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Ludvík I. Veliký

Louis the Great

King Louis I the Great of Hungary and Poland


- ruled from 1342 to 1382
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Ludvik-I-Veliky-t21820#83088Version : 0
He was born on 5 March 1326 in Visgrád, the son of Charles I Robert and Elizabeth, sister of Casimir III. Great. He ascended the Hungarian throne in 1342 and his succession in Poland was secured by his father three years earlier, by a treaty with the Polish king. The beginning of his reign was marked by wars with Venice over Dalmatia and Dubrovnik, which he won in 1358. After the death of his brother Andrew in 1345, he attempted to win the Neapolitan crown, and in 1348-50 he waged war with Queen Jane I. He conquered Naples, but after a plague epidemic broke out, he was forced to retreat, retaining only the principality of Salerno. Louis I. The Great also temporarily conquered Wallachia, Bosnia, Serbia and Bulgaria, where he suppressed the Bogomils sect.


In 1366 he was visited in Pest by the Byzantine emperor John V. Palailogos and promised to reunite the Eastern Church with Rome if Christian Europe supported Byzantium against the Turks. The following year, Louis made a seven-year alliance with Emperor Charles IV at Viterbo, which included mutual support in Italy. He betrothed his daughter Maria, who became heir to the Hungarian throne, to the emperor's youngest son, Sigismund I, in 1379. Luxembourg. After the death of his childless uncle, Casimir III, he also became King of Poland in 1370, thus creating the Hungarian-Polish personal union.

In honour of his coronation, he undertook a crusade against the Lithuanians and conquered Red Russia, which he annexed to Hungary, to the displeasure of the Polish nobility. In 1374, he launched a military campaign against the Turks and succeeded in defeating Sultan Murad I. Yet he was unable to regain the Balkan principalities, which in the following years finally broke away from Hungary. After the death of Louis I. Great on 10 September 1382, his daughter Jadwiga became heir to the Polish throne.


During his reign, the Kingdom of Hungary attained the status of a European power and flourished. The king relied on the lower nobility and the towns against the magnates, to whom he granted numerous privileges. He also supported the economic and cultural development of the country. In 1367 he founded the first Hungarian university in Pest.
Ludvík I. Veliký - Obraz zvěčňující boje uherského krále Ludvíka Velikého proti Osmanům a slib založený na oslavu jejich úspěchu v opatství svatého Lamberta v Mariazell.
https://rubicon.hu/cikkek/nagy-lajos-es-a-magyar-nagyhatalom, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=122009045

Obraz zvěčňující boje uherského krále Ludvíka Velikého proti Osmanům a slib založený na oslavu jejich úspěchu v opatství svatého Lamberta v Mariazell.
rubicon.hu, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org

Ludvík I. Veliký - Země ovládané Ludvíkem: Uhry a Polsko sjednocené pod Ludvíkovou vládou jsou vybarveny červeně, vazalské státy a dočasně ovládaná území jsou vybarveny světle červeně.
CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=36681401

Země ovládané Ludvíkem: Uhry a Polsko sjednocené pod Ludvíkovou vládou jsou vybarveny červeně, vazalské státy a dočasně ovládaná území jsou vybarveny světle červeně.
CC BY-SA 4.0, commons.wikimedia.org

Ludvík I. Veliký - Ludvík I. Veliký
Chronica Hungarorum, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=48162066

Ludvík I. Veliký
Chronica Hungarorum, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org

Ludvík I. Veliký - Dobová podobizna Ludvíka Velikého.
http://dziedzictwo.polska.pl/gal/10/70/20/med.jpg, Volné dílo, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5286752

Dobová podobizna Ludvíka Velikého.
http://dziedzictwo.polska.pl/gal/10/70/20/med.jpg, Volné dílo, commons.wikimedia.org

URL : https://www.valka.cz/Ludvik-I-Veliky-t21820#108104Version : 0
Addendum to previous post:


Sigismund had to force his marriage to Mary, and this happened in 1385, three years after Louis's death.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Ludvik-I-Veliky-t21820#177757Version : 0
Louis I. The Great


He came to the Hungarian throne very young, he was only 16 years old. But he had his mother Elizabeth by his side. Elizabeth was a very strong personality, she was an extremely capable stateswoman and was extremely ambitious.


The Hungarian Anjou family considered Naples to be their hereditary land. As early as 1334, Charles I Robert made an agreement with King Róbert of Naples that his son Andrew, would become the husband of Róbert's granddaughter Jana (Johanna) and thus her co-ruler. But Róbert, in his will, made Jana the sole heir to the Neapolitan throne, so Andrew did not become co-ruler and was left with the thankless role of royal husband. This breach of contract offended Louis and especially his mother Elizabeth. Yet when in 1345 Andrew was poisoned (allegedly by his wife, John), a military conflict was brewing. In 1347, Louis invaded Naples. In a short time, he controlled almost the whole kingdom, but had to return to Hungary. A plague broke out in Italy. In 1350 he undertook a second expedition to Naples. But even after these military successes, Louis did not become King of Naples. The papal curia was against him. The latter did not recognize Louis's claim to Naples and recognized only Jana as the sole ruler. It was not until 1380 that Pope Urban VI deprived Jana of the throne and invited Louis to assume power over Naples. But Louis transferred this claim to another Anjou, Charles of the Dragon. The latter became King of Naples in 1381 and, after the death of Louis I, also became King of Hungary.


In 1339, Charles I Robert made an agreement with his brother-in-law, Casimir III. of Poland, which stated that if Casimir did not produce a male descendant, the Anjou family of Hungary would succeed to the Polish throne. After Casimir's death in 1370, his heir was Louis I. The Polish Estates disagreed with this state of affairs and only after large financial donations, changed their minds. Poland was ruled in Louis's name by his mother Elizabeth. After Louis's death, the Polish crown was to be inherited by one of his daughters. Louis left no male descendants.


In 1351, Louis issued a decree confirming the validity of the Golden Bull of King Andrew II of 1222. The decree, among other things, regulated the legal relationship between the higher nobility (nobles) and the lower nobility (peasants) and forbade persons who had no descendants to bequeath their property to the Church. With this decree, Louis laid the foundation for the creation of noble estates. In today's terms, it was a new territorial division of Hungary. In 1367 Louis granted Košice, as the first city in Europe, the right to use the city coat of arms.


Louis had two wives. The first was Margaretha of Luxembourg, daughter of Charles IV, King of Bohemia. However, she died at the age of 14. His second wife was Elizabeth Kotromanich, with whom he had three daughters, Catherine, Maria and Hedwig (Jadwiga).



Collective of authors -Book of Kings
- Slovak Pedagogical Publishing- Mladé letá -Bratislava 2003, ISBN 80-10-00324-7
Július Sopko - Chronicle of the Kings of Hungary called Dubnica
- Rak Publishing House - Budmerice 2004, ISBN 80-85501-13-9
- www.kosice.sk
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Ludvik-I-Veliky-t21820#187287Version : 0

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Ludvík I. Veliký - Zdroj: Archív autora. Zberateľské kartičky panovníkov.

Zdroj: Archív autora. Zberateľské kartičky panovníkov.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Ludvik-I-Veliky-t21820#427218Version : 0