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CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40)

CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40)

HMS Dorsetshire
Originální název:
Original Name:
HMS Dorsetshire
těžký křižník
County A / Norfolk
Kódové označení:
Pennant Number:
H.M. Dockyard Portsmouth, Portsmouth
Založení kýlu:
Laid Down:
Spuštění na vodu:
Uvedení do služby:
Vyřazení ze služby:
05.04.1942 potopen JV od Cejlonu / was sunk SE of Ceylon /
31.08.1939-08.08.1941 Martin, Benjamin Charles Stanley (Captain)
08.08.1941-05.04.1942 Agar, Augustus Willington Shelton (Captain)
710 (mírový stav / peacetime)
819 (válečný stav / wartime)
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Standardní výtlak:
Standard Displacement:
10135 t
Plný výtlak:
Full Load Displacement:
13503 t
192,86 m
20,12 m
6,60 m
boční pás: 25 mm
přepážky: 25-64 mm
muniční sklady: 25-111 mm
hlavní paluba: 36-76 mm
dělové věže: 25 mm

boční pás: 25-111 mm
přepážky: 25-64 mm
muniční sklady: 25-111 mm
hlavní paluba: 36-76 mm
dělové věže: 25 mm
4x parní turbína Parsons
8x 3-bubnový kotel Admiralty
59656 kW při ? ot/min
Zásoba paliva:
Fuel Load:
3241 t
59,7 km/h
23150 km při rychlosti 22,2 km/h
Výzbroj a vybavení:
Armament and Equipment:
8x 203 mm L/50 BL Mark VIII ve věži Mark II (4x II)
4x 102 mm L/45 QF Mark V na lafetě HA Mark IV (4x I)
4x 40 mm L/39 QF Mark II na lafetě HA Mark II (4x I)
8x 533 mm torpédomet (2x IV)

8x 203 mm L/50 BL Mark VIII ve věži Mark II (4x II)
4x 102 mm L/45 QF Mark V na lafetě HA Mark IV (4x I)
4x 40 mm L/39 QF Mark II na lafetě HA Mark II (4x I)
8x 12,7 mm L/62 MG Mark III (2x IV)
8x 533 mm torpédomet (2x IV)

8x 203 mm L/50 BL Mark VIII ve věži Mark II (4x II)
8x 102 mm L/45 QF Mark XVI na lafetě Mark XIX (4x II)
16x 40 mm L/39 QF Mark VIII na lafetě Mark VII (4x IV)
8x 12,7 mm L/62 MG Mark III (2x IV)
8x 533 mm torpédomet (2x IV)

8x 203 mm L/50 BL Mark VIII ve věži Mark II (4x II)
8x 102 mm L/45 QF Mark XVI na lafetě Mark XIX (4x II)
16x 40 mm L/39 QF Mark VIII na lafetě Mark VII (4x IV)
9x 20 mm L/70 QF Mark I na lafetě Mark I/II (9x I)
8x 12,7 mm L/62 MG Mark III (2x IV)
8x 533 mm torpédomet (2x IV)
1x letecký katapult

Červenec 1941
1x letecký katapult
1x Radar typ 286 (vyhledávání vzdušných cílů)
Nesená letadla:
Aircraft Carried:
2x hydroplán Supermarine Walrus
původ jména: hrabství Dorsetshire v jihozápadní Anglii
PEJČOCH, Ivo, NOVÁK, Zdeněk, HÁJEK, Tomáš: Válečné lodě[4]. 1.vydání. Praha: Naše vojsko s.p. 1993. 374s. ISBN 80-206-0357-3
HRBEK, Ivan, HRBEK, Jaroslav: Loďstva států účastnících se druhé světové války. 1.vydání. Praha: Naše vojsko, 1994. 232s. ISBN 80-206-0245-3
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, HMS Dorsetshire.
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the History of HMS Dorsetshire

HMS Dorsetshire was built as one of the ships class "County" - the first heavy cruisers of Great Britain, built after the Even. world war. Ships should have such a construction, in order to comply with the terms of the Washington naval conference of year - 1922, which for heavy cruisers meant a limit of 10,000 tons standard displacement and the main guns caliber 203 mm (8").
Cruisers class "County" were built within a few years, and HMS Dorsetshire belonged to the third, the last sub-section, entitled just the name of this ship.

Run the HMS Dorsetshire on the water (in a viewport, the duchess of Shaftesbury)

HMS Dorsetshire stood the royal dockyard in Portsmouth and christened it the duchess of Shaftesbury. The character got the golden striding lion in a red field and the Latin motto "Pro Patria et commitatu" - For your country and county.
After its inclusion into the service of the year 1930 has become the flagship 2. squadrons of cruisers.
In the year of the 1931, still as the flagship 2. the squadron of cruisers under command of rear admiral Astley-Rushton, participated in events around the Invergordonské rebellion (mutiny of the sailors of the Royal Navy due to decreased salaries) in the days of 15.-16.09.1931.

In the year of the 1933 was HMS Dorsetshire transferred to the part of the british fleet with a base in south Africa (the so-calledAfrica Station), as the flagship of rear admiral Edward Evans. Here performed the service up to the year 1936, where the ship underwent reconstruction, during which was reinforced armament and installed the belt armor around the hips.

After the reconstruction, in 1937, Admiralty HMS Dorsetshire being diverted to 5. a squadron of cruisers to base in Hong-Kong, to become a part of the british fleet in the Far east (the so-called China Station). Here it also caught the beginning of the war in Europe.

HMS Dorsetshire before the war

II. world war

Already 02.09.1939 cruiser set sail to the south coast of Japan to here was on patrol. In Japan at that time was the Italian light cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni and the Admiralty was concerned his involvement in the military action in the event of war with Italy.
From 03.09.1939 heavy cruiser patrolling off the coast of Japan and China, until it 16.09.1939 nevystřídal cruiser HMS Kent. HMS Dorsetshire sailed to Hong-Kong, but already 22.09.1939 once again cruised the area and searched for enemy merchant vessels.

HMS Dorsetshire in dry dock in Singapore

After the necessary maintenance in Hong Kong the ship moved into the Indian ocean. The command of the Royal Navy, her převelelo to the so-calledEast Indies Station with a base in Colombo on Ceylon.
Upon arrival in Colombo, 25.10.1939, it was HMS Dorsetshire, along with the cruisers HMS Gloucester and HMS Cornwall designed to patrol and defend trade routes in the Indian ocean.
28.10.1939 was formed fighter group Force "And", consisting of the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle, the cruisers HMS Dorsetshire and HMS Cornwall destroyers HMAS Waterhen and HMAS Vendetta, which was to prosecute the German corsairs, who attacked allied merchant ship in the Indian ocean and the south Atlantic.
In November 1939, after the sinking of several merchant ships, began to Force "And" search for the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee, which had these attacks on conscience.

3. December 1939 was HMS Dorsetshire eliminated from Force "And" and deployed to the south Atlantic to the so-calledSouth Atlantic Station with a base in Simons Town in South Africa. With a stopover on the island of Mauritius arrived cruiser in Simons Town 10.12.1939 and already 13.12.1939 set sail on patrol between the Falkland islands and Tristan da Cunha.
In the course of a voyage it caught the order to sail to the aid of the cruisers to HMS Exeter, HMS Ajax and HMAS Achilles that appeared and chased the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee and brought with her the battle at the mouth of the river La Plata. 19.12.1939 caught HMS Dorsetshire report on the sinking of the Admiral Graf Spee and the order was canceled.
Cruiser added 22.12.1939 fuel in Montevideo and sailed to Port Stanley in the Falklands. Here are 24.12.1939 also met with the victorious cruisers from La Salaries.

During the January 1940 HMS Dorsetshire, along with another cruiser HMS Shropshire, patrolling in the south Atlantic.
From 21.01. 29.01.1940 was accompanied by HMS Dorsetshire damaged heavy cruiser HMS Exeter, the winner from the mouth of the La Plata, in Great Britain and subsequently until the beginning of February was on patrol in the south Atlantic, where he later joined the cruiser HMS Hawkins (3. February).
08.02.1940 HMS Dorsetshire visited Buenos Aires, where the crew among other things finally got the mail, the first since the departure from Colombo in the October 1939.

10.02.1940 the cruiser was ordered to join a group of ships of the Royal Navy (aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, gunship HMS Renown and heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland), searching for enemy korzárech and lamačích blockade.
12.02.1940 spotted a reconnaissance plane from the cruiser, a German merchant ship Wakama, near the brazilian měsa Cabo Frio. The German crew of the ship burned and sank and saved in the boats. Into captivity had fallen 46 sailors.
27.02.1940 left the HMS Dorsetshire association and sailed towards Port Stanley in the Falklands. After arrival he boarded the cruiser the wounded sailors from the HMS Exeter, who were left after the battle of La Plata and 02.03.1940 sailed out to sea again.
With a stopover on the island of Tristan da Cunhha (7. march), due to the unloading of the supplies for the islanders, came over on the HMS Dorsetshire 11. march 1940 to Cape town and landed here the wounded sailors from the HMS Exeter even the prisoners from the steamer Wakama.

15.03.1940 he sailed the cruiser to the base Simons Town to make repairs. Up to 24.04.1940 it was being repaired at a local shipyard and then received orders to voyage to the north. 25.05.1940 landed in the English port of Plymouth, and the same day was placed in the yard in Devonportu to carry out the necessary repairs and upgrading.

After their termination 09.06.1940, he attended HMS Dorsetshire necessary podokové tests and 23. June 1940 was assigned as escort to the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes, flying to Dakar to watch French warships, stationed at the local base.
25.06.1940 Cruiser covertly watched the French battle ship Richelieu, sailing from Dakar to Casablanca (battleship got later ordered to return to Dakar), and then continued in Dakar in watching the French ships, together with the australian cruiser HMAS Australia and the carrier HMS Eagle.

08.07.1940 HMS Dorsetshire and HMAS Australia cover the attack on the French battleship Richelieu in Dakar, when a motor boat from HMS Eagle dropped 4 depth charges on the side of the French ship that damaged her rudder and screws. The attack, however, was not successful, because the charges due to the shallow depth didn't go off.
After the attack took HMS Dorsetshire with HMS Hermes patrol position in the Atlantic.
10.06.1940 aircraft carrier damaged after a collision with auxiliary cruiser Corfu and sailed to make repairs to Freetown.

15.06.1940 heavy cruiser unsuccessfully searched for the German le corsaire 500 nautical miles west of cape verde.
24.06.1940 stopped by HMS Dorsetshire Portuguese ship and captured the Italian consul, flying aboard her as a passenger. The consul was 29.06.1940 discontinued in Freetown, where also the cruiser refueled.
After refueling the HMS Dorsetshire sailed to search for the German le corsaire, whose presence was announced. The search was unsuccessful and the HMS Dorsetshie spent the next months the protection of the trade routes in the south Atlantic and the Indian ocean.

17.11.1940 was a cruiser designed to support ground operations in Somalia, therefore, 18.11.1940 picked off port Zante in Italian Somalia. Fired more than 200 shells were used torpedoes against the waterfront. After the completion of the task, the cruiser sailed to Durban.
HMS Dorsetshire was during this cruise spotted from the deck of the German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis, who was about to ambush trade ships in this area. The germans to escape away and from the planned operation abandoned.

From 04.12.1940 heavy cruiser attended another routine maintenance in Simons Town, and upon its completion he sailed to Freetown.
18.12.1940 he sailed the HMS Dorsetshire, along with the light cruiser HMS Neptune on the search action, after the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer. After the unsuccessful search was a cruiser once again assigned to protect convoys in the south Atlantic.

21.01.1941 held HMS Dorsetshire vichystickou merchant ship S/S Mendoza. The French garrison was placed in the cruiser, a merchant ship occupied the allocated crew of the cruiser and S/S Mendoza sailed to Freetown. The cruiser continued patrols until 29.01.1940, where in Freetown on board a part of his crew, but the next moment, 2. February, once again set off to sea.

HMS Dorsetshire spent the next month escorted convoys in the south Atlantic and the Indian ocean. 5. march 1941 cruiser met an unfortunate event, when over Seychellami crashed the on-board seaplane Walrus and killed four crew members and one civilian.

6. may 1941 then HMS Dorsetshire rescued 35 survivors from the merchant ship With/S Oakdene that same day got torpedoed by a submarine in the south Atlantic. Cruiser unfortunates safely dropped off two days later in Freetown.

12. may 1941 HMS Dorsetshire joined the convoy SL747, floating in the to England.
After 14 days of sailing, 26.05.1941, got a cruiser to a report from the exploratory Catalina about the re-discovery of the German battleship Bismarck. Cruiser commander, captain Benjamin Martin, decided to leave the convoy under the protection of the auxiliary cruiser HMS Bulolo and add to hunt ships of the Royal Navy on the German ship.
27.may to the position of the injured party Bismarck led destroyer HMS Cossack and HMS Dorsetshire joined the battleships HMS King George V. and HMS Rodney, which were already in place. A heavy cruiser, the first was killing off the enemy from the works and at the end of the battle was ordered destroyed German ship to sink with torpedoes.
HMS Dorsetshire then hit three torpedoes, two of which the German ship hit. British sources long reported these interventions as a definite reason for the sinking of the Bismarck, however, at present it is almost certain that the ship sunk by their own crew.
HMS Dorsetshire then fished out of the sea 85 depleted and impoverished German sailors (destroyer HMS Maori another 25), but then one of the guard of the sailors spotted in the waves of the subject, which he regarded as the periscope of the submarine and raised the alarm. Captain Martin wasn't going to risk my ship and heavy cruiser and destroyer left the full speed the battlefield, leaving in waves of about 300 survivors (it was later found that in the vicinity of Bismarck with most likely no submarine was not).
However, the british crew has demonstrated its moral quality and take care of rescued with the greatest possible care. Is a well-known story, when one of the sailors of the cruiser, seventeen-year-old Joe Brooks, jumped into the water to help the eye German sailor climb on board. A ration of food for the crew was cut in half, so they could be fed also prisoners.
29. may 1941 was with full military honors buried in the waves of one of the German sailors, who succumbed to his injuries.
30. may forward cruiser survivors of a military escort in South Shields at the mouth of the river Tyne and drifted out into the yard to make the necessary repairs and upgrading. During the work was, inter alia, installed a radar for searching airborne targets.

Survivors from the Bismarck are hauling aboard HMS Dorsetshire

HMS Dorsetshire left the shipyard in the first half of 1941 and after passing the necessary tests, he sailed to Scapa Flow, where it was included in the 1. squadrons of cruisers.
8. August 1941 he replaced the previous commander of the ship, the captain of the of Benjamin Martin, captain Augustus Agar, holder Victoria Cross for action against bolševickému Russia in the year 1919. The next day visited the fleet in Scapa Flow, the English king George VI.

15. August 1941 sailed HMS Dorsethire to the Clyde to join convoy WS10X as a escort. The following month the cruiser to protect convoys and trade routes in the south Atlantic and the Indian ocean.

From 11. November 1941 looking HMS Dorsetshire, heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire, light cruiser HMS Dunedin and the auxiliary cruiser HMS Carnarvon Castle after the German supply ship Python. This ship had the task to operate a German u-boat and auxiliary cruiser Atlantis and of her presence and the movements of the ship to the Admiralty learned thanks to breaking the code of a captured Enigma cipher machine.
22. November sank the cruiser HMS Devonshire auxiliary cruiser Atlantis and after a long search was HMS Dorsetshire intercepted 1. December 1941 i Python, with u-boats UA and U-68 in the hips. Heavy cruiser fired two warning salvos, after which the own crew of the Python destroyed. Submarines manage to escape and one of them, UA, the cruiser unsuccessfully attacked.
Because of the acute danger from the German submarines, however, were this time the survivors left to their own fate and HMS Dorsetshire sailed to Freetown (the survivors were later saved by a German submarine).

In December 1941 escorted HMS Dorsetshire convoy WS12X to Bombay, and the beginning of January 1942 another convoy from Durban to India.
In February 1942 was a cruiser designed for the protection of convoys to Singapore, which had encircled the town to take as many civilians as possible. 07.02.1942 therefore, he sailed from Bombay to Colombo and 10. February left Ceylon to take over the protection of the first of the convoys. All the rest of the February then protect the convoy routes in the north Indian ocean.

2. march 1942 HMS Dorsetshire supported the military operation, which cover the evacuation of military personnel from Burma. On the cruiser in Colombo went 100 members of the Royal Marines, which subsequently dropped off in Burma, with a mission to disrupt the procedure of the Japanese and enable the main forces to evacuate Rangoon. Subsequently, the ship escorted the last convoy, carrying the evacuated units from Rangoon.

the Destruction of the cruiser

27. march he sailed the cruiser to Colombo to undergo the necessary repairs and maintenance (mainly engines and boilers), planned to be also strengthening the anti-aircraft armament.
Already 31. march however, the work was interrupted, and the cruiser in the shortest possible time to set sail on the sea. The reason was the reports about the presence of japanese surface ships in the Indian ocean.
The british assumed that the admiral Nagumo (commander of the japanese union) attack on the Colombo April 1942, , therefore the south from Ceylon have crossed the so-called Force "And" under the command of admiral of James Somerville (battleship HMS Warspite, carriers HMS Indomitable and HMS Formidable, cruisers HMS Enterprise and HMS Emerald and 6 destroyers) HMS Dorsetshire was to this union join together with the heavy cruiser HMS Cornwall.

The japanese plan, however, was a different and Nagumo did not appear there, where the British assumed.
2. in April 1942, , HMS Dorsetshire HMS Cornwall revoked and determined to return to Ceylon to continue with the repairs.
4. in April 1942, re-ran the maintenance of the drive device of the cruiser, anti-aircraft guns, however, was not available at the moment and should arrive in two days.
On the same day in the afternoon, however, was the japanese association discovered by reconnaissance aircraft Catalina about 360 miles southeast of Ceylon, and by order of the admiral Somerville should HMS Dorsetshire and HMS Cornwall immediately sail from Colombo and connect again to Force "And" in the afternoon 5. in April 1942, .
After six hours of receipt of order, around the 22 h, both cruisers sail on the sea and the maximum speed went to the meeting place with the british union, which was established southwest of Colombo.
Unfortunately, neither admiral Somerville, nor the commanders of the cruisers had no idea that the radius of action of the japanese on-board aircraft is much greater, than assumed. The route of the HMS Dorsetshire and HMS Cornwall led through the area, which could aeroplanes of the Nagumova union without the hassle to cover the.

5. in April 1942, at dawn both cruisers received the message from Colombo, the Japanese are now only 120 miles south of Ceylon. The commanders of the two cruisers, without additional orders and information (e.g. about the disposal of the radio station in Ceylon or on the regulation of radio peace), decided to continue to cruise the main direction, and achieved as soon as possible to the main union.
In 11:30 both sailing cruisers saw on-board a floatplane from the heavy cruiser Tone south-southeast of Ceylon. Both ships still continued to proceed to the designated rendezvous point, remote now about 90 miles.
Soon they were attacked by several dozen dive bombers from aircraft carriers, Akagi, Zuikaku, Shokaku, Hirjú and Sórjú, under the command of lieutenant commander Egusy, originally intended as the second wave of the air raid on Colombo.
Cruisers without air cover had no chance, and their commanders were well aware of this. HMS Dorsetshire was hit by 10 bombs and in the 13:48 sank (during the 8 minutes since the first intervention) stern first, about 370 nautical miles south of Ceylon (0154'N, 7745'E), when the killing of 234 members of his crew.
HMS Cornwall shared the sad fate of HMS Dorsetshire about 12 minutes later.

HMS Dorsetshire (rear) and HMS Cornwal during the air attack 5.April 1942 (photographed from the attacking japanese aircraft)

the Last moments of HMS Dorsetshire (photographed from the attacking japanese aircraft)

1122 survivors of the two cruisers appeared in the afternoon 6. in April 1942, in the water reconnaissance aircraft Fairey Swordfish. 32 hours after the destruction of their boat is saved the cruiser HMS Enterprise and the destroyers HMS Paladin and HMS Panther. Among the survivors was the commander of HMS Dorsetshire, captain of the Agar.

the Survivors of HMS Dorsetshire are being pulled aboard the destroyer HMS Paladin

The wreck of the HMS Dorsetshire still rests on the bottom of the Indian ocean, the character of the cruiser is now located on the wall of the dry dock Selborne in south africa, Simons Town.

HUBACEK, Milos: Sea in flames. 6.edition. Prague: publishing house Paseka, 2001, 288s + 32s. ISBN 80-7185-350-X
HUBACEK, Milos: the Pacific in flames. 3.edition. Prague: Mladá Fronta, 2003, 440s + 32s. ISBN 80-204-0642-5
HRBEK, Ivan HRBEK, Jaroslav: Volleys over the waves: From shots at the Westerplatte after the destruction of the Bismarck. 1.edition. Prague: Our army 1993. 336s. ISBN 80-206-0319-0
HRBEK, Ivan HRBEK, Jaroslav: Bloody oceans: From the plan Barbarossa for the battle of Midway. 1.edition. Prague: Our army 1994. 295s. ISBN 80-206-0391-3
KENNEDY, Ludovic: Persecution of the battleship Bismarck. 2.edition. Prague: Mladá fronta, 1987. 256s. 605/22/85.6, from the English orriginálu The Chase and Sinking of the Bismarck, William Collins & Sons, London 1974, translated by Robert Miller
CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40) - HMS Dorsetshire před válkou

HMS Dorsetshire před válkou
CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40) - HMS Dorsetshire v suchém doku v Singapuru

HMS Dorsetshire v suchém doku v Singapuru
CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40) - Trosečníci z Bismarcka jsou vytahování na palubu HMS Dorsetshire

Trosečníci z Bismarcka jsou vytahování na palubu HMS Dorsetshire
CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40) - HMS Dorsetshire (vzadu) a HMS Cornwal během leteckého útoku 5.dubna 1942 (fotografováno z útočícího japonského letounu)

HMS Dorsetshire (vzadu) a HMS Cornwal během leteckého útoku 5.dubna 1942 (fotografováno z útočícího japonského letounu)
CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40) - Poslední chvíle HMS Dorsetshire (fotografováno z útočícího japonského letounu)

Poslední chvíle HMS Dorsetshire (fotografováno z útočícího japonského letounu)
CA - HMS Dorsetshire (40) - Trosečníci z HMS Dorsetshire jsou vytahováni na palubu torpédoborce HMS Paladin

Trosečníci z HMS Dorsetshire jsou vytahováni na palubu torpédoborce HMS Paladin
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