth company was added, and support elements such as mortars and reconnaissance units moved under the battalion command company from the disrupted company of combat support. The principle of exchanging platoons between companies in order to create all-army company teams was abandoned. These exchanges were no longer to take place at a lower level than the battalions. Advanced security battalions were introduced, which had part of the division's security means and operated under the command of brigades. When Meyer decided to extend the Division 86 study to the entire military, he set up the High Technology Test Center ( High Technology Test Bed, HTTB) in 1980 at Fort Lewis and assigned it to the 9th Infantry Division. The HTTB was to conduct experiments with internal organization and armaments with the aim of developing a lighter version of the armored and mechanized division, which could be easily transported by air without losing firepower.
In 1983, the new Chief of General Staff Wickham divided the project into two branches. One was headed for a lighter infantry division and the other for a motorized infantry division equipped with advanced technologies that would give it firepower and ensure easier deployment. The 9th Infantry Division now tested the motorized division concept at Fort Lewis, and the 7th Infantry Division at Fort Ord took over testing the light infantry division concept. The 9th Division used available wheeled resources instead of the systems being developed.The organizational structure was gradually modified and finalized in 1988. The division included two motorized brigades, an additional mechanized infantry brigade and an air cavalry battle brigade. Motorized brigades were to consist of three types of battalions. It was a light all-army battalion, a heavy all-army battalion and a light battle battalion. The division was to be armed with technology that was not yet largely available. Desert buggies, a self-propelled cannon system (basically a light tank) or systems for installing Hellfire missiles on ground technology were still in the development phase and were replaced by M551 Sheridan light tanks and HMMWV multi-purpose vehicles with TOW missiles or 40mm automatic grenade launchers Mk 19. The battalions had organic support units. The end of the Cold War and the related budget cuts brought an end to the experiment with the motorized division. The division was abolished in 1991 until the 3rd Brigade, which became a separate 199th Infantry Brigade, which was transformed in 1992 into the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment.
Meanwhile, the 7th Infantry Division developed a new, lighter infantry division structure. It was largely based on Division 86, but had less heavy equipment. The division had nine light infantry battalions, which were divided between three brigade headquarters. It also had a modified air brigade, which had fewer combat and more multi-purpose helicopters than the armored and mechanized divisions. In addition to the 7th Infantry Division, the 25th Infantry Division also switched to this structure.
Since the end of World War II, the military has carried out replenishments on an individual basis. Now she wanted to use a unit rotation system. This required organizational changes, which were reflected in the modification of the CARS system. The new United States Army Regimental System ( US Army Regimental System, USARS) was introduced throughout the military, including non-combat units, which brought a number of renaming. Battalions of the same regiment were then to rotate between the US and overseas crews. Another part of the system was the Cohesion, Operational Readiness and Training (COHORT) Project, which provided training for company-sized combat units from basic training to deployment in the United States or abroad. The replenishment system was abandoned over time, but new unit numbers remained. In some divisions, it happened that their nine battalions administratively belonged to three regiments. Over time, the division always had three battalions with the same regiment number were concentrated in the same brigade. The regiment thus had all three battalions stationed at the same brigade. These brigades were then informally referred to as regiments, which caused more confusion. Another inconvenience was that after all the cuts, many battalions ended up in divisions, to which, on the contrary, they had no historical connection. In 1995, therefore, many renames were made so that the units had numbers historically associated with the parent divisions.
Overcoming regiments as tactical units
In general, the regiment was just an administrative unit covering the battalions sent to various brigades. But exceptions persisted and even new ones emerged. Within the AOE, planners tried to transform armored cavalry regiments into brigades, but the resistance of their members thwarted this effort. On the contrary, another tactical regiment was added in 1986, when a headquarters in the form of 75 was established over three battalions of rangers. regiment rangers. In 1990, a unit equipped with special helicopters was established to carry out special operations. This task force, then a battalion and a group, eventually received the designation 160. special operations air regiment. Some other units were also informally referred to as regiments, even in official or semi-official documents. The 11th Air Group was often referred to as the 11th Air Regiment or 11th Combat Helicopter Regiment, although it did not have its own organic battalions.
Part of the concepts of Division 86 and AOE was the integration of the air brigade into the structure of the division. The presence of aircraft in the division has changed over time. ROAD brought one air battalion to the division, which provided helicopters to support command and limited capacity to move and supply units. In armored and mechanized units, it was first reduced to an air company, then during the Vietnam War in 1970, the helicopter battalion returned. In Vietnam itself, each division retained an air battalion, some even temporarily had other companies or battalions. There was also an air brigade in Vietnam. Since 1966, the 1st Air Brigade has administratively covered all non-divisional units - several air groups, air battalions and air cavalry squadrons. Operational commands were performed by divisions or higher headquarters, to which these units were temporarily assigned. The heirs of the Vietnamese 1st Air Brigade were the Corps Air Brigade and the War Air Brigade in the 1980s and 1990s.
The Divisional Air Brigade was originally referred to as the Air Cavalry Combat Brigade (, ACCB) and was experimentally tested in the TRICAP division and finally in 1975 became the 6th Cavalry Brigade, with was referred to in parentheses as air combat. The new air brigades were initially created simply by adding the ACCB to the divisional structure. The divisional ACCB consisted of a divisional cavalry squadron (air and armored cavalry), which was reorganized to include elements of air cavalry, one or two combat helicopter battalions and a former divisional air battalion. It originally had the character of an air battalion of general support and later an attack helicopter battalion, which ensured the movement and supply of units. From an organizational point of view, the brigade was an anomaly. It was a tactical and administrative level. Many officials considered this brigade to be the division's fourth maneuvering brigade. In addition, the cavalry squadron was often deployed directly by the division commander. In addition to its historical designation, the Brigade was often referred to as the Divisional Combat Air Brigade. But neither designation was official, as it sounded like the 1st Infantry Division's Air Brigade ( Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division).
During the implementation of the AOE, the Air Brigade acquired a more robust structure and consisted of one or two combat helicopter battalions, an attack helicopter battalion and a divisional cavalry squadron. In the armored and tank divisions remained in the squadron M1 Abrams tanks and M3 Bradley combat vehicles. In the light infantry divisions, they were replaced by HMMWV vehicles. Each squadron also contained two or three air cavalry companies with reconnaissance helicopters OH-58D Kiowa. The attack helicopter battalion provided helicopters for smaller air attack operations, air supply, evacuation of the wounded, command and special missions. Under the divisional command of services was the Air Maintenance Battalion, which provided centralized support to the Air Brigade. Its individual battalions had their own means for simpler operations. The combat helicopters in the brigade were the AH-64 Apache in the armored and mechanized infantry divisions and the modified OH-58D in the light infantry and airborne divisions. It was the battalions with those helicopters that were the reason why the brigade was considered by many to be maneuverable.
History of helicopters in divisions
The original air attack division had in its air tracking and support battalion the predecessor of these machines in the form of an aircraft Mohawk, which was to support aeromobile operations. Although the Mohawks were removed from the final design of the structure, however, within the divisional artillery was a battalion with helicopters capable of firing missiles. The new combat helicopter battalions were equipped with helicopters to conduct anti-tank combat at key points in the depths of the battlefield. There were different views on the naming of brigade units.Some officials preferred the designation combat helicopter unit, part the designation air cavalry unit. The designation Air Cavalry first won, but in 1983 the army made its air force a separate component and combat helicopter battalions became organic components of the new air brigades. However, air cavalry battalions continued to exist in some non-divisional units.
The confusion was exacerbated by the fact that the originally independently marked air battalions were incorporated under the new regimental system at the end of the 1980s, which brought about a change in the name of all air units, including repair battalions at the divisional service headquarters. As the Army Air Force did not have a historical regimental tradition, most divisional battalions became part of regiments created from former divisional air battalions. At one point, during experiments with the TRICAP division, the air cavalry combat brigade was to consist of one aeromobile infantry battalion and two combat helicopter squadrons. The brigade would thus become an all-army air unit, but this plan was not implemented. Thus, when the air brigades were integrated into the divisions, it was more of a purely air unit designed to support the division as a whole.
Air Assault Division
After the Vietnam War, the army had two aeromobile divisions. Shortly afterwards, the 1st Cavalry Division was reorganized into the TRICAP division and subsequently into the standard armored division. Upon its return, the 101st Airborne Division merged with a separate 173rd Airborne Brigade, which served as a reserve unit for possible rapid deployment and became the 3rd Brigade Division. The division thus acquired a unit with a parachute qualification, which it lost during the transition to the aeromobile division. In 1974, however, she lost this qualification again. As part of the implementation of the AOE program, the air attack division underwent modifications. Her air group was reorganized into a brigade to match the status of the other divisions. The Air Brigade contained four combat helicopter battalions, two combat offensive air battalions (medium and light), a divisional air cavalry squadron, and a general support air battalion. Further adjustments were made during the reorganization process. The 101st Division retained the second light attack battalion and, conversely, never activated the fourth combat helicopter battalion, even deactivated the third.
In 1991, the division had eight air battalions in its air brigade. After the Gulf War, another battalion was added. The brigade thus had three combat helicopter battalions, three assault battalions, a medium assault battalion, a divisional cavalry squadron and a battalion that provided helicopters providing command and control, as well as special operations. This enabled the formation of air assault brigade combat teams. Each team had three infantry battalions, a field artillery battalion, an attack air battalion and a combat helicopter battalion. The division, if it was so operationally organized, could with its brigades conduct separate simultaneous strikes, which was a significant step forward compared to the aeromobile division from the Vietnam War. If the division did not form brigade teams, the battle battalions could carry out separate air strikes according to the needs of the division commander.
The nine battalions in the air brigade provided operational benefits, but placed excessive demands from an organizational and command point of view. In 1997, there was a reorganization, which divided the aircraft into two brigades. The 101st Airborne Division has since had the 101st Air Brigade and the 159th Air Brigade. The 101st Brigade had combat helicopter battalions, an air cavalry squadron, and a battalion providing helicopters for command and control. The 159th Brigade had three assault battalions with Blackhawk helicopters and one medium assault battalion with Chinook helicopters. The number of the new brigade referred to the number of the brigade, which fell under the division at the time of the square structure. The division had been in service since the late 70's and early 80's, respectively, UH-60 Blackhawk and AH-64 Apache helicopters. She was also the only battalion with CH-47 Chinook helicopters.This continuously modernized medium transport helicopter transported supplies, equipment, armaments, including towed howitzers on the suspension and the soldiers themselves. In the 1990s, divisional maneuver battalions were deployed outside the parent division. Two served in the 2nd Infantry Division in Korea and one in the 172nd Infantry Brigade in Alaska. Thanks to these assigned battalions, the 2nd Infantry Division was able to turn one of its brigades into a small air attack brigade.
Panama and the Desert Storm
At the end of the 1980s, the implementation work on the AOE program was completed. At the same time, the Cold War ended and the army faced a reduction of stocks. Before that, however, the modernized army had to pass two tests - the operation in Panama and the Gulf War. The goal of Operation JUST CAUSE was to overthrow the regime of Manuel Noriega. The flexibility of the brigades according to the ROAD and AOE concepts proved to be successful, as did the light infantry divisions. One brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division, three maneuvering and one air brigade of the 7th Infantry Division, which was a light infantry division, and a separate 193rd Infantry Brigade, which was deployed in Panama, were deployed.
Before the start of the operation, the composition of the brigades was adjusted according to the assigned tasks. The 1st Brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division, also known as Division Emergency Brigade 1 ( Division Ready Brigade-1, DRB-1), was airlifted on December 20, 1989 and conducted air assault operations . The 193rd Brigade set out from its crews and neutralized the position of the Panamanian Defense Forces on the Pacific coast. The 3rd Brigade of the 7th Infantry Division, stationed in Panama before the start of the operation, neutralized Panama's position on the Atlantic coast. Support for these three brigades was provided by part of the 7th Division's Air Brigade. The two remaining maneuvering brigades of the 7th Division arrived together with the rest of the air brigade in the second sequence. The tactical phase was completed by the end of January 1990.
In August 1990, the Iraqi army entered Kuwait, prompting the transfer of large-scale forces to Saudi Arabia to protect it and prepare for the ousting of the Iraqi occupying forces. The skeleton consisted of twenty-one American maneuvering brigades under seven divisional headquarters. A ratio of 21: 7 would indicate the transfer of seven divisions with three of their own brigades. But some units were already in the process of downsizing and some divisions decided to leave at home additional reserve brigades. A separate mechanized 197th Infantry Brigade was assigned to the mechanized 24th Infantry Division and two brigades of the partially deactivated 2nd Armored Division were assigned to the mechanized 1st Infantry Division and the 1st Cavalry Division. One brigade of the 3rd Infantry Division replaced the 1st Brigade of the 1st Armored Division. The 3rd Brigade of the 1st Infantry Division, which was without equipment, was used to ensure operations in the Saudi port of Dammam. The 1st Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division was originally assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, but was soon moved to support Marine forces south of Kuwait City. She helped the Marines a lot in the process to the local airport.
The Gulf War was a much bigger test of the AOE concept, the new logistics system and new armaments. The army was able to quickly bring large forces over long distances and conduct a rapid ground operation. It was so fast that there were no large-scale independent maneuvers of the brigades. They operated mainly as part of divisions. However, the flexible structure of divisions and brigades made it possible to use brigades as command intermediaries and task forces. It must be said that an intensive air campaign and effective direct air and artillery support contributed significantly to the speed and clarity.
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the Concept of the army as one unit and brigade with an enhanced ability
At the beginning of the 70's. years the United states Army adopted the konpcept the army as a whole (Total Army), which has made the backup folder, i.e. Army National guard (ARNG) and Army reserve (USAR) full partners with the designated pomobilizačními tasks. The eligibility of the backup folders fluktuovala depending on the success of recruitment, the success rate of recovery equipment and the amount of time for training. Different programs have operational capacity backup units to increase. One of them was the already mentioned additional brigade. The Program was called into question by the nenasazením additional brigades in the Persian gulf, however, due to budget cuts after the end of the cold war continued until 1996. That's when the army got to level ten divisions and a program of additional brigades replaced the program of the Brigades of the ARNG with an enhanced ability (ARNG Enhanced Brigades). It was a separate brigade with an enhanced ability (Enhanced Separate Brigade, eSB) and the heavy separate brigade with an enhanced ability (Enhanced Heavy Separate Brigade, eHSB). For the program has been selected fifteen separate brigades ARNG, most of which participated in the previous program. Increased competence was achieved by comprehensive training, planning and logistical preparation. Brigade should be able to achieve operational capability between 90 and 120 days from the start of mobilization. These brigades work closely together with members of active components, who were in most cases assigned to the groups preparedness (Readiness Group). It was the regional elements of the active ingredients established to support the training of the backup folder. In order to further increase the eligibility of these brigades were in 1999 adopted two organisational changes. The first measure was the activation of the two divisional headquarters with no organic brigades. It was a mechanized 24. infantry division at Fort Riley, and 7. infantry division at Fort Carson. These divisions were divisions integrated from active and reserve components. At the divisional headquarters have served in the military in active duty, but the subordinate units were assigned to separate brigades ARNG with nemobilizovanými midfielders. It was in the history of the u.s. army's new. Security and support elements were not concentrated at the divisional level, but directly at the separate brigades. It wasn't completely new, however, the only predecessor was the division of the Americal in Vietnam. The Existence of these divisions should improve before and pomobilizační training and preparation, and accelerate eventual deployment. Division headquarters therefore has overseen the planning, preparation and training allocated to separate brigades with increased capacity. The second measure was the merger of groups of readiness of the active ingredients with practice divisions (Exercise Divison) united states army reserves, which were set up in the mid-90. years, the divisions aid training (Training Support Division). These have been specifically designed to support brigades with increased capacity, because they included a special brigade to support the training of the eSB (eSB Training Support Brigade) for each brigade with increased competence in the assigned area. The brigade with increased capacity, which have not been allocated to the integrated division (nine out of fifteen of these brigades) entered into an official training partnership with the units of the active components and were supported by the brigades support the training of the eSB.
Meanwhile the army reserves in 1994 and 1995 came because of the cuts of the three maneuver brigades. However, the training division USAR still holding from three to nine training brigades to one division. In the years 1994 to 1999 were the training division USAR reorganized into two types. The first type were division institutional training (Institutional Training Division), which, after a former training divisions took over the initial training and in addition, provide specialized training of the advances and the training of non-commissioned officers and officers, which have not yet provided the school units of the USAR. The second type were the already mentioned practice of the division, which planned and carried out training using computer simulations and other specialized training. Each division had subordinate training brigades, which followed the tradition of the brigades from the time when these were the division's tactical units. In 1999, they were, therefore, a training division, as already mentioned, merged into divisions aid training.
The army had to cope with further cuts and at the same time analysed the course of the war in the Persian gulf. At the same time advanced technological progress towards digitisation. That brought the connection of individual combat folders using computers, which greatly increased situational awareness and accelerating the transfer of information. It facilitate command and logistics. In march 1994, the army initiated a study, known as Army XXI (Force XXI). The brought in the following year a proposal for a new divisional structure referred to as Transitional divisional structure (Interim Division Design). Mechanized 4. infantry division, then at Fort Hood in 1996 and 1997, a new strukuturu tested. New konpce brought three organizational changes. Added to the brigade level, the brigade reconnaissance platoon in armored vehicles HMMWV, changed the brigadier arrangement from flexible to fixed and shifted all the organic security and support elements of the brigádních martial battalions in the forward of the safety battalion of the divisional security headquarters. The concept of a fixed brigade meant that the division was to have one armoured and two mechanized brigades. The armoured brigade should have two tank battalions and one mechanized infantry battalion, while mechanised brigade, one tank battalion and two mechanizovanými infantry battalions. Each battalion was to be reduced to three ordinary company compared to the prior four according to AOE. Changes in the organization of security units based on the options to send quick digital way standardized the requirements from the manoeuvring units on a centralised logistics unit. 4. infantry division was digitized in 2000, 1. equestrian division followed. The rest of the army has retained the organizational structure according to the AOE and passed just a smaller program Division limited amendments XXI (Limited Conversion Division XXI, LCD XXI), which reduced the number of the rank and file rot in the battalion from four to three and added a brigade reconnaissance platoon. The changes occurred also independently of the program of Army XXI. There has been the establishment of the engineer brigade and the beginning of the transition to brigade combat teams.
During the war in the Persian gulf had almost every brigade assigned to the combat engineer battalion. As it turned out, began immediately after the end of the conflict, a program Initiative of the engineer restructuring (Engineer Restructuring Initiative). Difficult division in its framework have received two sapper battalions and the brigade engineer command, which should have the character of a manoeuvre brigade, but should remind the headquarters of the divisional artillery. therefore, a dedicated command control unit commonly provided for direct support of maneuvering brigades. In the army he wasn't on the sapper brigade single point of view and so her concept was different, because in some divisions there were battalions subordinated directly to the divisional headquarters, or hq maneuvering brigades. However, even in 2003, was a combat engineer brigade of the basic part of the heavy divisions, although in the majority of divisions were combat engineer battalions assigned directly to brigades according to the concept of brigádních combat teams. In 2004, but have occur to change the engineer brigade to the fourth maneuver brigade of the division.
Separate brigade had a reconnaissance unit in the form of an armored cavalry company. The divisional brigade should receive reconnaissance support from the divisional cavalry eskadrony. But studies pointed to the need to allocate armored and mechanized brigades of the organic reconnaissance company. This would fill the gap, since the division and the battalion had a reconnaissance element, while the brigade no. In letecj 1998 to 2000 was for those brigades in the framework of the program of the LCD XXI established company, which was unofficially referred to as the brigade reconnaissance company (Brigade Reconnaissance Troop, BRT), however, officially called e.g. as C Company 1. cavalry regiment (Troop C, 1st Cavalry). The company consisted of a headquarters company and two zvědných read ( - Scout Platoon) after the three cooperatives. Each team should have two vehicles M1025 HMMWV. One of the automatic grenade launcher MK 19 GMG or medium machine gun M240B and the other with a heavy machine gun M2. In each vehicle there were three members. Company was often zesilována the addition of other reconnaissance elements, while most often it was about the Combat observation and laser návodčí team (Combat Observation Laser Team, COLT).
Despite the many changes in army structure, a reduction of its posture and the introduction of a whole series of new weapons systems to the basic structure of the brigade has not changed. The brigade was still flexible task grouping, to which they were assigned to combat units according to momentary needs and circumstances. It wasn't about the manifestation of institutional rigidity and unwillingness to change, but a statement of fact, that it worked. Minor adjustments didn't change anything on the fact that the brigade was a highly effective means to conduct combat operations on the modern battlefield. However, further downsizing, the issues around the deployment of the crews and the desire for the creation of specialized clusters is less than the division brought about at the turn of the century changes with a considerable influence on the brigade concept. The army has since begun to operate beyond the continental territory of the united states, had to cope with a permanent dilemma between the ability to rapid transfer of forces and sufficient firepower of these forces. Armored and mechanized units have great firepower, but their weight and dimensionality is was difficult transportable, so it would not arrive in time. For example, in Europe was banked heavy equipment without the team that was supposed to arrive when needed, but it wouldn't have to wait for the slow arrival of their weapon systems. Light units were relatively easily transportable by air, but again, not enough firepower. The army in the past because of this test or implement the above-mentioned motorized and light divisions. The next round began in 1999, when chief of staff Eric Shinseki announced efforts to create clusters with the possibility of rapid transit, and at the same time sufficient firepower. In the framework of the project Interim brigade combat team (Interim Brigade Combat Team, IBCT) should be to the use of modern technology in the creation of light vehicles with adequate firepower. The premise was a family of wheeled vehicles capable of transporting infantry and mounted firing devices. The army didn't pick in 2000 to the testing of one division, but two divisional brigades stationed at Fort Lewis outside of the nursery division, which were located in Korea and Hawaii. In one case, it was a mechanized brigade, in the second of the light brigade. In the year 2001 were in the program included the other three brigade and one regiment, in particular, one smaostatná light brigade, one division, light brigade, one mechanized divisional brigade ARNG and light armored cavalry regiment. Brigade group, which was envisaged with the deployment within the division and independently, should be able to transport anywhere in the world within 96 hours. This type of grouping should fill the gap between fast nasaditelnými light and airborne forces and slow orbněnými and mechanizovanými units. When the project started, the required lightly armored wheeled vehicle didn't exist yet. Initially, therefore, the use of the vehicle the LAV-III borrowed from Canada and the vehicle HMMWV. However, in 2002, the first stryker craft, which was a family of armored vehicles with eight variants of configuration. The vehicle had eight wheels, it weighed nineteen tons and one aircraft C-17 Globemaster III can carry three machines. First arrived variant of the armored transporter, which could lead nine infantry squad and have in the arsenal either automatic grenade launcher Mk 19 or a heavy machine gun. Followed by a variant of the mobile kanonového system armed with a 105mm cannon. You initially replacing even an anti-tank variant. Arrive had a number of other variants. Brigadier clusters should be widely used modenrí technology to the rapid transmission of information and increase situational awareness. The first brigade of Stryker should be ready at the end of 2001, however, problems with the development of the Stryker have caused the delay. And so, at the beginning of the year 2003 was 3. brigade 2. infantry division, which first passed in march, the tests at Fort Irwin and Fort Polk, declared operationally capable. At the end of the same year was deployed in Iraq.
the Structure of the brigade Stryker
The brigade has in the arsenal of 309 vehicles Stryker and more than 700 wheeled vehicles of other types. It consists of the three tri-service infantry battalions and cavalry eskadrony of a new type – eskadrony survey, monitoring and identification of objectives ([/i]Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition Squadron[/i], RSTA). The brigade has in the assembly also a platoon of fighting against armored vehicles, combat engineer company, field artillery battalion, a platoon of military intelligence, connecting the company and the brigade security battalion. The structure allows you to fight as vševojsková unit up to the level of the company. Vševojskový infantry battalion consists of three companies, a reconnaissance platoon, mortar platoon and the sniper squad. The company has three infantry platoons (platoon has three armored personnel carriers), mortar section (three self-propelled mortars), a platoon of mobile kanonových systems (four self-propelled guns), and sniper team. Eskadrona RSTA has three reconnaissance companies and one tracking company. Reconnaissance platoon consists of three reconnaissance platoons and a mortar section. The tracking company has three platoons of unmanned aerial vehicles, vícesenzorovou squad and also radiation, chemical and biological reconnaissance platoon. The field artillery battalion has in the arsenal of towed 155mm howitzer M198. Rota fight against armored vehicles has stryker craft missile ship TOW. * Engineer company is equipped to clean the passages through the obstacles. Company military intelligence is focused mainly on HUMINT. The connecting company provides support to command and control. Alarm battalion consists of a medical platoon, security company and the command and supply company. Alarm banner is to allow the brigade to independently operate the first 72 hours from the initiation of combat operations.
Brigade combat teams and brigade combat teams Stryker
The combination of downsizing and the problems regarding the deployment of crews affected at the end of the 90. years and the beginning of the first decade of the new millennium the role of the brigades in relation to the divisions. In 2003, the army has historically been the most divisional brigades stationed outside the maternity division since 1963. On the other hand, towards the end of the 90. years not the army of any separate brigade and in 2003, only a mere two. On Aljašsce is located 172. infantry brigade, and in Italy, 173. parachute regiment, both with specific tasks. The army basically in 21. century was replaced by separate brigade, divisional brigades, which, thanks to the use of the concept of brigádních combat teams (Brigade Combat Team, BCT) has gained the ability to separate existence outside the parent division. Modern BCT is a certain analogy of the MDGS from the time before 1957. This is a job that has allocated additional units, as a rule, part of the divisional funds. In 2003, most of the brigades, whether they were deployed away from its parent division, or were located in the same area, reorganized as the BCT. One of the advantages of BCT is that in the one crew may be two brigades, without it was at least one divisional headquarters. Already during the testing of the new concept were brigade Stryker referred to as BCT (or IBCT), were selected a separate brigade or divisional brigades from different divisions, in addition, with the divisional headquarters overseas, and he also participated in the armored cavalry regiment. This clearly shows the fact that the brigade combat teams Stryker (Stryker Brigade Combat Team, SBCT) were from the beginnings of the gates more as separate entities than as a divisional brigade. The division may přetvrala, however, in practice, it is the army based primarily on the brigade level.
War in Iraq
The army has deployed in the spring of 2003 during the war against Iraq just eight maneuvering brigades, which is incomparably less than twenty-one brigades in 1991. The operation took place against the entire iraqi army and lasted for a significantly shorter period of time. Maneuver brigade once again demonstrated their flexibility and efficiency. Three hard briogády mechanized 3. infantry division acted on a tip towards Baghdad and in less than 40 hours have gone more like 320 miles. There should be a planned break, then within two days they arrived to the iraqi capital despite the fact that they had to cross the great water flow. Then, during the několiak days occupied a considerable part of the city. Air assault brigade 101. airborne division and paradesantní brigade 82. airborne division for the support of parts of the hard 3. brigade 1. armoured division advanced at 3. divisions. From its brigades taken surrounded the city with their siege wouldn't have to linger. Also protect long supply and communication lines. 173. airborne brigade conducted a paradesantní výsadkoy on positions in northern Iraq and help here the local kurdish forces. Deployment 173. airborne brigade as part of Task force of special forces, it was a novelty. Air brigade divisions and choral 11. air group and 12. aviation brigade originated over Iraq many missions. 11. the group dressed in the gunships, while the 12. the brigade quickly transporting troops from place to place. Aviation brigade 3. infantry division was to the end of the campaign in the city Karbala used for reconnaissance and security operations, which are more missions for maneuver units.
Brigade Stryker and Action units
The brigade has a key role in the form of the Action units in the framework of the program of the Army of the future ([also:aaaaaa]Future Force), which was originally referred to as the Target army (Objective Force). Originally it was about the extension of the transitional program IBCT (i.e. Stryker) as dlouhouhodobý project, which was to develop the organisation for a longer future. The army has focused mainly on two deployable packages. Nasaditelná unit (Unit of Employment, UE) was a unit of the division level, but could be enlarged to a corps or army. Action unit (Unit of Action, UA) is a unit of brigade level. UE brings a lot of innovative changes into the existing divisional doctrine and organization, including an emphasis on customizability, the ability to command units of the other components of the armed forces, the ability of the leadership of the united operations and the ability to command a battlefield or part of the theater of war. UA fits into the series of previous developmental concepts of the brigade. UA is a unit established by a modular, with units assigned based on the needs of the mission, which is in line with developments from the concept of a ROAD and essentially formalises the practically used BCT. First, the program was applied on the brigade's Stryker, which was organized as a technologically advanced unit using news in the digital communication and the armored fighting vehicle with the possibility of rapid deployment, but which has not yet been developed. Although this should be a modular concept, the army sestavial in the framework of the Task force Target troop (Objective Force Task Force) the basic organizational structure for the brigade UA. Its basic element was three vševojskové battalions, each with two infantry companies with stryker craft, reconnaissance detachments around in the strength of the company is also stryker craft, mortar batteries and mobile kanonovou company with the appropriate version of the stryker. The logistical part of the brigade in the form of the forward security battalion should contain an organic security element. Reconnaissance detachment numbered two air cavalry companies. The Existence of vševojskového battalion has to be one of the main innovations and advantages of the new concept. Brigade should be able to organize your deployment, create the smallest vševojskovou nasaditelnou unit (itself or its part), to achieve a concentrated effect without the concentration of forces, to arrive at any place within 96 hoidn and immediately after the arrival to the battlefield to launch the leadership of combat activities, go for a tactical retreat while maintaining a high pace of operations, to develop accurate strikes using precision maneuvers, to acquire and hold a positional advantage and enter into synergy with coalition forces or non-governmental forces. The rest of the brigade before the brigade Stryker should lose one of the three manoeuvring battalions. All brigades should have the banner of the RSTA.
Brigade and division
Brigade UA represent in the concept of the basic maneuver unit, while the division UE to move to the control and organizational role. In a sense, it's actually a return to the roots, as Washington used as the basic tactical units also brigade. Army in 2004, has announced that the concept of UA will be extended to the whole army. Modularity has been moved another piece forward. The brigade should be self-sufficient and from an organisational point of view as similar as possible, so that they can be easily prohazovány between divisions according to the needs of the operation. Division as the operational headquarters should usually follow four brigades. The number of types of manoeuvring brigades should be reduced. Yet, there were two basic types of maneuvering brígád, which are further split into subtypes - the light on the infantry, light infantry, airborne and air assault, and heavy on the armour and mechanized infantry. Newly there should be three types - heavy from the existing armored and mechanized infantry, medium in the form of brigades Stryker from light infantry brigades and light from light, airborne and air assault brigades. The principle of modularity and interchangeability required changes in the organization. Specialized air assault and airborne brigade should remain specialized, but their structure should adapt to the other light brigades UA. As well as should have light and heavy brigade similar organizational structure. This should facilitate the ability of the brigades to operate under any of the divisions. The brigade should be smaller, but should have more firepower. In addition, there should be a number more, which has improved flexibility at the operational level. The new brigade should allow replenishment using whole units and not just individuals. New brigade remind the fighting the headquarters of the other wwii armored divisions of the light type. The two maneuver battalions of the heavy brigades to be vševojskovými units composed of two tank companies, two mechanized infantry companies and engineer companies. Changes in the number of manoeuvring units in the brigade are to allow the emergence of 15 new brigades in the active component and the ARNG change 15 brigades with increased capacity to 22 brigádních combat teams of the UA. This further increases the flexibility at a level higher than brigade, and simplifies their rotation.
Divisional aviation brigade
Divisional aviation brigade also had to go through the process of standardization. Still have battalions of different numbers of helicopters, depending on what type of division fall. They all consist of two battle helicopter battalions after 24 machines AH-64, attack aviation battalion with 30 machines UH-60, a medium company with eight machine CH-47, company management and command with eight machines UH-60, the banner of maintenance and the unit with the drones. Standardization of aviation brigades increased modularity, which should allow the screening of these brigades between divisions. The pursuit of the concentration of all air resources division air brigade at the same time maintained the dichotomy of these brigades, which were to continue to have it as wiggle, as the administrative components. Persist, therefore, debate whether the aviation brigade represents more of a maneuver unit such as the above-mentioned three types of brigade UA, or rather the administrative jedntoku similar to headquarters divisional artillery..
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PŘEHLED EXISTUJÍCÍCH BRIGÁDNÍCH BOJOVÝCH TÝMŮ
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John J. McGrath: The Brigade. A history. Its Organization and Employment in the US Army, Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2004
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