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>>Cateau Cambrésis

In 1971, he wrote to mr. Měřička, this treatise about the napoleonic wars, which he dedicated to his friend Charles prince Schwarzenberg.

I would after such a long time the only, copy this article as a tribute to mr. Měřičkovi and Karel prince of Schwarzenberg.


C a T E And U   C And M B R a S S I S


Revolutionary France said on 20. April 1792 war on Austria and Prussia, and gave the order for their armies to invade Belgium, because it considered that the imperial army, in the strength of the approximately 40 000 men, is not ready. Imperial soldiers in Belgium was commanded by the then governor, prince Albert, the duke těšínský, the husband of the eldest daughter of the empress Maria Theresa, arcikněžny Maria Kristina.

To the north have penetrated two of the French army. North, in the strength of the approximately 35 000 men, the second in the strength of the 28 000 men under the marquis Lafayttemthrough Sedan on Givet. Both the army however ran into stiff resistance, and withdrew in considerable disarray, back to France. In the meantime, but has collected a numerically strong army (82 000 men - from 42 000 Prušáků, 20 000 Austrians, 6000 guests to use and 14 000 French expatriates) under the Charles, duke of Brunšvíku, in area Luxemburg and barging on French territory. These operations militarily supported the duke těšínský with its 40 000 troops. On the left flank, followed the imperial forces under the prince of Hohenlohe-Kirchbergem in the direction of the on Saarlouis and Diedenhoven.

The prussians penetrated on 20. August to Lingey with the new commander in chief of the French general Dumouriezem. the Action of Valmy forced the Prussians to retreat, and even the imperial forces under Clerfaytem de la Croix retreated to Belgium. At the end of November, they were French emigrants in the area Lüttich disbanded. Yet the duke těšínský on 8. of September drove the French out of the camp Maulde and surrounded Lille.

After the departure of the Prussians from France, followed the French under Kellermannem to Germany, and general Dumouriez himself in the head 52 000 men, stormed into Belgium and defeated the Alberta day 6. November in the battle of Jemappes. Subsequently occupied the whole of Belgium. The imperial troops under the command of Clerfaytovým went to the Netherlands, while Custine with the French and rhine army occupied Špýr and Frankfurt am Main. The year 1792 is finished for the revolutionary army victorious, even if the rhine army permanently in the conquered cities lost it and was hessian pushed out.

In 1793 with Austria and Prussia joined together in the protifrancouzské coalition of England, Holland and Sardinia. On the south it joined Spain and within France there was an uprising in the Vendée. The French in February, invaded the Netherlands and occupied the Maastricht, but already 1. march 42 000 Austrians under the prince Josiasem Koburgským crossed Roeru, freed Maastricht of tongs and beat Dumourieze 18. march in the battle of Neerwinden and again 22. march in the battle of Löwen. After the defeat of the French army withdrew back to France, and general Dumouriez had defected to the enemy. In these battles distinguished himself, and for the first time drew attention to himself brother of the roman emperor, the archduke prince Charles Louis, then as a major general, received on 1. April 1793 the grand cross of the the Military order of Maria Theresa.

Josias Koburský, however, did not progress rapidly in French, but waited for the English and the Dutch auxiliary troops, and so eventually, when the English decided for the action in Dünkirchenu, had to be content with the conquest of the fortress of Conde on 13. July with a cast of Valenciennes. The French then under the Houchardem defeated the English at Hondschoote 6. September, with them caused great losses. The imperial forces try to oblehnout Maubeuge, but gave up this attempt, when the battle of Wattignies 15.-16. October ended up against the Jourdanovi tie.

Yet Germany fought the duke of Brunswick quite successfully in the battle of Pirmasenu 14. September, where he defeated the French rhine army, prevailed again in November at Kaiserslautern, but he also was forced in Landau quit your procedure, when the austrian auxiliary corps under the Wurmserem was beaten by general Boy u Weissenburgu in December of the same year. Both coalition armies withdrew to the right rhenish shore, while the French troops under Pichegruim attracted to Mainz.

20. August 1793 in France, declared a general conscription and carried out a big reorganization of the army. The old system of the French regiments was abolished and on their place have embraced the new tactical unit composed of three battalions of infantry and four driving eskadronami in the form of půlbrigád. In this way, stood up to France at the end of the year 1793 to the field 730 000 men. At the beginning of the year 1794, stood on the north army Pichegruova in the strength of the 270 000 men against the 140 000 men of the united troops of the austro-English-Dutch. Austria built in the Netherlands and on the Rhine to fight a total of 200 000 soldiers Prussia with English-Dutch by 62 to 400 men, England herself another 26 000, Hannover 18 000, Hessen 12 000 and Brunswick 2000 soldiers.

Emperor Francis II. appear in person at the beginning of April 1794 in Belgium, to present struggles. Actions were initiated to march on the French fort Landrecies. The main focus of the fighting but was transferred to the space Cateau Cambrésis, where imperial 17. April won, and they so crowded the fort on 30. April surrendered. U Tourcoingu while sustained the allies on 18. may significant losses, but these grips 22. may u Toutnay. So far, Jourdan advanced with his army from the area of the Moselle river in the direction of the river Sambru and won 26. June over the Josiasem Koburgským u Fleurusu. At this moment the French had to the offensive, occupied the Brugge and Mons, in October the whole of Belgium, with Cologne, Bonn and Koblenzem.

Day 4. November conquered the French Maastricht. In the meantime, the general Pichegru, which progressed to the north and fought with the English corps which he commanded the English the duke Frederick of York and Albany, conquered the Crevecoeur, Herzogenbusch and Venlo.

Day 3. November has seized Nimwegenu and occupied the whole country up to the river Waalu. The duke of York relinquished command and handed them over to hannoverskému general Walmodenovi. Pichegru, who was ill, was relieved by the new French general Moreau, who launched another offensive and conquered gradually to 10. January 1795 the whole of Holland. The consequence of these, for the coalition of unfortunate events, is the conclusion of the basel peace on 5. April 1795 between Prussia and France. Because then Prussia was the main partner of the war against France, is over this first period of the coalition wars, without managed through enormous sacrifice, to impose against revolutionary France, a military decision and thus its defeat. On the contrary, the Dutch positions were lost.


We will return now back to the events of April of the year 1794, when the battles moved to the area of Landrecies, and entered into history under the name of the battle of Cateau Cambrésis. As I have already said, arrived on the belgian battlefield day 9. April 1794 by the emperor himself Francis II. After a visit to Brussels with the emperor ended up on 14. April in the army in Valenciennes, then in the immediate vicinity of the siege of the fortress of Landrecies. The imperial forces numbered approximately in this area of 67 000 men. The whole was commanded by Josias Kobugský, an auxiliary corps of the English general, the duke of York, the Dutch prince of Orange potomní the Dutch king William I.

Own battle unfolded between 17. to 26. April. 17. April won the imperial in Cateau Cambrésis and at Landrecies. 20. April captured the French camp on the left bank of the Sambry and thus have completed the closure of the fortress of Landrecies. 21. April, the emperor went to Brussels, to the evening of day 23. April was again with the archduke Karl Ludwig in the main tent Josiase Koburgského in Catillonu. At that time English positions were located on the right wing of Cateau Cambrésis to the river Sambře.

In the middle of the Priches was commanded by the count Kinskýon the left wing in space Maroilles field-master-at-arms Alvinczi.

24. April 1794 in one of the smaller events, was the emperor of the Francis II. personally witnessed a unique riding attacks, which they did with great courage and bravado members 15. English švališerského regiment (Cheveaux-legres). It happened near the village of Villiers en message to couch. The English under the command of lieutenant colonel 15. švališerského regiment William Ayletta, they attacked the numerically superior enemy and the wild whoop is rozšavlovali. This whole battle scene didn't last longer than 10 minutes, yet it was one of the best-made cavalry attacks. Emperor Francis II. he was so excited and pleased that he established for 8 of the English cavalry officers, who are so much in action at Villiers en message to couch distinguished, extraordinary honours:

GOLD COMMEMORATIVE MEDAL

The medal is minted from gold, and represents on the obverse from the right side of the displayed bust of emperor Francis II. looking to the left edge of the medal (heraldicky). Around the bust is the inscription :

IMP. CAES. FRANCISVS II. P.F. AVG.F.

On the side of the medal is a four-line inscription :

FORTI BRITANNO / IN EXERCITV FOED / AD CAMERACVM / XXIV. APR. MDCCXCIV.

In translation :

The emperor Francis II. Pious, Happy, Noble / Brave Britu - Military allies - to a Friend - 24. April 1794

At the bottom of the medals are placed two crossed sprigs of laurel. Ear circular, naletované, the chain of double gold circular articles, to each other united. The medal has a diameter of 60 mm, and weighs even with the chain 140 g., i.e. 40 ducats. Decorated officers had the right to wear in his buttonhole the ribbon of the Military order of Maria Theresa. A total of was awarded 8 british officers :

l. lieutenant Colonel Wiliiam Aylett
2. Major Robert Pochlington (whose medal was in the collection of prof. Fattovitsche)
3. Major Edward Ryan
4. Major Cranby Calcrafr
5. Major William Kier (or Keir)
6. Major Edward Butler
7. Major Robert Wilson
8. Captain Charles Blount

All were members of the british royal 15. švališerského regiment. Cheveaux-legers were light cavalry, originally French, from the time of king Henry III. and this has always been formed by one švadronou included to an ordinary cavalry regiment.

Note:

Personal honours one of the eight English officers, major Robert Pochlingtona. A rare medal from the year 1794 to the gold chain and the original knight's cross of the Military order of Maria Theresa from the year 1800. Both honors are (were ?) in a unique collection of dr. Giovanni Fattoviche in Venice. The picture is taken from a publication of mr. Měřičky.


Cateau Cambrésis, the main city of the canton of Cambrésisi in arondissementu Cambrai, the French department of the Nord, known from the battle on 17.-26. April 1794, where troops Josiase Koburgského fought against the French..
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CATEAU CAMBRÉSIS


II. část


Dne 31. prosince 1799 byli velkokřížem Vojenského řádu Marie Terezie vyznamenání první cizinci. Stalo se tak při šedesáté druhé řádové promoci a vysoké vyznamenání obdržel Konstantin Pavlovič, ruský velkokníže a bratr ruského cara Alexandra I. a jako druhý, ruský generalissimus hrabě Alexandr Suvorov-Rymnický, kníže Italský. Téhož dne obdržel komturský kříž řádu ruský generálporučík kníže Petr Bagration a rytířský kříž 7 ruských důstojníků:


Generálporučík kníže Alexej Gorčakov


Generálmajor kníže Ondřej Gorčakov


Carův pobočník a generálmajor hrabě Suvorov-Rymnický (syn knížete Suvorova)


Pobočník Suvorovův, plukovník Kušnikov


Pobočník a major Řehoř svobodný pán Rosen


Pobočník, štábní kapitán Stavrakov


Pobočník, hrabě major Romanzov


Když se o vyznamenání ruských důstojníků dozvěděli Angličané, vyznamenaní císařskou zlatou medailí za akci u Villiers en Couche požádali kapitulu Vojenského řádu Marie Terezie o přiznání práva, nosit také tento vysoký vojenský řád. Císař vyhověl jejich žádosti a tak dne 7. listopadu 1800, v šedesáté čtvrté řádové promoci, obdrželo všech 8 výše jmenovaných britských důstojníků rytířský kříž Vojenského řádu Marie Terezie. V roce 1815 pak obdržel, tehdy již generál, Sir Robert Wilson komturský kříž téhož řádu.



Poznámka:


Konstantin Pavlovič, syn cara Pavla I. a carevny Marie Feodorovny, mladší bratr cara Alexandra I. Narozen 08.05.1779, zemřel 27.06.1831 ve Vitebsku.


Alexandr Vasilijevič Suvorov-Rymnický, kníže Italský, polní maršál a generalissimus carských armád. Narozen 25.11.1729 ve Finsku, upozornil na sebe při likvidaci vzpoury Jemejlana Pugačeva, dále v roce 1788 v bitvě u Očakova a v těžkých bojích u pevnosti Ismailu v roce 1790. V roce 1799 řídil slavné tažení do Itálie. Zemřel 18.05.1800 v Petrohradě.


Petr Bagration, kníže gruzínského původu, ruský generál pěchoty. Narozen v roce 1765, účastnil se tažení v roce 1799 do Itálie pod Suvorovem, v roce 1805 bojoval v bitvě u Slavkova a Hollabrunnu, v roce 1807 v bitvě u Pruského Jílového, Heisbergu a Friedlandu, v roce 1812 hrál významnou roli v tažení Napoleona do Ruska. Byl poražen císařem dne 23.07.1812 v bitvě u Nobilova, bojoval v bitvě u Smolenska a zahynul dne 7. října 1812 po bitvě u Borodina. Byl fanatickým odpůrcem všeho německého, vystupoval proti ruskému generálu Barclay de Tolly.


Alexandr Alexandrovič Suvorov, kníže, ruský generál-major, generální pobočník cara Pavla I., syn knížete Suvorova.


Řehoř, svobodný pán Rosen, major a pobočník generalissima Suvorova.



Část II.
>>Cateau Cambrésis - Oridinál (prodejní katalog z USA)

Oridinál (prodejní katalog z USA)
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Cateau-Cambresis-t87320#323652Version : 0
Part III.

Karel prince of Schwarzenberg

One more memorable event, however, bound to time the same section, as she was riding attack in Villiers en message to couch. At the end of march, 1794 gathered on the Dutch front, a strong French army under the command of then třiatřicetiletého general Pichegru. He hit 29. march with 30 000 men to set aside the austrian positions, led by generals Kray and Werneckem in the area near Cateau Cambrésis. Among the imperial forces was found to kyrysnický regiment Zezschwitský, which was commanded by a young colonel Karel prince of Schwarzenberg, potomní grand marshal and the victor over Napoleon at the battle of Leipzig. Now this first military action has ended for the imperial victorious and just Schwarzenbergův regiment conquered on the battlefield of his first laurels. 17. April added, as already once said, on the battlefield the emperor, just then, was initiated the siege of the fortress of Landrecies .

Before císařovýma eyes attacked the imperial austrian troops to the heights in the Guise and Bohainu and Zezschwitští kyrysníci were among the partitions, which strengthen the british forces, led by lieutenant general Erskin and dobývaly together the heights in Prémontu and Serainu. 24. April 1794, under the command of field podmaršálka Otto, was made famous reconnaissance in Montrecourtu, in which the british squads actually particular stand out, and as I already wrote, before the eyes of the emperor Francis II., but even with the participation of Karl Philip prince Schwarzenberg and his cuirassiers, were these sections of the extraordinary military success.

The most famous of the day, however, the young prince was still waiting for. Jim was 26. April 1794. Then made a general Pichegru with 100 000 men relief action at Landrecies, and that the four columns between Cateau Cambrésis and Beaumont. To the most difficult, but also the most famous fights took place on the right wing, where were collected the british troops under the duke of York and Albany, where also were the austrian corps of otto's. The englishmen's ignorance of the ratio did not recover perfectly guard duty, so the French general Chapuis, together with 26 000 men from the road of Cambrai in Cateau Cambrésis in a dense fog, broke through and pushed forward detachments of the allies. Before she could, the main army to build effective resistance, the allies were forced out of Canry, Beaumont, Inchy, Bertha and Mauroye.

When the fog lifted, recognize both commanders and York and Otto povážlivost the whole situation and accepted at the same time a report from the adjutant rytmistra Méczeryho about the strength of the enemies. Then cried the duke: "Just a quick cavalry strike can save us!" Otto noticed that the advancing French imperfectly secured the left wing and called to himself the colonel prince Schwarzenberg. Yet Méczery gathered Zezschwitský kyrysnický regiment, English Blue guard (today the royal equestrian guard), the third guard dragoons and the other 8 eskadron under the command of brigadier Manseta and Vyceho in the valley between the Incky and Bethencourtem.

Colonel prince Schwarzenberg met with the role, i.e. with the attack of an uncovered wing of the advancing infantry columns in the strength of 24 000 men, accompanied by 2000 horsemen, and received orders to subordinate to your command and 12 English eskadron. Mécrery yet made a fluctuating crew Of´Donellových volunteers to re-occupy the fences and ditches in Inchy and to protect and ensure the left wing of the attacking drive .

Prince Schwarzenberg gathered the slider, set the advance and in the moment when the French sections started march on line Andencourt-Troisville and respect your wings on this place, [and] put the main emphasis on the heights at the Andencourtu, where were gathered the cavalry, begins with the famous attack.

Riders penetrated at a gallop úžlabinou east Bethencouirtu up on high, here turned and squads controlled Méczerym passed in the attack. The French, they shift to the left, but it launches Schwarzenberg their second attack in the flank of the French, and finally throws itself with the third division and advance directly into the side of the high-set artillery. The gunners while they tried to shoot grenades and brushes, than in vain.

The French cavalry is rozražena, turned to escape, as well as artillery and imperial forces along with the English themselves on the infantry. Occurs the cut, the infantry at several places stops and tries to resist, but this is the hard drive broken and soon echoed on the battlefield, "Save who you can".


On the battlefield in such a short time have left 4000 dead. It was captured at 500 soldiers, ukořistěno 32 works, 44 ammunition and 22 infantry vehicles. General Chapuis was captured. The imperial forces and the allies lost 15 officers and 384 men. The same day, he arrived at the battlefield the emperor Francis II. and right on the spot bestowed to the prince Karl Philip Schwarzenberg knight's cross of the Military order of Maria Theresa. 25. in may 1794 it was this high accolade officially confirmed by the order of magnitude kapitulou. Next to Schwarzenberg received the knight's cross of the still podmaršálek Otto and major-general Henry count of Bellegarde.

Riding the battle of Cateau Cambrésis are among the finest equestrian businesses of the coalition wars. Registered indelibly in their history as the once famous equestrian attacks from Cologne, Rossbachu, Zerndorfu, Leuthenu, Kunnersdorfu and as the later famous attacks from Aspern and Borodino.

And perhaps for the record befits noted that in the year 1814 received the order of Maria Theresa, next to the already mentioned general Sir Robert Wilson, also a general and a winner in the battle of Waterloo, Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington, which received the grand cross of the order, as well as us well-known Frederick duke of York and Albany. But it was already the French troops led by the famous Korsičanem defeated and a period of terrible wars ended. The coalition war began in the Netherlands and their end took place somewhat north of Cateau Cambrésisi, but again on the belgian battlefields. There put paid to it the last battle at Bell Alliance, Saint Jean Paul - the battle of Waterloo.



Literature:
Ivan Koláčný : Orders and decorations of the Habsburg monarchy
Václav Měřička : Cateau Cambrésis (private press, Prague 1958)
Václav Měřička : Austrian medal of merit and a commemorative
Václav Měřička : Orden und Ehrenzeichen der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchy
Roman Freiherr von Procházka : Österreisches Ordenshandbuch
J. Lukes :Militärischer Maria Terezien Orden (Vienna, 1890)
Lawrence Gordon : Britisch Tanks (Aldershot 1950-1962).
>>Cateau Cambrésis - Zámek Orlík (osobní řád, hvězdy a stuha MMTO)

Zámek Orlík (osobní řád, hvězdy a stuha MMTO)
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Part IV.

Charles Philip, prince Schwarzenberg, the field marshal of the imperial armies was born 15.04.1771 in Vienna. He was destined for military service, and already in 1788 to enter into the imperial army.

In 1789 the attention of the cool courage in the Turkish war, his first military action was the clash at Šabace. He fought under the Laudonem u Belgrade side by side the Polish prince Joseph Poniatovského, potomního a marshal of france.

After winning the battle of Würzburg is appointed to the rank of major general, and in the year 1800 is already podmaršálkem. In 1805 in command of the division. His supervisor is, however, general Mack. Charles escaped after the defeat at Ulm on 21.10.1805 of the encirclement and got to the Cheb

An ancient rod, penetrating intelligence all of it determined in advance for other functions. In 1808 it is the austrian ambassador in st. Petersburg, but already in 1809 as a general drive participate in the battle of Wagram. After the conclusion of the "vienna peace" becomes ambassador in Paris. Personally participated in the mediation and the conclusion of the marriage of the emperor Napoleon with Maria Luisa .

In 1812 he was entrusted with the command of the grand army and the austrian auxiliary corps, which had more than 30 000 men. In November 1812, he is promoted to the rank of field marshal. After an unsuccessful campaign of the French in Russia is once again from April 1813 in Paris. Here was his effort to mediate peace negotiations between Russia and France awarded and Napoleon.

In the liberation wars in the years 1813/1814 becomes the supreme commander of the allied armies, but in the days of 26.-27. August 1813 in the battle of Dresden defeated, that subsequently achieved a great and decisive victory at the battle of Leipzig (15.-19. October 1813). He commanded the allied armies with whom it enters as a winner in march 1814 to Paris.

After completing and winning the war becomes the president of the court war council, but died young, on 15.10. 1820 in Leipzig.

Marshal the prince of Schwarzenberg was a second son son (therefore, even destined for military service) of the duke, the prince Jan Nepomuk of Schwarzenberg and the founder of the orlik line of the schwarzenberg family. The prince was the bearer of the most illustrious and the most noble orders of his time:

l. Order of the Golden fleece
2. Velkokříže of the Military order of Maria Theresa
3. Velkokříže of the order of St. Stephen
4. The golden military cross of the year 1813/1814
5. Velkokříže the prussian order of the Black eagle
6. Velkokříže of the Russian order of St. Andrew
7. Velkokříže of the Russian order of Saint George ( 1. degree)
8. Velkokříže of the Russian order of St. Alexander Nevsky
9. Velkokříže of the Danish order of the Elephant
10. Velkokříže the british order of the Spa
11. Velkokříže of the Swedish order of the Sword
12. Velkokříže of the sicilian order of St Ferdinand and of merit
13. Velkokříže of the saxon order of Routové crown
14. Velkokříže of the French order of the legion of Honor
15. Velkokříže of the French order of the Holy spirit
16. Velkokříže of savoy the order of the Annunciation

Outside of these exclusive orders in the highest grades and classes marshal owned a number of other orders and decorations in the lower order stages. Not everything has been preserved, but a lot of the order's jewels is stored on the Orlík castle, which, fortunately, is "government of the people" went back to the family that rightfully belong to.

Note:

The battle of Leipzig in day 15.-19. October 1813 was the largest and most distinguished victory, "the Czech army" under the command of the Czech nobleman of prince Schwarzenberg. Another Czech soldier who deserves reminder is the later marshal Radecký.

Literature is mentioned in the introductory part.

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Archive : Faleristics.
>>Cateau Cambrésis - Osobní šavle knížete, je uložená na Orlíku.

Osobní šavle knížete, je uložená na Orlíku.
>>Cateau Cambrésis - Vývod Karla I. knížete Schwarzenberga ze 16 předků s rodovými znaky příslušných osob.

Vývod Karla I. knížete Schwarzenberga ze 16 předků s rodovými znaky příslušných osob.
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..pripájam foto medaile (s povolením majiteľa), ktorá sa nachádza v súkromnej zbierke...
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Náše faleristické stránky jsou snad jediné, které především zásluhou kolegy Ivera, získali od majitele vzácnou medaili Za statečnost, která byla určená jen pro anglické důstojníky originální obrázek. Osobně se domnívám, že za tento počín by si kolega Ivera zasloužil ocenění v podobě medaile, kterou by mohl velitel skupiny polní maršál Robot udělit .

Vzpomínám si, že pan Měřička, který byl na přátelské návštěvě u profesora Fattoviče tuto medaili jako velkou vzácnost držel v ruce a nám posluchačům jeho přednášky vykládal o všech zajímavostech, které tuto medaili doprovázejí .

Kolegu Ivera jsem dlouho prosil o kontaktk na majitele, který si nepřeje být jmenován, a on nám vyhověl, pomohl s tím, že naše faleristické uspořádání se mu líbí. Je to tedy i pochvala celému našemu servu www.valka.cz.

Medaile je určená jen pro naše stránky a je zakázáno její kopírování.
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