Tupolev Tu-95 [kód NATO: Bear-A]

Tupolev Tu-95
Туполев Ту-95
Tupolev Tu-95 Tupolev Tu-95
Originální název:
Original Name:
Туполев Ту-95
bombardovací letoun bomber aeroplane
DD.MM.1955-DD.MM.1957 Kujbyševský letecký závod č. 18 Vorošilova, Kujbyšev /
Období výroby:
Production Period:
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
12.05.1952 Tupolev 95-1
31.08.1955 Tu-95 sériový
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
Vzlet a přistání:
Take-off and Landing:
CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání CTOL - conventional take-off and landing
Uspořádání křídla:
Arrangement of Wing:
jednoplošník monoplane
Uspořádání letounu:
Aircraft Concept:
klasické conventional
zatahovací retractable
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
kola wheels
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost prázdného letounu:
Empty Weight:
83100 kg 183204 lb
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
156080 kg 344097 lb
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
172000 kg 379195 lb
50,04 m 164 ft 2 ⅛ in
46,17 m 151 ft 5 ¾ in
12,50 m 41 ft ⅛ in
Plocha křídla:
Wing Area:
283,70 m2 3053.72 ft2
Plošné zatížení:
Wing Loading:
? kg/m2 ? lb/ft2
turbovrtulový turboprop
Počet motorů:
Number of Engines:
Kuzněcov NK-12 o výkonu 8826 kW/12000 k
třílisté protiběžné vrtule AV-60
Kuznetsov NK-12, power 11836 hp
three-bladed counter-rotating propellers AV-60
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
88700 kg 195550 lb
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
890 km/h v ? m 553 mph in ? ft
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
750 km/h v ? m 466 mph in ? ft
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
? m/s ? ft/min
Čas výstupu na výšku:
Time to Climb to:
? min do ? m ? min to ? ft
Operační dostup:
Service Ceiling:
11800 m 38714 ft
? km ? mi
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
12100 km 7519 mi
2x kanon AM-23 ráže 23 mm v dálkově ovládané zatahovatelné hřbetní věži DT-V12, 700 nábojů
2x kanon AM-23 ráže 23 mm v dálkově ovládané zatahovatelné břišní věži DT-N12, 800 nábojů
2x kanon AM-23 ráže 23 mm v ocasní věži DK-12, 1000 nábojů

5000-12000 kg pum
2x 23 mm AM-23 cannon in the remotely controlled retractable DT-V12 dorsal turret, 700 rounds
2x 23 mm AM-23 cannon in the remotely controlled retractable DT-N12 ventral turret, 800 rounds
2x 23 mm AM-23 cannon in the DK-12 tail turret, 1000 rounds

11023-26455 lb of bombs
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
- -
Gordon, Yefim; Rigmant, Vladimir. Tupolev Tu-95/-142 Bear: Russia's Intercontinental-Range Heavy Bomber. Midland Publishing, Hinckley 1997. ISBN 1-85780-046-X.
Gordon, Yefim; Davison, Peter. Tupolev Tu-95 Bear, Warbird Tech vol. 43. Specialty Press, North Branch 2006.
Ригмант, В. Г. Ту-95, Авиация и Космонавтика 2001/04.
Ригмант, В. Г. Стратегический бомбардировчик Ту-95. Авиаколлекция 2013/04.
Gordon, Yefim; Rigmant, Vladimir. OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Midland Publishing, Hinckley 2005. ISBN 1-85780-214-4.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Tupolev-Tu-95-kod-NATO-Bear-A-t44434#555928 Version : 0
The Tupolev Tu-95 Bear is probably the most successful, most widely used and most variable four-engine propeller bomber in the history of the USSR Air Force.

Work on the new intercontinental strategic bomber began in the early 1950s shortly after the start of serial production of the Tupolev Tu-4 Bull. The basic idea of the aircraft was to create a heavy bomber capable of attacking targets in America and remote parts of Europe. These actions were to be carried out from the stratosphere at a flight altitude of 10,000 m and with a hit accuracy approaching 15 meters from the target.

While several turbine aircraft designs were developed in the USSR to these specifications, OKB Tupolev preferred to rely on a more promising propulsion system consisting of the powerful turboprop engines with which designer N. A. Kuznetsov was experimenting at the time. On the basis of a request from OKB Tupolev, he started work on a new turboprop power unit, designated type-name NK-12 (original designation TV-12), and which was to be adapted for the connection of a counter-rotating propeller.

At the same time as the engine, prototypes of the bomber, designated Project 95, began to be built. This bomber was revolutionary in many respects, for example, the first use of an arrow wing on a propeller-driven strategic bomber (in the design of this wing OKB Tupolev collaborated with the Central Research Institute of Aerodynamics and Hydrodynamics CAGI). The first prototype was developed for the Kuznetsov NK-2 (TV-2) and NK-2F (TV-2F) propulsion units, and the second for the new high-performance Kuznetsov NK-12 (TV-12).

After the project was officially submitted to the Air Force Command for review, the prototype construction already underway and the design of the aircraft was officially sanctified on 11 July 1951. The first prototype designated 95/1 and equipped with NK-2F engines (TV-2F) was flown on 12.11.1952 and subsequently a series of flight and load tests began on it to establish the limiting parameters of the aircraft design.

These tests proved the high quality of the new bomber right from the beginning and during the tests most of the originally calculated parameters were exceeded. Unfortunately, the trials were interrupted by a crash on 11 May 1953, when the aircraft crashed due to an engine fire in flight, killing both test pilots (during trials, bombers were usually operated only by pilots and a flight engineer). The deck mechanic was extremely lucky to survive when he was ejected from the fuselage when the aircraft broke apart, and escaped the crash with only a broken leg. His testimony helped to reveal the cause of the disaster (the counter-rotating propeller gearbox ruptured and its fragments tore through the tanks, which immediately burst into flames) and, based on the information obtained, the second 52/2 prototype was strengthened in the wing section, the propeller gearbox was rebuilt and the empty space above the fuel tanks was filled with inert gas.

The 52/2 prototype, which took longer to complete due to the above modifications, was fully completed in June 1954 and after a series of ground tests it took off for the first time on 16 February 1955. In the course of the tests it demonstrated remarkable characteristics, which proved especially its long-range qualities. During one of the test flights, it made a long-distance flight with a complete crew and a load of 5000 kg, covering a distance of 15 000 km at a speed of 993 km/h at an altitude of 11 300 m. This flight was ultimately the main argument for the acceptance of the new bomber into the armament of the USSR long-range strategic air force and the start of serial production, which began in January 1956.

Technical description of the aircraft

The Tupolev Tu-95 Bear is a long-range strategic bomber designed for precision high-altitude bombing with both conventional bombs and, in modifications, cruise missiles. The Tu-95 design represents the basic variant of the Tu-95 bombers introduced into service.

The aircraft has long mid-span arrow wings with four Kuznetsov NK-12 turboprop engines. These engines are connected to counter-rotating eight-bladed propellers (4 blades per propeller).

The cigar-shaped fuselage contains three separate pressurized crew compartments. The forward pressurised compartment houses the navigator's station, which substitutes for the bombardier and, in an emergency, the gunner's station, which operates the five remotely controlled radar-guided gun turrets together with the rear gunner. Each turret houses two NR-23 23 mm calibre guns with a supply of 600 rounds per gun.

Behind the forward pressurized compartment is a pressurized cockpit for two pilots and a flight engineer. In the tail of the aircraft is located the last pressurized compartment, in which there is a lone radio operator operating besides the radio station also the rear firing range with two NR-23 cannons with the possibility of adding two more gun turrets to the aircraft.

The bomber's bomb bay is located in the centroplane area and is 14.5 metres long. Its weapon slings allow it to carry a bomb load of up to 9,000 kg, including the heaviest bomb, the FAB-9000, for which a special sling is provided.

The aircraft's avionic equipment matches the avionic standard of the basic Tupolev Tu-16 design, and in later years some aircraft were retrofitted with integrated radio-electronic jammers to make penetrations over enemy territory safer.

Author archive
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Tupolev-Tu-95-kod-NATO-Bear-A-t44434#177673 Version : 0
The Tupolev Tu-95A Bear-A is a modification of the basic Tu-95 aircraft for carrying atomic weapons (A-atomic). This is made possible by modifying the original FAB-9000 bomb rack by adding two additional racks to its central body so that the aircraft can carry two atomic bombs of up to 750 kilotons or a single bomb of up to 2.5 megatons. Other structural and avionic equipment of the aircraft is identical to the basic Tu-95 design, with most Tu-95s produced up to that time having been modified to the Tu-95A standard.

Author archive
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Tupolev-Tu-95-kod-NATO-Bear-A-t44434#177674 Version : 0
The basic variant of the Tu-95 aircraft captured during the first public display at the Tushin air show.
Tupolev Tu-95 [kód NATO: Bear-A] -

URL : https://www.valka.cz/Tupolev-Tu-95-kod-NATO-Bear-A-t44434#174722 Version : 0
Tupolev Tu-95 flying over St. Petersburg (below is Vasilyevsky Island, where the submarine D-2 Narodovolyets belonging to Central Museum of the Navy of Emperor Peter the Great is on display, in the background is the Lachta district with the Lachta Centr skyscraper)
Tupolev Tu-95 [kód NATO: Bear-A] -

URL : https://www.valka.cz/Tupolev-Tu-95-kod-NATO-Bear-A-t44434#708185 Version : 0
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