Botjan, Alexej Nikolajevič

Botyan, Aleksey Nikolayevich
Алексей Николаевич Ботян / Aleksiej Nikołajewicz Botian / Аляксей Мікалаевіч Бацян
Botjan Botyan
Given Name:
Alexej Nikolajevič Aleksey Nikolayevich
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Алексей Николаевич Ботян / Aleksiej Nikołajewicz Botian / Аляксей Мікалаевіч Бацян
Fotografie či obrázek:
Photograph or Picture:
plukovník (státni bezpečnosti) Colonel (of State Security)
Akademický či vědecký titul:
Academic or Scientific Title:
- -
Šlechtický titul:
Hereditary Title:
- -
Datum, místo narození:
Date and Place of Birth:
10.02.19171) Čartavičy /
10.02.19171) Chertovichi /
Datum, místo úmrtí:
Date and Place of Decease:
13.02.2020 Moskva
13.02.2020 Moscow
Nejvýznamnější funkce:
(maximálně tři)
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
- dôstojník sovietskej rozviedky - Soviet spy and intelligence officer
Jiné významné skutečnosti:
(maximálně tři)
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
- podľa sovietskej a poľskej socialistickej histórie je označovaný za záchrancu Krakova pred zničením nacistami roku 1945
- vyštudoval za učiteľa
- according to Soviet and Polish socialist history, he is called as savior of Krakow from destruction by the Nazis in 1945
- graduated as a teacher
Související články:
Related Articles:

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Botjan Botyan
Given Name:
Alexej Nikolajevič Aleksey Nikolayevich
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Алексей Николаевич Ботян / Aleksiej Nikołajewicz Botian
Všeobecné vzdělání:
General Education:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.1935 Střední pedagogická škola
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR Secondary Pedagogical School
Vojenské vzdělání:
Military Education:
DD.05.1941-DD.06.1941 Vyšší strední škola Lidového komisára státni bezpečnosti SSSR
DD.05.1941-DD.06.1941 NKVD intelligence school
Důstojnické hodnosti:
Officer Ranks:
DD.MM.1939 desiatnik (kapral)
DD.MM.RRRR plukovník (státni bezpečnosti)
DD.MM.1939 Corporal
DD.MM.RRRR Colonel (of State Security)
Průběh vojenské služby:
Military Career:
DD.05.1941-DD.MM.RRRR vstup do Červenej armády
DD.05.1941-DD.MM.RRRR join the Red Army
1) dátum narodenia podľa Juliánskeho kalendára je 28.01.1917 1) Date of birth by Julian calendar is 28.01.1917
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Alexei Nikolayevich Botyan, teacher, Polish soldier, scout and partisan, Soviet colonel of state security.

Originating in Belarus Аляксей Мікалаевіч Бацян, a graduate Polish teacher and non-commissioned officer of the Polish Army's air defense Aleksiej Nikołajewiec a/federation [a] Алексей Николаевич Ботян.

He was born 10.02.1917 (according to the then Julian calendar 28.01.1917) in Vilnius province Russian Empire, in small roľníckej dedine Čartavičy. This territory in the past belonged to Lithuania, in 1920 it was occupied by Poland and the Peace of Riga became officially part of the Republic of Poland. He graduated from the local primary school and then continued at the pedagogical school (specialist primary school teacher). In 1935 he started working as a teacher. As a 22-year-old enlisted in the military, he graduated from the non-commissioned air defense school, gained the rank of corporal and commanded the anti-aircraft gun (40 mm Bofors vz. 36) in the 3rd Division of anti-aircraft artillery in Vilnius (today Lithuania). During the Nazi invasion in September 1939, he was deployed in combat and Poznan participated in the shooting down of three German bombers. He retreated with the unit to Romania, but after September 17, 1939 he was captured by the Red Army. He ran away after a few days and returned home. His parents owned the farm and upon his return he considered taking part in its cultivation, but eventually decided to look for work in the city. He came across recruiters looking for a new "Soviet" intelligence, and since he had a teaching education, he signed up. They took him, entered the Komsomol and taught until mid-1940. In May 1940 (in his own words, after performing with his trustees in an almost military march at a May Day demonstration), he was invited to several talks, including the Republican branch of the NKVD in Minsk. After sitting at the NKVD, he underwent medical examinations, several interviews and was sent back to his native region with a warning not to talk to anyone about the previous events (he became part of the NKVD's staff reserves). In addition, he expanded his education remotely and after completing the relevant courses in August 1940 he became the principal of a primary school in the village Rovkovichi, where he worked until May 1941, when he was sent to study at the Upper Secondary School of the People's Commissioner of State Security to Moscow.

In July 1941 he was assigned to the Independent Motorized Special Forces Brigade of the NKVD under the 4th Directorate of the NKVD (Chief Pavel A. Sudoplatov ( Paul A. Sudoplatov)). In November 1941, as commander of reconnaissance-diversion groups, he was sent to the battle lines and took part in the defense of Moscow.

In January 1943, he was sent into deep rear by Nazi-occupied Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. He worked here independently, also in a group of partisan groups, where he was in charge of reconnaissance and intelligence operations (for example, in a partisan unit led by the Hero of the Soviet Union Viktor Karasev). His work includes, for example, the bombing of the German Commissariat in the city of Ovruč 09.09.1943 during the inspection, which killed 80 German officers (for the event was prepared a proposal for the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, but was not realized).
In May 1944, he moved with a group of 28 comrades-in-arms to Poland, where he began to organize a survey of the deployment and activities of the occupying forces in the area Krakow. Due to his excellent knowledge of Polish as well as Polish culture and his organizational skills, he was able to use not only the local pro-Soviet resistance ( Armia Ludowa), but also to cooperate with the resistance organizations Armia Krajowa a Bataliony Chłopskie.It was from this cooperation that the detained Polish patriots were liberated and a large amount of armaments and equipment was acquired in the town of Ilža.

At the end of 1944, Soviet intelligence units built in the vicinity of Krakow had an extensive network of informants and other collaborators. As part of their activities, they managed to detain a Wehrmacht member and Polish engineer Zigmund Ogarek, who provided them with valuable information about explosives stored in the castle in Nowy Sącz, which were to be used to destroy either the historic center of Krakow, the Rožnov Lake dam or the Dunajec bridges. Using the network of its collaborators, the group managed to install its own explosives for the explosives and then destroy the entire warehouse 18.01.1945. For this event, Botjan received the Hero of the Russian Federation award in 2007 and identifies himself as the savior of Krakow from destruction.

Several current Polish sources question its contribution to saving the city. One of the arguments is that the flood wave from the destroyed dam (if the explosives were used to destroy the dam of Rožnov Lake on the Dunajec) could not damage the town almost 100 km away and also point to the fact that the very location of "mines" in the castle was made by members of the resistance. groups Bataliony Chłopskie.

In the last months of the war, a group under Botjan's command operated in the occupied territory of Czechoslovakia, and subsequently Botjan returned to his area of operation in Poland, this time no longer as a scout for the enemy line, but as an agent for fighting the internal enemy.
Botjan's group in occupied Poland did not just fight the Nazis. It also prepared activities to ensure the liquidation of pro-Western resistance groups after the entry of the Soviet army. Botjan and his people, on the one hand, used information obtained by members of Armii Krajowa or the Battalions of Chlopsky, on the other hand, they actively prepared for the destruction of these groups. In the summer of 1945, as one of the "inquisitors" responsible for the persecution of members of these resistance groups in the Nova Sacz area, after liberation from the Nazis, the pro-Western resistance fighters tried to destroy him, but without success.

After the war, Botjan remained working in the secret services, specifically in the department of external intelligence. From 1947 he worked as a secret agent in Czechoslovakia, posing as a worker of Czech nationality and working in the field of Žatec (note: he could use the cover as a returning descendant of emigrants before 1. World War II, whether a member of a family that emigrated to the USSR as part of INTERHELPO) studied at the equivalent of today's industrial school, gained citizenship and subsequently worked in the Urán mines in Jáchymov. As a citizen of Czechoslovakia, he allegedly participated in several activities abroad. He also worked illegally in the GDR, while work in the Czechoslovak Republic and the GDR lasted until the end of the 1950s.

In 1965 and 1974, he was repeatedly nominated for the Hero of the Soviet Union, but none of the proposals were implemented. At the end of his career, he stood at the birth of the special unit Vympel and in 1983 in the rank of colonel retired.

He is an honorary citizen of the Polish town of Ilža.

Together with the Hero of Ukraine E. S. Berezňak (1914-2013) and the writer O. A. Gorčakov (1924-2000), he became a model for the protagonist of the novel Ju. Semyon's "Major Wind" and the three-part film of the same name from 1967 (director E. I. Taškov).

He died on 13.02.2020 in Moscow at the age of 103.

Source: Бондаренко А. Colonel Botyan stays in the machine. // "Red Star". - 2020, February 10. - C.10.
Bondarenko A. Killed illegitimate // Red Star. - 2019. - February 8.

Botjan, Alexej Nikolajevič - Alexej Botjan, 1939

Alexej Botjan, 1939
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