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Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla

     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Mandela
Jméno:
Given Name:
Nelson Rolihlahla
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
Fotografie či obrázek:
Photograph or Picture:
Hodnost:
Rank:
?
Akademický či vědecký titul:
Academic or Scientific Title:
?
Šlechtický titul:
Hereditary Title:
-
Datum, místo narození:
Date and Place of Birth:
18.07.1918 Mvezo (blízko Umtata) /
Datum, místo úmrtí:
Date and Place of Decease:
05.12.2013 Johannesburg,
Nejvýznamnější funkce:
(maximálně tři)
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
prezident Jihoafrické republiky (1994-1999)
Jiné významné skutečnosti:
(maximálně tři)
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
držiteľ Nobelovej ceny za mier (1993)
Související články:
Related Articles:

Zdroje:
Sources:
-



tabulka buko1
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Mandela-Nelson-Rolihlahla-t21167#80505Version : 0
MOD
     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Mandela
Jméno:
Given Name:
Nelson Rolihlahla
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
Všeobecné vzdělání:
General Education:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR
Vojenské vzdělání:
Military Education:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR
Důstojnické hodnosti:
Officer Ranks:
DD.MM.RRRR
Průběh vojenské služby:
Military Career:
Vyznamenání:
Awards:

DD.MM.1984

Řád hvězdy přátelství národů, velká hvězda
The Order of the Star of Friedship of Nations, Grand Star
Der Orden „Stern der Völkerfreundschaft“, Grosse Sterne
-

DD.MM.1984

Řád Girónské pláže
Order of Playa Girón
Orden de Playa Girón
-

DD.MM.1990

Klenot Indie
Jewel of India
Bharat Ratna
-

DD.MM.1990

Řád Agostinha Neta
Order of Agostinho Neto
Ordem Agostinho Neto
-

03.10.1992

Řád Pakistánu
Order of Pakistan
Nishan-e-Pakistan / نشان پاکستان
-

DD.MM.1994

Řád Čestné legie 1. třída
Order of Legion of Honour 1st Class
Ordre de la Légion d'Honneur Grand Croix
-

18.02.1996

Řád slona
Order of Elefant
Elefantordenen
-

03.02.1997

Řád Serafínů
Order of Seraphim
Kungliga Serafimerorden
-

Zaniklé státy / Defunct States 21.10.1997

Řád Nilu - velkokříž
Order of Nile - Grandcross
وشاح النيل / Washah al-Nil
-

DD.MM.1998

Řád Kanady - Rytíř
Order of Canada - Companion
Order of Canada - Companion / Ordre du Canada - Compagnon
-

DD.MM.1998

Řád Sv. Olafa velkokříž (1. třída)
Order of St. Olaf Grandcross (1st Class)
Sanct Olavs Orden
-

DD.MM.1999

Řád Austrálie - Společník
Companion of the Order
-

DD.MM.1999

Řád Isabely Katolické - rytíř velkého řetězu
Order of Isabella the Catholic - Knight of the Collar
Real Orden de Isabel la Católica - Caballero del Collar
-

DD.MM.1999

Řád zlatého lva Nasavského domu
Order of Gold Lion of House of Nassau
Ordre du Lion d´Or de la Maison de Nassau
-

31.01.2001

Řád islámské republiky - 1. třída
Order of Islamic Republic - 1st Class
نشان عالی جمهوری اسلامی
-

DD.MM.2002

Prezidentská medaile svobody
Presidential Medal of Freedom
-

12.06.2008

Řád Stará planina - velkokříž
Order of Stara Planina - Grandcross
Орден Стара планина
-

11.06.2010

Řetěz řádu Azteckého orla
Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
Collar del Orden Mexicana del Águila Azteca
-

Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
-
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Mandela-Nelson-Rolihlahla-t21167#502148Version : 0
MOD
Rolihlahla was born on July 18, 1918 in Umtata, Transkei, on the east coast of South Africa, the son of a Tembu chief. He attended an English mission school, where he adopted the name Nelson Mandela. In the late 1930s and early 1940s, as one of the few blacks at the time, he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and Witvatersrand.

In 1944, young Mandela became a member of the [b:6cc78e7524] [i:6cc78e7524] African National Congress [/i:6cc78e7524] [/b:6cc78e7524] [i:6cc78e7524] (ANC) [/i:6cc78e7524], which sought for the right of the black inhabitants of the colony of South Africa to land ownership and full status. The Indian National Congress and its methods of nonviolent resistance, proclaimed by M. Gandhi served as an example.

Mandela was first imprisoned in 1952 and arrested again four years later and charged with high treason. The trial lasted for five years until 1961. Mandela, following the example of Fidel Castro, defended himself and obtained acquittal. After police shot dead 70 unarmed protesters in Sharpeville in 1960, Mandela concluded that the passive resistance method was ineffective and began talking about armed resistance. In his views, he began to lean towards Marxism and cooperation with the illegal Communist Party of South Africa. At that time, an independent South Africa was declared under a white minority. [i:6cc78e7524] ANC [/i:6cc78e7524] was outlawed and the country was established [b:6cc78e7524] [i:6cc78e7524] Apartheid [/i:6cc78e7524] [/b:6cc78e7524]. Mandela had to leave his wife Winnie with the children and go underground. In disguise, he traveled throughout South Africa and organized a militant wing [i:6cc78e7524] ANC [/i:6cc78e7524] - [i:6cc78e7524] Spear of the Nation [/i:6cc78e7524]. In August 1962, he was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for organizing a strike and traveling without proper documents. After police discovered the weapons depot of his secret organization in Umkhoto, his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.

From 1964 to 1982, Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island near Cape Town, where he was completely isolated from the outside world for almost thirty years. His political convictions thus preserved in a strange, artificial way the thinking of the time, which he brought with him from prison when he was after the fall of [i:6cc78e7524] Apartheid [/i:6cc78e7524] by order of the president FW De Klerk released in 1990. At the time of his imprisonment, he was a great admirer of the Cuban Revolution and remained so in the early 1990s. Mandela became a living legend in prison, campaigns were organized for his release and concerts of well-known bands were held in his support. Therefore, in 1991, he was again unanimously elected chairman of the renewed [i:6cc78e7524] African National Congress [/i:6cc78e7524]. For three years, he negotiated with the government on a new constitution that would allow elections with the participation of the entire population. These finally took place in April 1994 and Mandela became their clear winner. On May 10, 1994, he was inaugurated and assumed the office of President of the Republic of South Africa [/b:6cc78e7524]. This was until June 14, 1999, when he was replaced by Thabo M. Mbeki, also from [i:6cc78e7524] ANC [/i:6cc78e7524].

In 1993, Mandela received the Nobel Peace Prize together with De Klerk .
Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla - Nelson Mandela odchází od soudu, který ho zprostil obvinění z velezrady.

Nelson Mandela odchází od soudu, který ho zprostil obvinění z velezrady.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Mandela-Nelson-Rolihlahla-t21167#99724Version : 0
Diskuse

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Quote - Vladimír Šilhán :

V přestrojení cestoval po jižní Africe a organizoval militantní křídlo ANC - Kopí národa.

Doplním název této organizace snad ve svahilštině-Umkothono We Sizwe
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Mandela-Nelson-Rolihlahla-t21167#153306Version : 0

This post has not been translated to English yet. Please use the TRANSLATE button above to see machine translation of this post.

Zemřel v požehnaném věku 95 let dne 5.12.2013 po těžké nemoci. 6.12. t.r. je prohlášen v JAR státní den smutku (vlajky budou na půl žerdi), také se bude konat státní pohřeb.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Mandela-Nelson-Rolihlahla-t21167#502145Version : 0