Vezděchod Vezdekhod
Originální název:
Original Name:
tančík tankette
DD.MM.1915-DD.MM.1915 Rusko-baltický vagonový závod, Riga /
Období výroby:
Production Period:
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
1 prototyp
Prototyp vyroben:
Prototype Built:
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Bojová hmotnost:
Combat Weight:
3500 kg 7716 lb
Délka s kanónem dopředu:
Length with Gun Forward:
? mm ?
Délka korby:
Hull Length:
3600 mm 11 ft 9 ¾ in
Celková šířka:
Overall Width:
2000 mm 6 ft 6 ¾ in
Celková výška:
Overall Height:
1500 mm 4 ft 11 in
Světlá výška:
Ground Clearance:
? mm ?
Šířka pásu:
Track Width:
? mm ?
Měrný tlak:
Ground Pressure:
0,05 MPa 7.25 psi
kompozitní composite
karburátorový, benzínový gasoline
? kW při ? ot/min ? bhp at ? rpm
Převodové ústrojí:
planetová planetary gearbox
Rychlost na silnici:
Road Speed:
26 km/h 16 mph
Rychlost v terénu:
Cross-country Speed:
? km/h ? mph
Jízdní dosah po silnici:
Cruising Range on Road:
? km ? mi
Jízdní dosah v terénu:
Cross-country Cruising Range:
? km ? mi
Překonávání překážek:
Obstacles Crossing:
? ° ? %
Boční náklon:
Side Slope:
? ° ? %
Trench Crossing:
? m ?
Vertical Obstacle:
? m ?
Fording Depth:
? m ?
žádná none
žádná none
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
- -
URL : Version : 0

Svirin M.N.,Bronja krepka: Istorija sovetskovo tanka 1919-1937, EKSMO Moskva, 2005

Vezděchod - Vězděchod
fotografie ze zkoušek, 1915

fotografie ze zkoušek, 1915

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Vezděchod Alexander Alexandrovich Porochovščikova
Вездеход Александра Александровича Пороховщикова

Alexander Alexandrovich Porochovščikov (Александр Александрович Пороховщиков), was in its time a fairly famous maker of aircraft. One of his models, the monoplane was designed for the participation of the famous Russian scientist and one of the fathers of the theory of aerodynamics Nikolai Žukovským (Николай Егорович Жуковский). Engineer Porochovščikov in addition, in 1914, created and reconnaissance aircraft, dvoutrupý Bi-Kok and in the years 1917 to 1920 was known to the whole unbroken series of training aircraft.

But his most famous creation was, and is, above all Vezděchod,which was, despite its shortcomings, above all the soviet propaganda referred to as the first real tank in the world.

History of the formation of
At the very beginning of the war in August 1914, the champion of Russia-Baltic machine-building plant in Riga (Русско-Балтийский машиностроительный завод в Риге) And. And. Porochovščikov turned to the main staff of the supreme command of the Russian army with the proposal of the original project fast martial belt of the machine for movement along the bezcestí - armored-car on the crawler with the option of suitable equipment. Porochovščikov at the time, however, did not provide any substantial supporting evidence. Only 9. January 1915 when an audience with the výstrojního chief of the northwest front general Danilova was the inventor prepared drawings and construction budget fighting machines, called Vezděchod. The project was appealing, because in addition to the high průchodivosti Porochovščikov promised even plavbyschopnost machines.

The project was approved - the authorisation for the production of Vezděchodu was delivered 13. January, 1915, at the same time it was pointed out 9660 rubles and 72 kopecks. Project values were set in the separate report no. 8101. Supervision of the production machines was conducted by the chief quartermaster of the Riga circuit of the troops of the military engineer-colonel Poklevskij-Kozello (инженер-полковник Поклевский-Козелло). 1. February of the same year it was from the barracks Nižněgorodského infantry regiment released 25 soldiers-mechanics, and the same number have hired skilled workers in the Rižských autoopravárenských the workshops of the factory "Russo-Balt" (Руссо-Балт), who had taken to the manufacture of protoypu.

18. may 1915 Porochovščikov first tested his machine in the driving on the good road. Was tested only movement on the housenkovém belt, the transition to the bikes in this test was not carried out. During the test, the machine speed was 25 km/h (at such a speed at that time possessing neither the first tanks English or French). After small adjustments, it was decided to hold the official showing of Vezděchodu, held to 20. July 1915. During the tests it turned out that the options Porochovščikova machines were very far removed from the calculated and required combat. What was worse, the mechanism of the cornering has been demonstrated to be extremely unreliable. Design of the driving parts has been recognized unsatisfactory, because-magneto-belt often enough spadával of the cylinder. Already during the tests Porochovščikov tried to remove this deficiency, by adjusting the belts and rear drum, but with minimal results.

Later Porochovščikov honed my machine, edited it on kolopásový: by road machine go on wheels, and the rear cylinder housenkového belt, when on his way ran into an obstacle - fell on the - strip and crawl over her. It předstihovalo the construction of the tanks of that time a few years. Porochovščikov tried to make the hull of the tank waterproof, which could be easily overcome water obstacles.

Porochovščikovův Vezděchod had, among other things, as well as the remarkable armor. The armored hull, established on the welded frame was formed by two plates cementovaného boiler plate about the strength of each 2 mm, between which was a layer of pressed dried sea grass. The author especially emphasized the cheapness of the iron armour, the possibility of its bending and welding. For the purposes of testing of the armor was that the armor provided with one car the Ford.

In some sources it is, however, noted that the armored Ford originated independently in the works on Vezděchodu - e.g.

Welded hull Vezděchodu moved to a single wide housenkovém belt, made of rubberized fabric. This - strip was strained through four drums. The fifth drum pressed-magneto-belt from the top. Two small wheels were placed on the sides of housenkového belt; it was controlled by the steering wheel. The hull was streamlined shape of the surface with the large opening for air intake at the front.

Karburátorový the engine (on the performance of the 10 h. p.) powered the rear drum using the gear box and the propeller shaft. The pressure on land should be no greater than 0.05 kg / m2 Three annular grooves on the drums, into which engage the guide lugs of the belt, prevent slippage housenkového belt. The wheels should function like a rudder on a boat or plane. The machine was the total weight of four tons.
In 1916 were carried out in st. Petersburg next test - December 29, 1916 reaches the tank a speed of 40 verst per hour, which were already exceptionally high indicators. Machine but constantly suffered from numerous technical problems, notably associated with the steering. In addition, due to the lack of internal space, the driver had to work in just in difficult affordable conditions. Finally, the inventor did not succeed or the effort to make your machine totally sealed and able to move on the water.

However, the military authorities have decided to abandon this project and in the winter of 1916, the military representatives have ceased funding the work. Yet the test machine with the breaks continued in the test until December 1916. In the final report points out that the "built specimen Vezděchodu showed all the qualities that required the order no. 8101, for example, couldn't ride after the high snow deeper 1 feet (30 cm), and tests of navigation on the water were ... made."

From other work on Vezděchodu it was decided to abandon, rather, that during this time it was already exhausted 18090 rubles. The military administration ordered Porochovščikovi return to the state treasury money allocated for the production of the machine, and the prototype Vezděchodu send to GVTU - the military-technical department of the Russian army. However Porochovščikov to meet these requirements was in no hurry. Even temporarily detained for themselves and 15 of the mechanics assigned to him for the period of work from the subsidiary company of Ford. The repeated reminder of the GVTU corresponds to the 13. June, that "the cost price of Vezděchodu is vyjádřitelná amount of around 18 000 rubles, while the whole of the difference was covered with ... of private funds". Moreover, the submitted documents evidenced that the cost amounted to 10 118 rubles 85 kopecks, while here Porochovščikov include money for the purchase of two guns, the seventh hats, etc. up to "tip the courier of st. Petersburg". Apparently, already simply for your own invention somewhat cooled, though in a statement of 7. September vaguely suggests that controls the construction of a new model "for the funds of one private company".

When in January 1917, began negotiations with the British and the French about the purchase of tracked combat vehicles (work agreed just French), Porochovščikov returns to the scene: 19. January 1917 showing off GVTU project and model Vezděchodu no 2, or Vezděchod 16 r .
It really was something similar to a tank, with a crew of up to 4 people, and the armored cab. The Idea of the propulsion mechanism remained the original, adding just the wheels at the ends of the rear of the propulsion cylinder. According to the documentation scaled models, presented 17. January 1917 was indeed a regular tank with kolopásovým drive - the ability to move either on 4 wheels or on the belt.
Unlike his predecessor, was Vezděchod no. 2 equipped with an improved drive. On the rear (main) drive of the drum was firmly deployed a car wheel of diameter greater than the drum. The front wheels, using which it should be carried out the turns as the car, was deployed on the shaft of the second drum. When moving on the road with a solid surface is Vezděchod-2 leaning on the base just the wheels and moved like a car; - the belt is spinning at idle. On a loose surface, according to the liking of the designer should have wheels sink into the soil, - the belt will then get in contact with the terrain and the vehicle begins to move like a crawler tractor. Rotation in this case is provided by means of the front wheels, as when moving in wheeled mode.

On the hull Porochovščikov installed another own invention - armored turret, composed of three of the mesentery. The bottom of the solid formed the solid basis on which to independently roll two more, each with one heavy machine gun Maxim. Another Maxim was installed in the front pancéři the hull next to the driver. Armor protection does not exceed 8 mm.

Due to "the occurrence of the enormous amount of necessary act of" Armored department Avtočasti GVTU (Броневое отделение Авточасти ГВТУ ) examine this project only 20. September. The report, pointing to a number of shortcomings, to establish an engineer-technician of the department L. E. Zemmering (Л. Е. Земмеринг).

As an example, the expression of the Armoured unit:
- regarding the "armored hull:
a) too small amount of the individual belts
b) the work of the three machine gunners at once in a single turret is impossible due to the lack of
the diameter of the turret,
c) the work of the three machine gunners in different directions it is impossible for the same reason,
d) it is not possible to machine gun equip water cooling,
e) is not specified the layout and design of the seats, machine gunners,
f) illegal taxiing towers after the toothed bar on the rollers.

- on the musculoskeletal system:
due to the fact that when moving along an ordinary road has Vezděchod towards normal cars any advantage, and vice versa, has shortcomings, such as: the absence of the differential, the existence of a single belt instead of two and so on, move around the loose surface of the machine even by far the can handle, the inevitable slippage of belts on the drive drums and of the impossibility of cornering, the Commission considers that the project Vezděchodu-2 designer Porochovščikova in his current state of not deserving any attention".
Thus even a project Vezděchodu no. 2 has not received approval for serial production and all other work on the Russian tank were developed until after the revolution.

Summing up the problem in a dispassionate view, it is possible to conclude that the Vezděchod resembles rather a future idea tančíků, fast machines with light guns forming the movable fire outbreak. Its main advantage - speed - was deklasována failed propulsion system. The only belt though showed very favourable values of specific pressure on the surface, but in principle would prevent the quick change of direction. Solution using the control wheel, located on the front of the vehicle next to the other drum, not to exhibit sufficient efficacy. The machine may ride fast, but only in a straight line.

Another one of his serious lack of were cramped conditions in the cabin, when the active combat operation would require from the person in the vehicle to combine the action of the driver, loader and gunner. Due to the absence of accurate documentation is also vague and internal arrangement of the Vezděchodu.

Yet the machine had some elements that appeared in tank construction many years later, especially the armament in a rotating turret and welded hull made of composite material.

In conclusion, it is possible to conclude that it was certainly a remarkable structure, which, however, required further development, to become a full-fledged, in the fight of the applicable weapon.

Vezděchod - Pramen uveden v textu

Pramen uveden v textu
Vezděchod - Pramen uveden v textu

Pramen uveden v textu
Vezděchod - Pramen uveden v textu

Pramen uveden v textu
Vezděchod - Pramen uveden v textu

Pramen uveden v textu
Vezděchod - Pramen uveden v textu

Pramen uveden v textu
Vezděchod - Pramen uveden v textu

Pramen uveden v textu
Vezděchod - pramen uveden v textu

pramen uveden v textu
Vezděchod - pramen uveden v textu

pramen uveden v textu
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This post has not been translated to English yet. Please use the TRANSLATE button above to see machine translation of this post.

na výše uvedené fotografii stojí konstruktér Vězděchoda Aleksandr Porochovščikov (Александр А. Пороховщиков) jako první zleva. Podle některých internetových stránek v stáří 23 let. Tím druhým je dozorčí nad vývojem stroje, vrchní ubytovatel Rižského vojenského okruhu, vojenský inženýr-plukovník Poklevskij-Kozello (инженер-полковник Поклевский-Козелло).
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