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SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M

Mikoyan-Gurevich KM-1


The KM-1 ejection seat was created in the Soviet design office OKB Mikoyan-Gurevich in the early 1960s as a modern replacement for the existing KK-1 and SK-1 seats for Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 aircraft. The basic idea was to design a sufficiently simple and effective seat with the best possible parameters, including the possibility of catapulting the pilot on the ground (ie characteristics 0-0). The seat also had to be as compact as possible because the size of the cockpit of the MiG-21 could no longer be changed. This created a relatively simple seat with a pyropatron drive and a back parachute and the possibility of ejection from zero height (up to a speed of 180 km/h). The first aircraft in which the new seat was used was a training fighter Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-21US and subsequently got on another type of OKB Mikoyan Gurevich. The MiG-21 (from the PFM version onwards), the MiG-23 (all versions) and the MiG-25 can be mentioned in particular. In addition to OKB Mikoyan Gurevich aircraft, the KM-1 seat is used, for example, by Tupolev Tu-22M3 Backfire bombers. The only disadvantage of the KM-1 seat is the absence of a head deflector, which prevents ejection through a closed canopy.


Technical description:
(a modified KM-1 seat from the Mikoyan GUrevič MiG-25 fighter is described)


The base of the KM-1 seat consists of a vertical structure made of high-strength steel consisting of two beams and five partitions. An upholstered headrest containing a pilot's emergency radio and a first aid kit is mounted on this structure in the upper part.
Below the headrest is a profiled armored shield resistant to the impact of projectiles up to 7.65 mm caliber, protecting the pilot's back. Hinges are located on the shield for attaching the pilot's back parachute and the reserve parachute. This parachute has separate lashing straps into which the pilot is clamped in the seat and serves as a parachute harness after separating the seat from the pilot in case of ejection. In addition to the parachutes, the parachute case also contains two small pressure cylinders for the pilot (oxygen) and overpressure of the suit (air). These bottles are placed on the upholstered front part of the parachute case, which also forms the backrest of the pilot. On the sides of the shield there are two hinges with tightening rollers for the main seat belts.
The lower part of the seat consists of a profiled metal tub in which the pilot's emergency equipment (additional food rations, survival equipment) is located. Its upper cover consists of an upholstered metal cover. On the sides of the front of the tub, there are fixed limiters for the pilot's movement during ejection, containing the seat controls. In addition, the right limiter is complemented by a simple KPA-4 timer, which ensures the correct functionality and timing of the ejection sequence. During the flight, the timer takes energy from the aircraft's on-board network and after ejection is supplied from a small battery located on the right side of the seat pan. On the front of the seat tub, there are footrests with stirrups to catch the legs during ejection. In the middle of the front part there are handles for starting the ejection sequence
Other elements on the seat are already located directly on the supporting structure of the seat. Under the back shield there is a rod with a manipulator and a control device for lowering the hand restraints during ejection. These limiters are located at the ends of the support rod. The rear side of the supporting structure carries the main and backup stabilization parachute and the guide tube of the seat with the ejection pyropatron in its cavity. At the bottom of it are located quick-release clamps for heating the pilot's suit and the oxygen and air apparatus of the suit. On the upper side of the structure there is a sensor monitoring the ejection of the cabin cover and the apparatus for the transfer of commands to eject the cover from the KPA-4 timer to the pyrotechnic system for ejecting the cabin cover.


KM-1 seat ejection sequence:


1) The pilot has a folded helmet plate and legs locked in the stirrups on the footrests, the initiation handles of the ejection seat are pulled (the pilot is instructed to keep his hands on the ejection handrails).
2) The KPA-4 timer is activated, the main lashing straps are tightened, the throw-in limiters are lowered by hand, the suit is pressurized, the timer sends a command to start the pyrotechnic overlay ejection system (if not dropped, the signal is repeated and ejection blocked).
3) The cockpit cover is discarded and the pyrocartridge of the seat ejection system is ignited, while the seat leaves the cockpit with the development of the telescopic tube (quick clamps are disconnected and the power supply and oxygen system are transferred to autonomous systems integrated in the seat.
4) The pyrocartridge has burned out and the main stabilizing parachute opens. If it does not open, the backup stabilization parachute opens.
5) The seat is stabilized and braked to a safe speed. The main lashing straps are released and the pilot detaches himself from the seat with a parachute case on his back and emergency equipment from the headrest and the seat tub suspended on a cable below him.
6) The pilot's personal parachute opens automatically (opening of the reserve parachute in case the main parachute is not developed or opened).


Seat parameters in terms of height and speed of ejection:


(Ejection speed/ejection height)


0-270km/h/0 m
270-600km/h/100 m
& gt; 600km/h 500 m


Sources:


www.topedge.com
www.ejectionsite.com
Publication 4+: MiG-21
Publication 4+: MiG-23
Author's archive
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#189385Version : 0
Seat KM-1 in the position for eject.Note the folded down boil the rozhozu hands.The photo is taken from the server free.polbox.pl.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#189388Version : 0
No ejection seat KM-1 (KM-1M - under spresnenia from Luba).Photos are taken from the server www.croninot.com.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#189391Version : 0
KM-1M


(©Radek Havelka).
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#189905Version : 0
MOD
Seat Mikoyan Gurevich KM-1 in the MiG-21MF.Note demontovaného a parachute of the capsule,which is visible back of the shield and the uncovered seating part of the seats..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#189985Version : 0
KM-1

Taken at the exhibition of czechoslovak. airmen and aviation held in Pilsen. More photos including details in the gallery. Seat comes probably from the machine Mig-21MF "9707".

Source:
Own visit, a photo of your own..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#262518Version : 0
detail of mechanical casovaca sedacky KM 1M.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323529Version : 0
parachute oxygen device KP-27M.
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - schema opustenia lietadlo z KM 1

schema opustenia lietadlo z KM 1
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - schema opustenia lietadla z KM 1  /2

schema opustenia lietadla z KM 1 /2
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - system sedacky KM 1

system sedacky KM 1
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323589Version : 0

Vlavo on the picture is otvoreny mechanism of KPA-4, ktory riadi activity sedacky sticking to the speed and height to katapultaze.
Above them pyromechanizmus odstrelenia bars 1. stabilazacneho padaku, under them ( with napisom PV-50 ) is pyromechanizmus zapalenia raketoveho engine. On the right is pyromechanizmus ramenneho pritiahnutia. (daco similar we already have aj in the autach).
Centrally located cierne group is what are the motor in nom is umiestneny aj KSM horn cast performs hore(ako pisal Alchemist) full down is forget the score two nozzles raketoveho engineand..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#333062Version : 0
Seat KM-1M before MiG-23ML 2402 vo military museum in Piešťany.
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - Foto: Vlastná návšteva vo vojenskom múzeu Piešťany, 29.5.2010

Foto: Vlastná návšteva vo vojenskom múzeu Piešťany, 29.5.2010
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - Foto: Vlastná návšteva vo vojenskom múzeu Piešťany, 29.5.2010

Foto: Vlastná návšteva vo vojenskom múzeu Piešťany, 29.5.2010
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#370368Version : 0
MOD
KM1U.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466668Version : 0
..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466669Version : 0
..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466670Version : 0
Diskuse
There are more errors in the post than healthy.
- there are no pressure bottles in the headrest, the only pressure oxygen cylinder is in the seat/seat, there is also a pilot parachute and an emergency dose
- the pilot does not have a "backup" parachute - the pilot parachute itself is an emergency, it drops faster than the parachute
- all timers in KM-1 and KM-1M are mechanical, similar to older airborne, have air inlets from static and dynamic pressure sensors
- there is no parachute behind the upholstery of the backrest, there is nothing, the backrest is made of aluminum sheet, so it is not even possible to talk about "bulletproofness", the main task is to provide support when sitting and cover the seat mechanisms
- the rocket engine of the seat is not mentioned at all, which gives it the properties h = 0 v = 0. The engine starts already during the movement of the seat on the main telescopic firing mechanism, when the bottom of the seat rises about a meter above the cabin floor (so that the pilot does not blow the engine's flue gases reflected from the walls, floor and rear wall of the cabin)


I recommend getting a prescription for a seat KM-1M somewhere, or at least a good description.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#193187Version : 0
Thank you for the critique post. Of these differences I know. In the description I got along from the description of seat KM-1 from the aircraft MiG-25 (www.ejectionsite.com) but I forgot to mention in the post, and I apologize for that. This seat has compared to the standard seat KM-1 and KM-1M differences in the placement of individual components with regard to the necessity of ejection seat in high altitude. Therefore, different placement of the cylinders and these have a larger capacity because it is assumed their longer use (the pilot from the seat separates later). Also there is the different deployment of the parachutes,which are in back panel housing because the seat part using the other components. Mechanical timer KPA is for the correct function and nezámrznost at high altitude heated-hence the battery.Because the MiG-25 does not have sufficient armor protection for the cab in the rear polosféře,the seat is armoured. Overall, the seat is somewhat larger than the standard KM-1 and KM-1M..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#193578Version : 0
Unfortunately, at the address given, I did not find anything about the KM-1 seat for the Mig-25, so it would require a more accurate link. I would be quite interested in how it was modified (if it was modified, because it is commonly stated that the Mig-25 was a standard KM-1M)
But a larger supply of oxygen does not seem to me for another reason - the pilot had a germak, so leakage through the mask was ruled out and a standard "bottle" lasts about 20 minutes, which is enough to descend to a safe height. In addition, there would be a problem with the seat's stabilization and braking parachute.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#193729Version : 0
Now I don't have much time but the link I will look and I'll throw it here. What bottles for how I bought so I'm selling. I'm not an aircraft mechanic or a pilot so that the true seat in the eye I don't Wink . Anyway, your opinion seems to me quite logical. Maybe it was just a larger amount in advance.

Otherwise, as far as the Mig-25 so as to indicate not only the KM-1M but also the KM-1 and mainly for the older versions..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#193733Version : 0

Quote - Darkfold :

no ejection seat KM-1.Photos are taken from the server www.croninot.com

nie is the KM-1 but the KM-1M, ktora ma auto pritahovanie feet, pri katapultazi, (lanka v spodnej prednej part).
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#244988Version : 0

Quote - Alchemist :

In the postings is chýb viac, ako is healthy.

- vôbec nie it is spomenutý rocket motor seats, as it gives the properties of h=0 v=0. Engine sa spúšťa already during the movement of the seats on the hlavnom teleskopickom vystrelovacom mechanizme, when the sa the bottom of the seat rises up about a meter above the floor kabíny

in the chapter get a lot of errors and from nezmyslov, eg. min. the speed of the nie is zero but 130km/hr.
What are the engine sa lights around 850 mm of movement of sedacky. The nozzle raketoveho engineand su on the sides of the v spodnej portion (the engine is zvisle in centralnej nosnej part of sedacky) and su natacane assuming the weight of the pilot, presnejsie cop height, with pohybom tub sedacky sa natacaju the nozzle, the movement of the tub is about 120mm, ak sa nepletiem. (it's been 15 years what could even).
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#244989Version : 0
katapultazna sedacka KM 1M,pouzivana in lietadlach the type of Mig-21 MF,PFM ..,Mig-23,Mig-25

photo :sukromna zbierka



.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323522Version : 0
.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323523Version : 0
Image attachments please vkladať priamo on the server pomocou options Appendices - avoid sa in budúcnosti problémom that externý the link will not be funkčný and appendices will be nenávratne stratená (mainly pokiaľ are stored on bezplatnom hosting...)..
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323526Version : 0
MOD
The figure is pristroj PPK-2P-405, ktorý slúži on otvorenie rescue parachute pilot. Pristroj is uvádzaný in the activities of 2 m dlhým lankom pri disconnect the pilot from the seat.
A parachute is possible otvoriť aj hand.

edit: the description of the include to the picture Electrona https://vcdns.valka.cz/attachments/13175/m.jpg.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323549Version : 0

Quote - electron :

katapultazna sedacka KM 1M,pouzivana in lietadlach the type of Mig-21 MF,PFM ..,Mig-23,Mig-25


The MIG-21 PFM sa used seat KM-1 nie KM-1M, the sa, had been assembled into lietadiel up since 1970.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323553Version : 0
Pre motorom is vidieť upper part hlavného telescopic mechanism KSM.
(neprihlásilo ma).
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#323624Version : 0
Version of seat KM-1(e.g. Mig21PFM, MA, MF), KM-1M (Mig21MF, bis, Mig-23) KM-1I (Mig-21U), KM-1U (Mig-21U), KM-1MI (e.g., Mig-21UM), KM-IMU (e.g., Mig-21UM).
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466564Version : 0
From the manual seat KM-1M.
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - Z příručky sedačky KM-1M

Z příručky sedačky KM-1M
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466633Version : 0
schemes of seats KM1.
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - KM1I

KM1I
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - KM1M

KM1M
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - KM1U

KM1U
SOV - Mikojan-Gurevič KM-1 / KM-1M - KM1UM

KM1UM
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466635Version : 0
basic data seat KM-1I and For.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466638Version : 0
Basic data seat KM-1IM/UM.
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466639Version : 0
From my site https://vhtm.valka.cz/ the laying on of saved my life.....
URL : https://www.valka.cz/SOV-Mikojan-Gurevic-KM-1-KM-1M-t48616#466640Version : 0