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Lebel 1886

opakovací puška

     
Název:
Name:
Lebel 1886
Originální název:
Original Name:
Fusil d'Infanterie Modele 1886
Kategorie:
Category:
puška
Výrobce:
Producer:
La Manufacture d'armes de Châtellerault
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
 
Hmotnost nenabité zbraně:
Weight Unloaded:
4,18 kg
Ráže:
Calibre:
8 mm
Náboj:
Cartridge:
8x50R
Délka:
Length:
1305 mm
Délka hlavně:
Barrel Length:
804 mm
Kapacita zásobníku:
Magazine Capacity:
8
Výkony:
Performance:
 
Rychlost střelby:
Rate of Fire:
- ran/min
Úsťová rychlost:
Muzzle Velocity:
700 m/s
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
A. B. Žuk: Pušky a samopaly, nakl. Naše vojsko, Praha 1992, ISBN 80-206-0150-3
J. Hýkel, V. Malimánek: Náboje do ručních palných zbraní, nakl. Naše vojsko, Praha 2002, ISBN 80-206-0641-6
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#568371Version : 0
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History and development



Technical progress made possible the industrial revolution in the 19th. century, of course, also affected the field of small arms and ammunition.

An important advance was the discovery of smokeless powder, who in 1885 invented by the French chemist Paul Vieille. New dust had a number of advantages - nezanášel so many mechanism of the gun, so it was possible to increase the number of repeat shots, and enabled it to reach much higher pressures, and therefore also the initial speed of bullets before the bullets laborovaných black powder. This allowed to substantially reduce the caliber of new types of rifles. While previously the great performance at a greater distance stood a large caliber and mass of the projectile, where the diameter of the projectile is commonly moved above the value of 12 mm, could now caliber bullets drop to 8 mm or less. Missiles with a smaller frontal cross-section placed in flight the air the less resistance, which could missiles move significantly higher speeds and after a flatter flight path. This, of course, significantly increase the accuracy of the intervention and range.

From the end of the 60. years 19. century so most of the military powers examined the aerodynamic characteristics of the new types of projectiles of a smaller caliber. The first country, which from the experiments moved to action, i.e. to create a new firing system (new ammunition + rifle) was France.

In France it was in the early 80's. years 19. century decided to rearm the infantry a new refresher zadovkou (not have in the arsenal of single zadovku Gras M 1874 ). This task was entrusted to a special commission, which after trying more than 50 different firing systems come to a decision to introduce the loadout completely new perspective rifle of small caliber. To find such a system fell subkomisi led by general Tramondem. Its members were captain Gras, colonel Bonnet, and colonel Lebel. Just the latter has played a crucial role in the development of new weapons. Colonel Nicolas Lebel (1838-1891) was the director of the shooting school in Chalons sur Marne, and here also completed testing of the prototypes. The result was a rifle, initially referred to as the rifle system Tramond-Lebel, officially adopted by the armament under the designation Fusil d'Infantry Modele 1886 (hence the infantry rifle model 1886), but is generally known under the name of the Lebel M 1886.

A new weapon to reflect all the findings made so far in the development of repeating rifles. As well as a number of other rifles of the time had a pipe magazine below the main. Tubular magazines at the time underwent considerable expansion. Later it turned out that there are at least three significant shortcomings: Firstly, it was possible to perform only one hub, so that the charging of such weapons was lengthy. Secondly, how is emptying, changing the center of gravity of the rifle, which was changing the position of the interference in the vertical axis, and thus decreased the likelihood of intervention, especially when shooting at greater distances. Third, with the onset of new types of ammunition with a lancet missile ship and a central percussion create a dangerous situation, when the spikes shoot bullets in the tray based on a match of bullets in front of them, so when a sharp impact (e.g. close combat), could be accidentally nápichu matches and the explosion of the bullets in the magazine.

As závěrový system of the new weapons he was elected a cylindrical rotary odsuvný conclusion. While in America were at that time very advanced repeating rifles to the bottom of the charging lever, with the advent of modern ammunition, weapons of this type became the most difficult to suit, because with increasing length of the hub also increased the length of the movement of the charging lever. The experience of recent conflicts clearly showed that the infantry increasingly will be forced to fire lying down, and here is the bottom of the charging lever seemed a handicap – the shooter had to be under the gun enough space, or odlícit and the rifle when charging tilt to the side.

Therefore, on the military weapons of the last quarter of the 19th. century began to explicitly promote the rotary odsuvný conclusion, for the first time used in jehlovky Dreyse in 1841. This type of conclusion allow for solid lock and therefore use very powerful ammunition, moreover, was simple and reliable.

Production rifles Lebel 1886 was launched in December 1886 at the factory in Chatellerault. Only in April 1887 it was made a respectable 700 000 pieces.

The year 1893 there have been some design changes, which include in particular the amplification of the receiver and its adjustment (together with závorníkem) that could not endanger the shooter uniklými gases in the event of the rapture of the matches from the bottom of the casing. It has also changed the rear sight and the muzzle got tapered a support, allowing the building of rifles into a pyramid. The modified weapons were designated as Mle 1886 M 93. It should be noted that, as at the time of creation of this weapon usual, there were also shorter variants, referred to as musketon (carbine).

Combat deployment in 1. world war ii showed certain weaknesses in the system, in particular the above-mentioned disadvantages of the trubicového tray under the main. It was a tax for ahead of the game, which France won, when as the first superpower of the world has introduced a new weapon system. All other states (meant the main states of the Agreement or the triple alliance) already have weapons more modern concept of the center cartridge box.

The rifle was last upgraded in 1927 (, for example, was launched cleaning rod under the barrel). Rifles Lebel all versions have served France during the 2. world war I, even if only in the role of weapons of the second quality. For us it is interesting that the rifle Lebel used as members of the czechoslovak. legions in France during the 1. world war I, so during the 2. world war I (specifically, during the battle of France) members 1. čs. infantry division.

Technical description



Rifle Lebel M 1886 is osmiranná repeating rifle with a pipe tray and a rotary odsuvným conclusion.

The barrel is a long 804 mm and has a caliber of 8 mm. In the bore are four left-handed grooves of a depth of 0.15 mm. Pitch of the grooves is constant.

The conclusion is a cylindrical rotary odsuvný system of Grass-Vetterli. Is locked by two symmetrical barbs on the head of the breech bolt hole. The lever end is perpendicular to the axis of the body, the conclusion and in the locked end is in a horizontal position. To unlock the conclusion should be a lever to lift up and the conclusion to pivot about 90° to the left, so they come out the barbs on the head of a breech bolt hole of the grooves in the rear part of the barrel. Downloading conclusion, the reverse occurs, pulling the empty casing from the chamber and its ejection from the nábojiště.

At the same time, just before the rear dead center, hit calk on the underside of the breech bolt hole to the upper shoulders of the feeder. The feeder has the shape of the groove, the pivot around the pin in its rear part, into which in the closed conclusion from the tray engaged the hub. After the opening of the conclusion to the impact ozubu breech bolt hole on the upper arm feeder folds up upward, and placing a new charge in front of the mouth of the cartridge chamber. Pressure on the lever to the conclusion way forward is the bullet pushed into the chamber and just before the dovřením the conclusion is again the feeder lowered down. In the lower and the upper position of the feeder is fixed by a spring. Through the switches is also a possible feeder to knock out of the action and shoot from a rifle as from the single-shot zadovky. Tilting the lever to the conclusion the right is then the conclusion will be locked again.

The rifle is charged in the open conclusion, when it is pushing from above the feeder lowered to the lower position and it is thus possible threading of the hub into the tray. The bullets are in a tray fixed with the edge of the casing on the front edge of the cradle feeder.



The tray is a tube and is formed a long hole drilled in the handguard. It is interesting that the hole is not vyvložkován vlisováním metal tube. Only in the mouth of the tube is inserted a short steel sleeve constituting the stopper of the forehead of the spring, pressing the hub towards the rear.

Pažbení is a two-piece, separated by a steel casing, the conclusion. It consists of a wooden stock and handguard.

Sights are a very original design. Front sight is fixed on a wide base. The visor is framed stepped. By sliding the tumbler along the frame (when the frame sklopeném toward the shooter) to the end of the frame, provided with a notch, rises above. For shooting at even greater distances it is necessary to frame to lift into the vertical position and pointing now the notch on the sliding stavítku, which moves up and down in the vertical plane. On the contrary, for shooting on short distances (to 250 m) need to be box to flip the direction from the shooter and aim using the third notch, which so appear.

Part of the rifles is a needle bayonet with a blade with a cross section, produced in two versions. Pattern known as the M 1886/93 had a handle equipped with a forward curved wall in the shape of a hook, while the bayonet established in 1916 and known as the M 1886/93/16 this place lacks. The total length of the bodáku amounted to 640 mm. The handle was made of nickel brass.

Charge



The charge referred to as the 8x50R Lebel created a colonel. Gras and kpt. Désaleux. It was the first modern charge on the smokeless powder in the world. The casing is lahvicovitá in the shape of a double cone, with a rim and a slightly convex bottom. It was made of brass. The original shot of the M-a weight of 15 g had a cylindrical shape with round tip. It was a lead, plášťovaná alloy of copper, zinc and nickel. Kpt. Désaleux worked on the design of the new missile, which was introduced in 1898 under the designation type D. The new missile was homogeneous, turned from brass. Was pointed, biogivální design with a weight of 12.8 g. The year 1917 was introduced a third type of bullet with a lead core and a jacket of an alloy of zinc, copper and nickel weighing 12.6 g. Shot type D it reached a speed of 700 ms-1, while the lead plášťovaná shot of 1917 it reached a speed of 720 ms-1. After the end of the 1. world war it was used also as sports and hunting, however, as a military hub quickly become obsolete, because its shape did not suit the use in modern automatic weapons.

Basic tactical-technical data (model 1886/93):

Caliber (mm)Length without bodáku/with bayonet (mm)barrel Length (mm)Weight without bodáku/with bayonet (kg)Capacity (pcs)Hlední far (m)
81305/18258044,18/4,6382000


Source:

J. Hýkel, In. Malimánek: Ammunition for small arms, nakl. Our troops, Prague 2002, ISBN 80-206-0641-6
And. B. Žuk: Rifles and submachine guns, nakl. Our troops, Prague 1992, ISBN 80-206-0150-3
C. Beneš: French rifle M 1886, Missile revue 12/1998
https://candrsenal.com/riflescat/
www.vhu.cz].
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#568332Version : 0
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Lebel 1886


Puška s označením „Fusil d'Infantrie Modele 1886“ byla vlastně první moderní zbraní v dnešním slova smyslu zavedenou do evropské armády. Šlo o první zbraň na bezdýmný prach s malou ráží (8 mm) a opakovací. Stala se pak v několika obměnách standardní zbraní pěchoty až do konce WWI. Zbraň zkonstruovala na základě několika starších zbraní skupina vedená plukovníkem Grassem a týmem ze zbrojovky Chatellerault (pánové Louis Verdin a Albert Close). Její vznik umožnil vynález nového prachu ve firmě „Laboratoire Central des Poudres et Salpetres“ v Paříži kde Paul Vieille vynalezl nový střelný prach na nitrocelulózové bázi. Nový prach měl asi trojnásobnou sílu oproti starším černým prachům při stejné váze. Tento první bezdýmný prach byl ve francii pod názvem „poudre B“ zaveden v roce 1886 a ministerstvo války pod vedením generála Boulangera, objednalo novou zbraň aby bylo možno využít jeho vlastnosti. Komise která vývoj řídila byla vedena generálem Tramondem, Za základ byla vzata puška Gras 1874 (jednoranná zadovka) jejíž ráže 11 mm by ale s bezdýmným prachem působila potíže, proto byla ráže snížena na 8 mm a nový náboj dostal název 8 mm Lebel, podle svého konstruktéra kterým byl právě N. Lebel, v té době velitel střelecké školy (Ecole Normale de Tir). Vlastní závěr uzamykaný dvěma ozuby konstruoval plukovník Bonnet. Zbraň dostala zásobník odvozený od zásobníku pušky Kropatschek, tedy trubicový pod hlavní, na 8 nábojů. Tento zásobník později působil potíže, špatně se nabíjel a úpravy pušky se týkaly především právě zásobníku. Přesto že Lebel se na vlastní konstrukci zbraně přímo nepodílel a stále protestoval proti nevhodně zvolenému vrtání hlavně, je zbraň spojována s jeho jménem a neoficiální název pod kterým zbraň nejčastěji uvádí literatura je právě Lebel. Původní zbraň modelle 1886 byla v roce 1893 mírně modifikována a zpětně tak byly upraveny i starší zbraně, takže původní verze je dnes extrémně vzácná, upravené zbraně se označovaly " Fusil Mle 1886-M93 " a důvodem úpravy bylo to že původní Lebelův náboj byl upraven na novou střelu (tzv. Balle D) s lepšími parametry. Původní náboj (Balle M) měl plochou špičku, nový byl špičaty (oba byly plnoplášťové).
I s nepříliš zdařilým zásobníkem byla ale nová puška senzací, její lehké a přesné střelivo, vysoký dostřel a přesnost, to že se voják neprozrazoval kouřem dalo Francii vojenský i technologický náskok a ostatní evropské mocnosti ji následovaly v zavádění podobných zbraní. Přesto že puška byla rychlostí střelby daleko za německým Mauserem 98 nebo britskou Lee-Enfield, byla vyráběna do dvacátých let a jednalo se o mimořádně přesnou zbraň (existovala i verze pro ostřelovače) Nakonec byla nahrazena až puškou MAS 36. Poslední útvary které ji užívaly byl z Cizinecké Legie (v severní Africe).


TTD
Ráže : 8 mm
Náboj : 8 mm Lebel
Délka zbraně : 1307mm
Délka zbraně s bajonetem : 1825mm
Délka hlavně : 800mm
Počet nábojů v zásobníku : 8
Váha zbraně : 4,180 kg
Váha zbraně s plným zásobníkem : 4,415 kg
Počáteční rychlost střely : 700 m/sec
Praktická dálka střelby : 400 m
Účinný dostřel :2400 m
Max. dostřel : 4300 m
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#166816Version : 0

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Zbraň včetně typického bodáku s kovovou rukojetí a jehlovou čepelí


zdroj : fotka je z mého vlastního archivu a foceno je to v muzeu ve Verdunu.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#199804Version : 0

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Přidám fotku Lebelu M1886 M93 karabina R35. Zbráň z roku 1916.


Zdroj: Vlastní zbraň
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#298915Version : 0

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Foto Lebelu s otevřeným závěrem, sklopeným podavačem nábojů a dnem nábojnice připravené v tubulárnim zásobníku pod hlavní. A pohled ze zadu.


Zdroj: vlastní zbraň
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#299430Version : 0

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jedna fotka zbraně s montáží dalekohledu, foceno je to v pařížské Invalidovně, takže bohužel sklo a ostatní exponáty poněkud vadily kvalitnější fotce.
zdroj : vlastní foto
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#312981Version : 0
Diskuse

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Prosím vás Radku,
dokážete prosím Vás posoudit zda tato karabina Lebel byla vyrobena opravdu v roce 1890 a tudíž by se mělo jednat o historickou zbraň kategorie D?
Velice děkuji předem za Váš komentář.
Lebel 1886 -


Příloha je viditelná až po registraci/přihlášení

Lebel 1886 -


Příloha je viditelná až po registraci/přihlášení

Lebel 1886 -


Příloha je viditelná až po registraci/přihlášení

Lebel 1886 -


Příloha je viditelná až po registraci/přihlášení

URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#604624Version : 0

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Obávám se, že Vás moc nepotěším, ale takový odborník na pušky Lebel zase nejsem. Z označení MAS 1890 je zjevné, že hlaveň vyrobila roku 1890 zbrojovka Nationale d'Armes de Saint Etienne. Podle čísla FV 98 633 lze soudit, že ocel dodávala Société anonyme des aciéries et forges de Firminy. Bohužel nezmám rozsah sériových čísel - doporučuji se obrátit s dotazem na toto fórum forums.gunboards.com


Další oříšek je český zákon o zbraních střelivu, kde je v § 87 historická zbraň definována jako: střelná zbraň, která byla vyrobena do 31. prosince 1890, a současně platí, že všechny hlavní části zbraně byly vyrobeny do 31. prosince 1890.


Podle značení na levé straně pouzdra závěru je jasné, že jde o modifikaci M 93, ke které zpětně docházelo na naprosté většině vyrobených zbraní od roku 1893. Je otázkou, jak se k tomu postaví inspektorát zbraní a střeliva.


Přeji pěkný den
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#604808Version : 0
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Děkuji Vám za informaci. Raději ji tedy nebudu kupovat.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Lebel-1886-t42323#604949Version : 0