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Kalinin K-12

Калинин К-12

Kalinin K-12
Originální název:
Original Name:
Калинин К-12
bombardovací letoun
DD.MM.1936-DD.MM.1936 Voroněžský letecký závod č. 18 Vorošilova, Voroněž /
Období výroby:
Production Period:
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
Vzlet a přistání:
Take-off and Landing:
CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání
Uspořádání křídla:
Arrangement of Wing:
Uspořádání letounu:
Aircraft Concept:
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost prázdného letounu:
Empty Weight:
3070 kg
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
4200 kg
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
? kg
20,95 m
10,32 m
? m
Plocha křídla:
Wing Area:
72,75 m2
Plošné zatížení:
Wing Loading:
57,80 kg/m2
Počet motorů:
Number of Engines:
M-22 o výkonu 353 kW/480 k nebo
M-17F o výkonu 368 kW/500 k
dvoulistá vrtule
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
219 km/h v 3000 m
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
? km/h v ? m
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
? m/s
Čas výstupu na výšku:
Time to Climb to:
? min do ? m
Operační dostup:
Service Ceiling:
7100 m
? km
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
1100 km
1x kulomet ŠKAS ráže 7,62 mm v přední věži
1x kulomet ŠKAS ráže 7,62 mm v ocasní věži

500 kg pum
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
Andersson, Lennart. Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941. Putnam Aeronautical Books, London 1997. ISBN 0-85177-859-3.
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Kalinin K-12
(Калинин К-12)

According to a new military doctrine, which envisaged the modernization of the VVS red army(ВВС РККА), NII VVS (НИИ ВВС ) draws up to February 1931 tactical-technical requirements for the prospective multi-purpose military aircraft. The design and construction of the machine under the index VS-2 (ВС-2 = войсковой самолет, вторая модель = army plane, the second model) has assigned the Charkovskému the test plant of the air industry (ofCHAZOSS - ХАЗОСС - ХАЗ - Харьковский авиационный завод = Kharkov aircraft factory), which led Constantine Aleksejevič Kalinin (Константин Алексеевич Калинин). Designation of K-12 is the designation of the factory - K = Kalinin, 12. project.

The first conceptual project of the future aircraft was ready in April 1933 a total of three versions. You have been dependent on the possibility of using 3 different engines: the M-22, M-49 and M-52.

After analysis of the preliminary project VS-2 in VVÚ VVS has not been adopted for implementation. A number of objections, disagreements prevailed, both in the area of the material used, so the engines where KB prefer the engine M-52. Workers VVÚ the insiders were unanimous with the staff of the VVS only in the diagram of the aircraft - a "flying wing". In his the future of the Kalinin firmly believed and assumed that the "aircraft without the ponytail has many advantages over ordinary aeroplánem when military deployment is particularly valued by their own manoeuvring ability and options palebného feature". The latest version of the aircraft with the scheme to bezocasé the concept was coming. But due to the prevalence of horizontal area, located close to the fuselage of the aircraft, it in the KB label as a krátkoocasý.

The objections to the use of the engine M-52 were a series of. According to the data of CAGI (ЦАГИ ) were not in the conception of the experimental structures taken into account all of the offered engine variants. Outside of this, during the tests, the M-52 has occurred defektům the crankcase (one of his faults), which in turn require adaptation of the design of the engine and the delay of its production. Therefore, for the case of the unavailability of the engine M-52 for the production of aircraft VS-2 was the designers ordered to carry out calculations with other engines of the type M-22 and M-58.

In September 1933 he submitted to the CHAZOSS the second preliminary design of the aircraft K-12 (VS-2). The engines were placed along the sides of the aircraft fuselage at the leading edge of the wing. Engine covers have been threaded on the full depth of the bottom surface of the wing and in the rear parts of each included a frame with a tail wheel, so the machine would be on the earth moved for a total of 4 points. On the upper parts of these covers were placed strut, serving to firm up even as the axis of rotation of the beams. The middle part of the cowlings used as an aerodynamic cover for the in-flight pull-chassis.

Jednonosníková the horizontal tail surface consisted of two halves, připevňovala to the rear part of the fuselage of the aircraft, ending on near the trailing edge of the wing.

The wings in the middle parts of the rectangular shape, the beams along the sides of the engine have the shape of a trapezoid with the front edge of the skosenou back. The rear edge is a continuation of the wing center section.

Wings was placed above the wing. The ends of the wings were fixed to a circular area, serving simultaneously as a directional rudder. For reducing the landing speed is applied to the flap of the type Northrop, placed over the trailing edge of the wing the length of the entire margin.
Along the leading edge of the trapezoidal part of the wing were placed slots, divided by the length of the span in two parts: the external, controlled automatically, and the internal, controlled by the pilot.

To the bottom surface of the wing along the entire length of the trailing edge of the zasouvala small wings, which in the CHAZOSSu have marked as "flaps". When landing these "flaps" according to the needs of the pilot resigned from the contour of the wings and secured in the most advantageous position, thus increased the load-bearing area of about 15 - 20 percent. Practically it was therefore of mechanization, today's look is very modern, the increasing area of the wing and the depth of the profile.

Material of construction: right-angled part of the wing the wing center section consisted of two beams, made from chrommolybdenové steel, and steel ribs. The frontal portion of the midsection (from the leading edge to the front beams) and the rear part of the center wing (from the trailing edge to the rear of the rafters) was made of duralumin or of an electron. Cloth cover in places around the engines and the fuselage of the aircraft was covered with electron beams or duralovými sheets, forming "paths" for the safe movement of the operator and the pilots.

The trapezoidal section of the wing dvounosníkové structures were made of wood. Cover - plywood. Vertical and vodorovní tail as well as wings have been welded from steel tubes and covered with canvas.

The skeleton of the aircraft fuselage was of oval cross-section, the svařená from the tube and coated canvas, the firing of the habitat has been coated with the electron or duralumin.

The planned six gasoline tanks were placed in the middle on both sides of the engine. Non of the crew and petrol tank could be fitted with additional armour.

Chassis broad gauge was pull-in flight. Low-pressure wheels - "balónová" - with brakes. Other damping elements, in addition to the balloon tires, the chassis did not have. The winter period was designed lyžový chassis, nezatahovatelný in flight and equipped with oil dampers.

In the civilian version of the airplane should the airplane hold 11 passengers, in the postal variant of the six. The plane, dismembered the sub-groups, it was possible to be transported by rail.

It is also necessary to supplement the technical requirements in parts of the destination and the methods of application of the aircraft VS-2. To them should include:
- survey (visually photographic) in the interest of the military leadership - as objects directly on the battlefield, so both in the operational rear of the enemy;
- liaising between the various army hqs and their staffs, and also between the parts of the battle of the currents, on the march, in the survey, as well as the fight;
- in specific cases, the use of exploration targets in the interest of Arctic air and strengthening in the last cases the fulfilment of its tasks in the interest of the army command;
- take off, as a rule, the individual aircraft;
- the completion of tasks in both day and night and in difficult weather conditions;
- the activity (take-off and landing) from a weakly equipped areas of limited size;
- independent defense in flight against air attack, ensuring a leak under the protection of the terrestrial means of air defense.
- For difficult weather conditions or in the performance of special tasks can be the height of the flight is reduced to 200 meters.

The front observer/gunners was the need to ensure views from the cabin into the lower hemisphere using zasklených parts of the sides of the cabin. The possible location and use of 3. palebného point for shooting under the tail should be present in a given schema to ensure the leading scorer.

In the civilian variant was predicted to produce a different bow and the tail part of the fuselage, replacing the missing turret. The project assumed the use of aerodynamic overlap, allowing good airflow around and to the pilot a view forward. Therefore, it was envisaged that the bow and tail surfaces of the aircraft will be built as an easily removable, when mobilization could be immediately confused by other, designated for the scheme of the war version of the VS-2.

In the opinion of the project underlined that the weight of the wings, the fuselage of the aircraft and the chassis is kept within acceptable limits. The weight of the tail is a big thanks to the specific scheme of the aircraft, and its reduction is not possible with regard to the need to maintain sufficient strength. The weight of the assembly of the engine with the propeller is great in comparison with other vícemotorovými aircraft. But due to this, it provides a low load on the 1 k. s., is comparable rather with fighters than bombers.

The weight of the fuel was set to 545 kg.

Draught in the wind tunnel also have not been confirmed effects on the calculated data of the longitudinal stability for moving and the engine and the longitudinal stability of the aircraft. Specialists CAGI but designed a plane to be recalculated according to new standards of strength. Used the deployment of the front and rear spar wing - to 39% and 84% of the wing depth was considered reasonable, but beneficial in terms of the weight of the wing.

The opinion also noted that the fastening of the stabilizing surfaces is different originálností and brand new. However, it has been argued to take into account not only the emergence of vibration, but also the possibility of damage to the tail in the air - in the case of deformation of aircraft parts, belonging to the power scheme of fastening of the tail.

From the tactical-technical requirements imply the use of caliber bombs 8, 10, 15, 50, 82, 100 kg. The bomb bay was located in the central part of the fuselage behind the cockpit. Bombs caliber 8,10 and 15 kg should be carried by the total weight of 300 kg bombs, and bombs caliber 50, 82 and 100 kg to the total weight of 500 kg. The load of bombs had to be carried on pylons KD-1 or KD-2, which could be used at the same time. Thus the importance of the use of 8 kg (nil, since it is them possible to load up as much as 10 kg bombs and in the same ranges of the bomb load. By the chief engineer for the arming of CKB was the overall evaluation of the project is positive.

As regards the retraction and lowering of the chassis, it was recommended to consider the experience gained with the machine CHAI-1(ХАИ-1), when worked always properly fuse, holding the wheel in the closed or open position, or its signaling - plane several times due to the fact experienced an accident. Similarly, it must be taken into account in the design to the possibility of rapid delivery of the cargo in the event of an emergency landing from low flight altitudes.
The protection of the crew of the aircraft in the closed canopy, the commission assessed as unsatisfactory: the leading scorer in the position of the aircraft a "candle" is not protected against the fall, the possibility of easy reach of the pilot on a parachute is not considered. In addition, an open turret in the bow and the stern in 30. years has acted somewhat archaic.

From a comparison with established types of came out the new project successfully - the report found that the VS-2 with the engine M-22 well above the plane of the R-5 and has a performance on par with I-5. Experts pointed also to the fact that even when in the moment of the introduction of an aircraft VS-2 M-22 in the series will have an interceptor, the I-5 replaced by a fighter plane I-14 or I-15, yet, even then will the VS-2 better in comparison with I-14, than is now used by the army machine R-5 to I-5. It was spoken in favour of an aircraft VS-2, its flight data in the project greatly exceeded the prescribed tactical-technical requirements - through the use of the engine M-22 instead of M-52 (whose production has been delayed).

He also assumed that the aircraft can be successfully used in the civilian variant, since there were a good ratio of carrying capacity/performance, enhanced safety and high quality flight characteristics. In the civilian version of the aircraft could be adapted even as the mail for the deployment of 6 passengers and mail. When replacing the removable covers of the fuselage of the aircraft in the same weight it is possible to get a variant for the transport of persons, designed for 11 passengers and crew.

In the materials of the report on the examination of 2. version of the initial project bomber of VS-2 (K-12), dated 2. October 1933 was told the following:
"CHAZOSSem tuned up the initial design of the aircraft with two engines M-22 is agreed upon - in addition to the dimensionality and the deployment of the tail surfaces and ailerons, which require additional ofukování models of the aircraft in the wind tunnel. The mounting of the motors M-22 on the plane VS-2 is considered to be temporary, until the transition to the use of the engine M-52, which is installed on the airplane must be assumed.

During the presentation of aircraft on the state test have to be submitted along with the him and the skis with internal shock absorbers, touted the CHAZOSSem for winter operation of the aircraft.
Once again it is confirmed that this aircraft may build reduced scale as purely experimental. So far, relegating the question of the construction of a large aircraft, and a fortiori of the series".

The project has been modified according to the comments, so in the final variant came out on their ocasné surface, elongated near the engine nacelles have been shortened. Instead of the 6 fuel tanks hid the wings of the pouz 4 tanks. The spur is moved under the fuselage, and the aircraft got the classic "tříbodovou" the form of the chassis. Over the end of wings borne on wings disappeared and she moved to the trailing edge of the wing. And the open turret was replaced by towers. This project was again subjected to examination.

In the final document, signed by the chief of the CKB CAGI WITH. N. Iljušinem (С. Н. Ильюшин), it says:
"Defenses "bezocásky" will be almost always higher than those of a normal aircraft with a tail. For bezocasých machines (for the same amount of enemy firing points) to extra simply solved the problem of the defence rear and the upper hemisphere, usually the most vulnerable. However, the shooting equipment VS-2 in the submitted state accept the impossible. The existing firing points are not guaranteeing good defenses and the full angular obstřel, which are in the award, and may be present in a given schema of the aircraft. In addition, the perfectly not protect the bottom area under the wings and fuselage of the aircraft. The protection of the towers range officer is not technologically implemented a satisfactory manner.

Double control of the aircraft. In the cockpit the steering wheel, in-cab letovoda - removable control lever.
Cabin letovoda is not equipped with a aeronavigačními device, postačujícími for control of the aircraft and engines: there is only an altimeter, speedometer, levers, gas, without controlling the tail and altitude management.

On the aircraft are used engines M-22 of no race 19. The propeller metal of a diameter of 2,8 meter. Starting engines is carried out in compressed air or autostartérem."

Ja. In. Smuškevič (Я. В. Смушкевич ) the machine was approved at the reporting NII VVS from 8. December 1937 on the testing of the aircraft "bezocásky" VS-2 M-22 the construction of Kalinin in the following formulation:
"I note that the aircraft VS-2 represents, due to its fundamental scheme of great interest to the VVS red army, because they give considerable advantages in terms of views and obstřel, and also good letově-landing characteristics.
It is deemed to be necessary, the complete aircraft VS-2 as experimental, to remove all the shortcomings, referred to in the report, from which as the main seems to be:
- the lack of longitudinal stability of the aircraft at small angles of attack (large speed) even when the free rudder;
- low efficiency of the vertical tail surfaces during taxiing, take-off run, the finish and take off on one engine;
- nedopracovanost landing funds (the chassis and the spur), significantly complicates the landing;
- insufficient obstřel and the bad shading of the shooting of habitats;
- low speed (max. equal to 219 km/h).
Ask the GUAP to ensure the completion of an aircraft VS-2 M-22 to 1. march 1938, and then submitting the aircraft to the final state examinations in full.
Include in the plan of experimental aircraft industry on the r. 1938 the design of the test aircraft, according to the scheme of VS-2 M-22 with the aviation tactical values and amenities, adequate to the modern requirements for combat aircraft.
The decision on series production aircraft to adopt after the end of the tests the aircraft VS-2 M-22".

To verify the flight characteristics of the aircraft left the Kalinin stand unpowered for glider in scale 1 : 2. He completed several flights with the factory test pilot P. About. Borisovem ( П. О. Борисов). When one of the first take-off has become a very special event, which only confirmed the correctness of the chosen scheme. In the amount of around three kilometres, because of the insufficient strength of the material broke the cradle of the rudder. Glider sharply zhoupnul bow, switched to steeply dive, lashing belts however congestion and the pilot was catapulted from the cab. Borisovovi were successfully landed by parachute. But unaffected remained glider: suddenly leveled, started in a spiral smoothly to decrease and performed a standard landing. This led to the approval of the construction of the prototype. With it was carried out a total of a total of 46 test flights, with satisfactory results.

August 18, 1937 is a K-12 first appeared on the air of a military parade in Tušinu. Looked very unusually - according to the command of the chief of the NII VVS P. I. Baranova. И. Баранов), the aircraft was pomalováno according to the popular fairy-tale "the Bird-Ohniváka" (Жар-птица). The appearance of the sky so unusually pomalovaného of the machine between the rhythmic military colors made a striking impression on the present members of the government and command of the red army. The result of this tactic was also agreed to establish a production desetikusové series.

Unfortunately, the "Bird ohnivák" then, what was presented at the ceremonial parade in Tušinu, remained the only dohotoveným piece type K-12. Aeronautical engineer Konstantin Aleksejevič Kalinin in r. 1938 disappeared in the prison of the stalinist regime. The leadership of the aviation industry has adopted the decision had been initiated and the unfinished series of 10 pieces of "military aircraft" to stop. "The bird Ohniváka" were dismantling, parts and components sent to the warehouse. Their further fate is unknown, probably, in the end everything ended up in the scrap.

Crew: 3 persons
Wing span": 20, 90 m
Length: 10, 30 m
Height: ? m
Wing area: 72, 70 m2
- empty aircraft: 3 210 kg
- normal takeoff: 4 200 kg
Engine type: 2 PD M-22
Power: 2 x 480 to. s.
maximum speed: 228 km/h
Travel speed: 189 km/h
Practical range: 110 km
Practical ceiling: 7 170 m
Armament: two 7,62 mm machine guns ŠKAS bomb load - 500 kg

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Kalinin K-12
Kalinin K-12 -

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Kalinin K-12 -

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Kalinin K-12 -

Kalinin K-12 -

Kalinin K-12 -

Kalinin K-12 -

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