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Short Stirling

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Short Stirling - track version[/heading:aaaaaa]

Label the Design of the aeroplane - a description
Short Stirling 1st prototype destroyed 14. 5. 1939 when landing after the first flight
Short Stirling 2nd prototype took off 3. 12. 1939, after modifications tested at the A&AEA in Boscombe Down
Short Stirling B Mk.I produced in three series after 9, 72 and 639 aeroplanes, each with different armament and engines
Short Stirling B Mk.II only three prototypes, nevyráběné version, engines Wright R-2600 Cyclone
Short Stirling B Mk.III the most numerous version, it was delivered 1 036 aircraft, powerful version of the engines of a Hercules
Short Stirling MK.IV transport-cargo aircraft, vlekal cargo gliders, and transporting cargo, 450 aircraft
Short Stirling Mk.In traffic unarmed version with a hinged nose and the cargo door in the fuselage, made of 160 aircraft


Used springs:
Geoffrey Norris-The Short Stirling, Aircraft in Profile Number 142., Windsor, Berkshire, UK, Profile Publications Ltd., 1966. Well ISBN.
Jaroslav Schmid, Aircraft 1939-45 Fighter and bomber aircraft of Great Britain 2. part 1. the release of Pilsen, the Publishing house Fraus, 1994. ISBN 80-85784-38-6
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_Stirling
author archive
.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Prehled-verzi-t56418#547367Version : 0
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Short Stirling[/heading:aaaaaa]
Short With.29 Stirling was the first čtyřmotorovým the bomber plane that the RAF has deployed to the fighting in the second world war, on the other hand, he was also the first čtyřmotorovým bomber, that Bomber Command disabled. Short With.29 Stirling was among the shape the most popular types of aircraft from the beginning of the second world war. High above the ground, raised the bow, slender wings, a long fuselage, proud and defiantly combative appearance - plane characterized by the appearance. If, however, we characterize it by the flight and performance characteristics, so it was a heavy bomber with a small operating altitude, which struggled with the strength of high chassis and although it could carry quite a decent load of bombs, it was not possible to his pumovnic hung bombs weighing more than 2 000 pounds (907 kg). For the emergence of this aircraft were the specifications of the RAF Expansion Program B.12/36, the specifications of the british air Ministry issued on 9. July 1936, and through them required the development of čtyřmotorového bomber. It's a little paradoxical, that the next ministerial specifications B.13/36, which were for the RAF to secure the heavy twin engine bombers, led later to the development of the successful four-engine bombers Handley Page Halifax and Avro Lancaster, thus the bombers, which perform fully its role for the entire duration of the second world war, their designers didn't have to respect the limited on the margin, because modified the originally two-engined aeroplanes, but they use it only to a limited extent.

Build directives


Directive B.12/36 and B.13/36 have been drawn up after long discussions and negotiations, where participated also the old officers, who often stubbornly pursued a completely unreasonable demands. One of these requirements was collecting the reports and dispatches from the ground units of the twin-engine bomber weighing more than 20 000 kg and using the hook, and the stretched rope between the two masts. This requirement was established at a time when the use of the radio station!!! Let's look at the directive B.12/36, which concerned the čtyřmotorového metal bomber, was required in the range of 3 000 miles (4 820 km) with a cargo of 8 000 pounds (3 629 kg) bombs in the use of a ground based catapult, free catapult was required, a smaller range and smaller payload of bombs. The maximum bomb load was supposed to be 14 000 pounds (6 230 lbs). It was further required, in order to carry bombs of various calibers up to weight category of 2 000 pounds (907 kg). In the fuselage of a heavy bomber, however, should be a place for twenty-four armed soldiers. The ministry has been promoting the idea that the bombers loaded the troops, transport them throughout the british empire and yet this army will support an effective bombardment. The proverbial icing on the cake was the condition that the span of the wings of heavy bombers shall not exceed 100 feet (30,48 m). This limitation resulted from the width of the gate field hangars. On this condition, it took the Ministry quite fundamentally, no one apparently did not rule on the question, but why would he be an all-metal aircraft necessarily hangárován? The result had to be the project of heavy bomber with a spacious and voluminous hull, but with a fairly shallow pumovnicí, or with several smaller pumovnicemi, but especially with the wing of the shortfall in the margin.

On the specifications answered a few air factories, but after the submission of the projects have been selected only two, which were to build a scale mock-ups and later prototypes. The first company company was Supermarine Aviation Works (Vickers) Ltd., which started at a slow pace to build two prototypes of the aircraft the Supermarine Type 317, not a single prototype was built, because the company has fully utilized the preparation of the production of fighter Spitfires and the unfinished machines were destroyed by the German bombing of the factory hall in the Woolstonu 26. September 1940.

Prototypes


The other selected companies, the factory was Short Brothers and Harland Ltd. located in northern Belfast (the Short). Here the project took the Sir Arthur Gouge with your team. Factory Short was known especially for the production of flying boats and his experience in this field was even used in the construction of a heavy bomber. Eg. the wing was very similar to the wing of a flying boat Short Sunderland, only the margin was smaller. Company Short proceeded first to the construction of the miniatures in half the size, this aircraft was factory designated as With.31, it was a single-seater that was powered by four small engines, Pobjoy Niagara and first flew on 19. September 1938. His mission was to believe the aerodynamic solutions of the aeroplane, several times was modified and re-tested after a total of 110 take-off was in 1943, cancelled. Already at the time of the take-off of this mock was started the construction of the actual prototype, the first prototype was completed in the assembly hall in the Rochester in may 1939. In front of the factory hall stood graceful machine of all-metal construction, whose bow čněla to a considerable height. High chassis, on which the prototype was standing, was required because his vzepjatou position when standing on the ground and a large angle of attack during takeoff and during landing was also required by the Ministry of aviation. The propulsion of the aeroplane provided the four engines Bristol Hercules II, each with an output of 1 375 horsepower (1 025 hp). The prototype flew 14. may, after making a short flight occurred during the landing maneuver to the crash, and the prototype was damaged beyond repair. In-range aircraft happened to break high-gear legs, the aircraft landed on the belly, and then wrenched the left of the engine, damage to the beams of the wings and another destrukcím hull. Problems with the chassis haunted Stirlingy throughout their service, it was due to both their height and certainly also to the inexperience of the company Short with aircraft equipped with wheel chassis.
The second prototype flew 3. December 1939, during a test flight wasn't the chassis for the security involved and it was just luck, because during tests carried out after landing it was found that the landing gear can retract, but his ejection is not possible, the aircraft returned to the factory, and until the end of march was the chassis being edited. Since the spring of 1940 was for a period of four months tested at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEA) at the base of the Boscombe Down.

Bomber aircraft


Stirling Mk.Even Srs.1
Meanwhile, in the spring of 1939 she was the company Short handed the first order for the construction of 100 serial Stirlingů, from September this year Great Britain was in a state of war with Germany, and this state had to adapt to the conditions of production, it was necessary to secure sufficient manufacturing capacity. The first serially made Stirling was handed over for trials in may 1940. The first nine aircraft designated as the Stirling Mk.Even Srs.1 had insufficient performance and led to considerable frustration. These machines were fitted with engines Bristol Hercules II, were unsatisfactory the shape of the engine nacelles and gatherers of the exhaust gas. Their performances were so weak that they were used only for training. We know it, is under the exhausts, the left engines have a combined output on the left upper side and right motors on the right upper side. Armament was concentrated in the three gun turrets Frazer-Nash, in the bow of this tower was the FN-5A, under the torso was a retractable turret FN-25A, both were fitted with a pair of machine guns, Browning Mk.II. In the rear turret the FN-4A were four of these guns. Three shallow bomb bay in the fuselage were long, 42 feet (12.8 m) and three other bomb bay were in each half of the wing, between the fuselage and motor gondolas. Some authors such dispersal and the size of the pumovnic blame the engineers, I would disagree, because the Ministry of aviation has requested that the hull could accommodate 24 fully vystrojených soldiers and the size of the pum was the technical requirements clearly formulated - 2 000 lb (907 kg).

Stirling Mk.Even Srs.2
The war was growing in intensity and also the RAF demanded an additional supply of Stirlingů, gradually managed to secure the production capacity and so besides the plant in Rochesteru, the production involved the parent factory in Belfast, the company also Austin Motor Co. Ltd., Longbridge and "the shadow factory" in the South Marston. The production line leaving a version of the Stirling Mk.Even Srs.2, consisting of 72 aircraft. From the machines of the first series of different modified shape of the engine nacelles, the outlet end of the exhaust pipe, all of the engines on the right side, a few planes got the engines of the Hercules III performance 1 425 hp (1 063 kW) and was repealed the bottom of turret. Place this turret was fitted with two side-window machine guns of the type Vickers, some aircraft had these weapons raised, some of them even did not bear.

Stirling Mk.Even Srs.3
it represented the most widespread variant of this version, were made 639. The introduction of this variant was changed armament - the aircraft was fitted with a dorsal gun turret FN-7A with a pair of Browning machine guns Mk.II, machine guns in side windows have already been unnecessary for some machines is installed one Vickers machine gun To the hatch, after already previously cancelled the lower gun turret. Planes are equipped with engines of the Hercules X and XI on the power 1 500 hp (1 119 kW) more efficient turbocharging ensure two-speed compressors. The engines were fitted with the long "jagged" shock of the flames.

Stirling Mk.II
The british Ministry of aviation considered in the years 1940 and 1941 production Stirlingů in Canada, eventually also negotiated a contract to supply 140 Stirlingů Mk.II, these machines should be powered by american engines the Wright R-2600-A5B Cyclone with a capacity of 1 600 hp (1 176 kW). To produce this version in the end has not happened, and in the Uk they were only produced for three model aeroplanes.

Stirling Mk.III
This is the most numerous version of the Stirlingů, in total there were delivered 1 036. Production began in late 1942, the drive had the engines Hercules VI or Hercules XVI, which we know according to the oil coolers under the engine, the performance of these engines was 1 735 hp (1 294 kW). On the back of the fuselage was installed in the lower turret the FN-50. Decreased also the number of portholes on the sides of the fuselage. This version ended production of the bomber Stirlingů. The RAF started to phase out from Bomber Command and replacing them with bombers of the type Halifax and Lancaster. Another deployment Stirlingů was from 1944 almost exclusively by Transport Command. Leaving Stirlingů not run at the same time, and yet the entire first half of the year 1944 were used by the bombers over germany.

What was the bombing of Stirling.


RAF this type of bomber seen as a necessary evil. At an operational deployment, it impairs this bad traits: small height, with suicide a load that was approximately 4 500 m, a small rate of climb, high stall speed, a few Stirlingů when landing suddenly fell and crashed, for these bad qualities, however, might have a small wingspan, but on the other hand, could be Stirling hangárován in the old hangars. Another bad things was the behavior during takeoff, when the pilot shifted all the gas lever at the same time, he began to plane "sway" from side to side, which usually ended in damage to a long chassis and, in the case of the operational take-off, i.e. with the suicide cargo and full tanks, so it was a tragedy. The RAF held a proškolovací courses in which it was stressed that the gas lever of litter gradually and with them the maximum position, wait until the time before they become effective rudder. Very often it is Stirlingům faulted, that their bomb bay did not allow for the suspension of bombs weighing more than 2 000 lb, e.g. 12 000 pound jerky "Blockbustery", but on the other hand, the total capacity of the bombs was very decent in comparison with other čtyřmotorovými bombers this time. All of these bad qualities Stirlingů manifested to the fullest, if there was a crew of inexperienced and such was, unfortunately, still enough. In flight, however, Stirling said he behaved very well, well handled, was a good, honest and stable. In 1941, he was Stirling one of the few bomber aircraft of the RAF, which could be deployed to the day of the bombing without fighter escort.
Combat deployment Stirlingů as the bombers took from 10. 2. 1941 to 8. 9. 1944, Stirlingy have carried out a total of 18 440 combat sorties, during which toppled 28 262 tons of bombs, Stirlingy also often participated in zaminovávání German shipping routes, often put mines in the strait between Denmark and Germany, during operational years were lost 606 aircraft and other 163 planes have been lost during non-combat years.

Further development


In 1941, suggested the factory the design team of the company Short a new type of factory marked With.36. About this project is referred to as the "Super Stirling". New Stirling was based on the specifications of the B.8/41 issued by the 19. 11. 1941, the plane should have a wingspan of 135 ft 9 in (41,38 m), the drive should get four powerful engines, the Bristol Centaurus, the maximum take-off mass of the aeroplane should reach 104 000 pounds (47 of 174 kg). The calculated maximum speed should be up to 300 mph (483 km / h), the operating height should be 29 000 feet (8 840 m), the maximum range was no less impressive - 4 000 miles (6 437 km). Range with a load of bombs with a weight of 10 000 lb (4 536 kg) should be 2 300 miles (3 700 km) and with a circulation of 23 500 lb (10 430 kg) should be a minimum of 1 000 mph (1 610 km). The defensive armament was to be concentrated into the three gun turrets that would be fitted with a total of ten půlpalcovými machine guns. To pumovnic can be hung bombs weighing 8 000 lb (3 629 kg). Ministrsto aviation has ordered the construction of two prototypes of Sn. JR540 and JR543, but Air Chief Marshall Sir Arthur Harris, as the commander of the Bomber Command, stopped through the ministry of their construction and the entire project was subsequently terminated on the grounds that their possible inclusion into the service it would be very time-distant.

Version for Transport Command


In 1943 modified the parent factory in Belfast two bombers Stirling B.Mk.III the prototype form of the cargo and the towing Stirling Mk.IV. This version carried a defensive armament only in the rear gun turret, which is maintained for the necessary defence. The internal spaces could accommodate various cargo, or up to 20 troops, under the tail was installed coupling device, which could be towed up to seven cargo gliders Airspeed Horsa or a larger one to the glider of the type of General Aircraft Hamilcar. These freight Stirlingy replaced on the production line bomber version and have been widely used in the landing in Normandy, planted and subsequently supplied the airdrop at Arnhem and at the Nijmegen (operation Market Garden), supplied air gas forward field airport, gasoline was stored in the cargo space in the number of stodvaceti třiadvacetilitrových canisters. Supplied weapons, ammunition and other necessary material to the French resistance movement and last but not least, has been planted over enemy territory agents and subversive groups. Total flown 450 transportation-truck Stirlingů Mk.IV, should have it in your state the following squadrons: 190, 196, 299, 622. Their operational deployment was specifically successful and so it is not surprising that there is another, this time a transport version of Stirling Mk.In. the First prototype of this version flew in August 1944 and we know it is safe by the fact that already did not carry any defensive armament. Extended transparent bow out of plexiglas was removable upward, and after lifting to allow for easy storage of cargo in the front cargo space, so if we can talk about the easy handling, I will remind only, that the bow loomed high above the ground. The main cargo compartment was accessible by a newly installed cargo door, that was located on the right side of the fuselage behind the trailing edge of the wings. In the hull it was possible, using the cargo ramp, go up, for example, with the Jeep, which dragged šestiliberní cannon and a cart with the ammunition, or it was possible to transport the wounded soldiers, for them it was available for 12 beds and 14 seats, this wounded accompanied the paramedics. The Stirling Mk.In could fit 20 fully vystrojených paratroopers or 40 passengers. The crew of the aircraft was a five-piece. The new transport aircraft began to units coming in January 1945, when, it is to your arsenal took over 46. squadron RAF, "Five" replaced both olétané "four", but also other transport aircraft types, the advantage of Stirlingů was their range, and Britain was preparing for war with Japan in the Far east, where it was necessary to move large number of forces. Production Stirlingů Mk.In jumped after the delivery of 160 aircraft in November 1945. The following year meant for traffic Stirlingy the end of my career and there was "great scrapping". It is certain that even the transport version Stirlingů indelibly shaped the history of the air force.

Users:


RAF:
7. squadron, 15. squadron, 46. squadron, 48. squadron, 51. squadron, 75. squadron, 90. squadron, 138. squadron, 148. squadron, 149. wing, 158. squadron, 161. squadron, 171. squadron, 190. squadron, 196. squadron, 199. squadron, 214. squadron, 218. squadron, 242. squadron, 295. squadron, 299. squadron, 513. squadron, 525. squadron, 570. squadron, 620. squadron, 622. squadron, 623. squadron and 624. squadron.

Luftwaffe:
KG 200 - prize planes

Belgian airline:
Trans-Air was used after 1946 10 modified Stirlingů in the Far east, one was lost in the crash.

Egypt:
The egyptian air force carried out six bombing planes, which bombed the israeli positions in the First arab-israeli war (1948-1949).


Used springs:
Francis To. Mason, The British Bomber since 1914, UK, London, Putnam Aeronautical; First Edition, 2003, ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
Pino Lombardi, the Short Stirling: The First of the RAF Heavy Bombers, Fonthill Media ISBN: 1-78155-473-0
Short Stirling Remembered, Air History Series No. 1., Kidlington, Oxford, UK, Wingspan Publications, 1974. ISBN 0-903456-03-6.
Jonathan Falconer, Stirling Wings: The Short Stirling Goes to War, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK, Budding Books, 1997. ISBN 1-84015-004-1.
Ron Mackay, Short Stirling in Action, Aircraft Number 96., Carrollton, Texas, Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1989. ISBN 0-89747-228-4
Geoffrey Norris-The Short Stirling, Aircraft in Profile Number 142., Windsor, Berkshire, UK, Profile Publications Ltd., 1966. Well ISBN.
Jaroslav Schmid, Aircraft 1939-45 Fighter and bomber aircraft of Great Britain 2. part 1. the release of Pilsen, the Publishing house Fraus, 1994. ISBN 80-85784-38-6
Václav Němeček, Aviation and astronautics, no. 3/1987, year LXIII, Aircraft 39-45, Short Stirling In. str. 28/108, publishing Our army n. c.
www.flightglobal.com
https://www.airpages.ru/eng/uk/stirling.shtml
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_Stirling
https://www.airwar.ru/enc/bww2/stirlg.html
https://stirlingaircraftsoc.raf38group.org
https://www.stirling.box.nl/home.htm
https://stirlingproject.co.uk
www.bombercommandmuseum.ca
author archive
.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Prehled-verzi-t56418#547366Version : 0
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