Mannock, Edward Corringham

Mannock Mannock
Given Name:
Edward Corringham Edward Corringham
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Edward Corringham Mannock
Fotografie či obrázek:
Photograph or Picture:
major Major
Akademický či vědecký titul:
Academic or Scientific Title:
- -
Šlechtický titul:
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- -
Datum, místo narození:
Date and Place of Birth:
24.05.1887 Brighton /
24.05.1887 Brighton /
Datum, místo úmrtí:
Date and Place of Decease:
26.07.1918 Calonne-sur-la-Lys /
26.07.1918 Calonne-sur-la-Lys /
Nejvýznamnější funkce:
(maximálně tři)
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
- velitel 85. perute RAF - Commander of the No. 85 Squadron RAF
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(maximálně tři)
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
- stíhací eso (61 vítězství)
- nositel Viktoriina kříže
- padl v boji
- Fighter Ace (61 Claims)
- Recipient of Victoria Cross
- Killed in Action
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Mannock Mannock
Given Name:
Edward Corringham Edward Corringham
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Mannock, Edward Corringham
Všeobecné vzdělání:
General Education:
Vojenské vzdělání:
Military Education:
Důstojnické hodnosti:
Officer Ranks:
DD.MM.1913 seržant
DD.MM.RRRR hlavní seržant
01.04.1916 poručík
08.05.1917 nadporučík
22.07.1917 kapitán
01.04.1918 kapitán (RAF)
21.06.1918 major
DD.MM.1913 Sergeant
DD.MM.RRRR sergeant-major
01.04.1916 Second Lieutenant
08.05.1917 Lieutenant
22.07.1917 Captain
01.04.1918 Captain (RAF)
21.06.1918 Major
Průběh vojenské služby:
Military Career:
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URL : Version : 0

Edward "Mick" Mannock


With squinting teary eyes, he squinted hard into the sun's disk. For four years now, British pilots have taken off from the front of this terrible war, which historians will once give the nickname "World War 1". Many things have happened in those four years, but one thing has not changed - the position of the sun. Of all the patrols, the most dangerous was this, the "Dawn patrol" - a patrol at dawn, as the pilots had to fly against the rising bright sun, from which a pack of fokkers or albatrosses could fly at any time.

Suddenly there is the roar of a machine gun and the disgusting clattering sound of bullets piercing his S.E. 5a! With his heart beating in his throat, he desperately watches a strip of smoke penetrate the cockpit. His nostrils are filled with the smell of escaping gasoline and horror turns into panic. Then a flame will blow! With a whimper of terror and pain, he feels the skin on his knees and thighs tighten and turn into cracking blisters. He descends steeply to land as soon as possible, but his fiery tongue has already bitten into his crotch, the most sensitive part of his male body. He roars and beats his face at the end of a Vickers machine gun, but a glowing stream flies into his screaming mouth, burns his vocal cords, enters his lungs, and the heartbreaking scream turns into a hiss, no more lashes or eyelids. With a hand from which palms of charred skin fall off, he desperately tries to press the barrel of the revolver to sleep. WOUND!

All around the darkness and on the bed sits a sweat-soaked figure, sobbing and gasping desperately, the figure of a man who knows that this time it was still a nightmare, but in a few hours it may not be so ...


According to the testimony of his comrades, bad dreams of burning planes aroused one of the most successful British fighters "Mick" Mannock practically every night in the summer of 1918. Nevertheless, he led his men over the front. Among the fighters of the 1st st. war we know pilots who were not afraid or at least did not show it, a typical example was Charles Nungesser. Mannock was certainly afraid, yet he never tried to avoid the fight. It's hard to say who the bigger hero was ...

His men adored him and contributed ( though undoubtedly with good intentions) to the spread of several myths around him, which historians have been working on for decades ...

Confusion with place of birth

Mannock's very origins are shrouded in incredible confusion. In the older literature, it has long been said that he was Irish. This was popularly confirmed by his comrades-in-arms. One of his best friends and the later ace "Taffy" Jones, for example, claimed that Mannock liked to listen to a record of Irish songs a year ago, saying that he especially liked the song "Tune of Londonderry" ...

Mannock himself no doubt felt like an Irishman, but in reality nothing is nearly as clear. The Irish were at best only half after his mother Julia Mannock ( née Sullivan), who came from the village of Ballincollig in Ireland, where she also worked as a maid. Here, in 1883 ( at the age of 15), she married 27-year-old Edward Corringham Mannock, a member of the 2nd Dragoon Regiment of the Royal Scots Grays. Mannock the Elder was born in England, but his parents were purebred Scots.

They had a total of 4 children, a daughter Jessie (born 1883), a son Patrick John (born 1886), a son Edward Corringham (future "Mick" Mannock, born 1887) and a daughter Helena (born 1890).

The problem is that in the case of Edward the Younger, his birth certificate has not been preserved, so neither the date of birth, which is generally given as May 24, 1887, nor the place is certain. There are a number of contradictory official documents:

- The 1891 census states the place of birth of Brighton in Sussex.
- Also in the minutes of the 1911 census, Brighton's place of birth is stated.
It can be assumed that in 1911 this information was provided to Commissioners by Mannock personally (he was 24 years old).
- The following children are mentioned in his father's service file:
Name Date + place of birth
Patrick 9/26/1888 Dundalk [ row] Edward 9.1.1886 Aldershot
Julia 10.2.1884 Edinburgh

In the file, virtually all data is wrong, including names. In addition, Edward appears to be swapped with Patrick (Patrick was older).
- There is also a baptismal certificate from Dundalk, Ireland, on March 19, 1890, of a child named Edward Corrigham (sic!), with Edward Corrigham (sic!) and mother Julia Sullivan as the father. Both parents were Catholics, children were usually baptized immediately after birth, not at the age of 3 ... Could it be another child we know nothing about today?
- Mannock's pilot certificate dated 28 November 1916 states the date of birth on 24 May 1887 and the place of Cork in Ireland.

Obviously, we have to come to terms with the fact that some circumstances of Mannock's life are still waiting to be clarified ...


Mick's life until 1914 is generally poorly mapped. So we will have to make do with a repetition of the usual facts.

Mick's childhood can be called anything but a happy time. His father was a heavy alcoholic. He constantly bullyed his wife and children, and mocked Mick for never being the whole man, by which he meant a soldier. When he served in India, of course, there was a family with him, and Mick contracted a dust-borne infection that damaged the cornea of his left eye so much that he went blind on it. Mick had many conflicts with his father, including gross physical violence.

After Mannock Sr. served his duty, he was discharged from the military. He soon drank a small sum, which he managed to save, and in 1903 he left the family. The family lived in Canterbury at the time, and at the time, 15-year-old Mick had to drop out of school and work hard to help secure his mother and youngest sister. He got a job at a greengrocer's for two and a half shillings a week and at a barber's for twice. In 1903 he obtained the position of clerk at the British Telephone Company. To earn a few extra shillings, he joined the militia unit of the Royal Army Medical Corps, where he was eventually promoted to sergeant.

Working in the office did not satisfy him. He was assigned to line workers who stretched and repaired telephone lines. He then moved to Wellingborough, where he lived with the Eyles.

Here he got what his family could never give him. The Eyles were very educated, they loved literature and music, and young Mick swallowed it all up. He had discussions with Eyles' numerous friends during various parties. An intellectual was fully manifested in Mick. He made many friends in artistic and academic circles. His political convictions also crystallized here. Mannock came from the poorest circles and spent most of his life in various barracks. He knew class differences and the greatest misery of the world. Hence his strongly leftist and social views. He became a member of the Labor Party and was even reportedly elected party secretary at the Wellingborough branch.

Jim Eyles said of him: "He was a young man with high ideals and a great love for ordinary mortals. He hated cruelty and poverty ... You wouldn't meet a more considerate person ..."

In the war

In February 1914, Mannock went on a business trip to Turkey to oversee the establishment of a telephone network. When the war broke out in 1914, Turkey became an ally of the Trojspolk and British citizens in its territory became warlike. prisoners. All without distinction, men, women, children and the elderly, were interned in camps with terrible hygienic conditions and food shortages. There were diseases, and malnutrition added to that.The Turks originally wanted to deport all foreigners, but their German allies insisted on staying in the camps. This was the source of Mannock's later hatred of the Germans.

Mannock did not escape the hardships in the camp either. He suffered from sores and ulcers that covered his body and did not heal, all further complicated by dysentery. Jim Eyles, who had no news of his friend, wrote a letter to the US ambassador to Turkey and launched a rescue campaign. On April 1, 1915, Mannock was eventually repatriated home due to very poor health.

Mannock became ill with malaria in an internment camp and was deported to Great Britain in 1915 due to the Turks' poor health. Here, after recovery, he wanted to join the army at all times to settle accounts with the "bloody Huns".

In July 1915, he re-enlisted in the Royal Army Medical Corps. At that time, there were also reports of the Germans using annoying gas at the front and committing many other ( often fictional) atrocities. Mannock hated the Germans as much as he loved his homeland, and his hatred, already cruel and ruthless and quite unusual for his contemporaries, deepened. To encourage the fighting spirit of his colleagues ( something somewhat inappropriate among paramedics), he told them stories of Turkish and German atrocities. However, because he suffered greatly from the idea that perhaps he should treat wounded enemies at the front, he applied for transfer to the Royal Engineers. She was granted on April 1, 1916. At that time, Mannock said: "I have to throw those bastards into the air ... The higher they fly and the more pieces fall, the happier I will be."[/I ]

His career with engineers ( where between April 1, 1916 he was promoted to lieutenant - 2nd Lieutenant) was eventually ended by a fatal accident. While visiting the Eyles during his vacation, he met his old acquaintance on the train, who now served with the Royal Flying Corps. He convinced him that Mannock would also join the Air Force. Mannock was worried about undergoing medical tests because of his eye, but he managed to deceive a medical commission during an initial medical examination, and his request was eventually granted. On August 14 of the same year, he reported to the No. 1 Military Flying School in Reading.

He received his pilot's diploma No. 3895 on November 28, 1916, and completed the course with honors. Subsequently, Mannock underwent advanced flying courses and in February 1917 completed his training at the School of Aerial Shooting in Hythe. After training, he was sent to the 10th Reserve Squadron in Joyce Green, where he waited for his assignment. Here he took part in an advanced flight course led by another later bearer Victoria Cross James McCudden.

The two pilots soon became friends, and McCudden left the following memory of Mannock: "The students here (...) were very good. I remember one, named Mannock, one day. he saved his life. I just gave him instructions before the flight what to do if he didn't get into a corkscrew. Once he fell into the first corkscrew, he remembered my advice ... Mannock was a typical example of an impulsive young IRA ... "

In addition, as an intellectual, Mannock learned by searching for and studying all the literature on flying and aerial combat.

On April 7, 1917 he was assigned to the 40th Squadron, which was then based in France at the airport Treizennes and operated with aircraft Nieuport 17 . He finally got to the front, but the period of Allied dominance had just ended and Mannock was 30 years old. No one expected any miracles from the newcomer.

U 40. perutě

When Commanding Officer Major Tilney introduced him in the officers' mess, Mannock did not make the best impression. The squadron pilots had just returned from a flight where they had lost a favorite friend. But Mannock only asked how many of them had "blown away the Huns," so everyone considered him an insensitive fool.Mannock sought their favor by constantly interfering in their conversations, immediately "sharing" with them his theoretical knowledge of air combat and war in general. One of the then members of the 40th sqn. he recalls: “He looked too conceited because of his zero experience. New men usually took their time and listened to the more experienced. He behaved the exact opposite and had a comment on everything; even to the missions of reconnaissance pilots and the shortage of aircraft. He looked like a village omniscient. ”[/I]

Mannock tried to cover up his social clumsiness and natural shyness with an eagerness to understand everything and get to know everyone. However, he therefore looked rather intrusive. Mannock, who grew up to become a radical socialist due to his hard childhood and poor circumstances, although this was contrary to the etiquette of the officer's canteen, liked to show his leftist views and contempt for Britain's elitist political and social system. In addition, for most pilots, Mannock was almost 10 years older, perceived as a "grandfather", and his maturity was in stark contrast to the 20-year-old "boys" who made up most of the British squadron's flying staff at the time.

The 40th Squadron performed mainly offensive patrols and escorts of bombers. Mannock was assigned to Squadron "C", commanded by Captain A. W. Keen. On April 13, 1917, Mannock completed his first combat flight, but was so nervous that he manipulated the steering and throttle levers too rudely. That's why he was constantly losing his formation, and when the squadron got into combat, Mannock was the last to join the fight and the other pilots began to suspect him of cowardice. His colleagues began to rumor that he was "fucked up". Mannock himself added: "Now I see the strain on flying. However cold-blooded a person may be, in such conditions his nerves are always more or less tense. When you consider that seven out of ten emergency landings practically end in death, and that 50% of the other three are cases where the pilot is at least injured, you can understand the whole thing quite well. ”[/I]

On May 1, his squadron accompanied four Struttery on a reconnaissance flight over the airport in Douai, then base Jasty 11. Mannock wanted to heat his machine gun with a short burst, but it got stuck so unhappily after the first shots that the defect could not be removed. Mannock feared that if he turned back to accuse him of cowardice, he continued to fly. The German Albatross D.III attacked Douai over the formation: "I was attacked from behind by a German, a beautiful yellow and green colored era, I heard his machine gun barking I turned to him and screamed like a dervish (though of course he couldn't hear me), and then he left me, turned towards Parry and attacked him, and I went after him just to scare him away with my presence. attacked on one sopwith, but Keen shot the pilot on the cucky and Němčour went from the 12,000 feet with a corkscrew to the ground, unfortunately Sopwith was hit and fell as well, and I just drove in it all, without a machine gun, completely helpless prey for In the end, they broke away, the anti-aircraft gunners got to work and gave us something so, and at times it banged so close that I wondered if I still had the tail surfaces.With the three remaining sopwiths and excellent shots, we they returned through Arras, but at the dining table of the reconnaissance squadron two chairs remained empty ... "

[/url ]
Mick Mannock in air costume. The photo is not dated, but it probably comes from training or the beginning of his aviation career

On the morning of May 7, Mannock was assigned to take part in an anti-balloon event. It was an extremely dangerous task.As primitive as observation balloons may seem today, they were a valuable means of reconnaissance at the time. If the enemy had to be blinded, it was inevitable to destroy these balloons.

For this purpose, their own fighters were usually sent with machine guns loaded with incendiary ammunition, the use of which was otherwise prohibited. On the other hand, the other side tried to protect its valuable balloons at all costs, so a large number of anti-aircraft guns and machine guns were concentrated around them, and they were usually covered by a fighter unit. The attack on the balloons was a deadly affair that was avoided by many famous aces.

Seven Nieuports of the 40th Squadron, led by Captain W. E. Nixon, were sent to carry out the attack that day. Their target was a series of observation balloons five miles behind enemy lines. Nieuports piloted by Lieutenant Morgan (except Nixon), [url=/topic/view/217428] Hall
, Cudemore, Redler, Mannock and Parry, flew across the front at an extremely low altitude of only 20 feet (approximately 7 meters). This plan of attack was devised by their commanding officer, Major Tilney. On the one hand, every infantryman could fire at them, but on the other hand, the Nieuports crashed into the trenches in a second and were gone immediately, so that the time they were exposed to fire was reduced to a minimum. At the same time, another formation of high-altitude aircraft flew over the front, which, on the contrary, was to attract attention.

However, the squadron came under intense fire from units defending the area around the balloons, when Nieuports began to divide to attack individual balloons.

At that moment, moreover, Nixon saw a squadron of Albatrosses over the balloon line. He turned away from his balloon, which he had just fired, and began to climb hard to face them, hoping to lure the enemy away from his boys. However, Nixon was hopelessly outnumbered and shot down almost immediately. It is sometimes said that he was shot down by Lothar von Richthofen, who shot down that day as his 19th victory Nieuport 17, but according to his serial number (A6609) it was a machine from the 29th Squadron and in addition Lothar achieved this victory at half past six in the evening. .

The British attack has so far progressed successfully - Lieutenants Mannock, Morgan, Parry and Redler each lit one balloon, Lieutenants Cudemore and Hall set two more together. Thus, a total of 7 balloons were dropped, according to the report of the High Command from 8 May 1917, three ignited in height, two on the ground and two on the ground. It is interesting that the individual demands of the pilots do not correspond to this report, for example, Hall has one more balloon destroyed in his list of victories.

On the other hand, all attacking Nieuports were severely damaged, some pilots had to make an emergency landing, for example, Parry landed with a leaky tank just behind the front line. Mannock wrote down: "We all returned safely except the captain, with the planes almost shot to pieces ... I was the only one who returned to the airport and showed
perfect landing. We all got our goals. I had bullet holes in the fuselage, one very close to my head, the wings were more or less shot. I don't want to go through such an experience again. "[/I]

Mannock scored his first victory ( ironically the same day RFC lost Albert Ball and, his biggest ace), was promoted to lieutenant ( 1st Lieutenant), but his nerves began to terminate his service, as evidenced by a note in his diary of May 9, 1917: "Over Henin Lietard we went to fight with a German and pursued him to Courcelles I turned to the east and Keen to the west I was immediately attacked by three Germans, my machine gun got stuck and Keen was almost out of sight, the Aldis sight smeared with oil and shut down my engine at the crucial moment, I thought it was over At that moment we were at an altitude of 16,000 feet, I turned the machine almost vertically, and in an almost dive flight I turned it back to our lines, zigzagging with all my might and the machine guns barking behind me wildly. tracks above Arras, the engine started and the Germans left me alone for God's sake.I immediately came across another (when I climbed about 12,000 feet), but I didn't dare stand up to him. I dodged him and landed here, knees shaking and nerves cucky. I feel a little better now, but it seems to me that all courage has left me after this morning's experience. The commander was very kind to me and did not send a whole combat flight all day. "[/I]

Mannock was very unhappy about everything. When he arrived, he arrogantly said that shooting down Hun was not difficult. Now, not only could he not brag, but he was beginning to find himself on the verge of a nervous breakdown. The other pilots considered him a coward and a talker. One, but very important thing, played for him, however - he was lucky to be the commander.

Today, we usually imagine an experienced middle-aged man as a commander, but that was not the case then. For example, his squadron commander Keen was only 22 years old, the squadron commander Major Tilney was even three months younger. Nevertheless, they showed considerable understanding and patience for Mannock, as he noted in the diary: "All last week, nervousness and nausea. I'm afraid I'll fall ... Captain Keen very considerate. He released me from the flights for today. Afternoon I'll probably take a book and go for a walk in the woods - even if it looks like enough rain. Being at home in the country for 14 days! "

Mannock was thinking a lot about his fear at the time, trying to come to terms with it and overcome it at all costs. He later said: "Of course I was very frightened against my will - it's a nervous reaction. But I have already mastered this mental weakness, I have also mastered myself, and now I will subdue the Huns. Fighting in the air is a science. I've studied her, and I'm not going to worry too much about getting Huns while keeping my own safety. I want to master this tactic first. The current ill-conceived tactics should be replaced by a very well-developed one. I see no reason why we shouldn't bang the Huns out of the sky. ”[/I]

Mannock began to practice shooting at ground targets from all possible angles and at various speeds. A large white circle was created near the landing area as a target, but one of the few pilots who used this target was Mannock. He also studied the tactics of group air combat and tried to create rules for air combat of the squadron.

On May 12, an enemy aircraft flew over the squadron airport. Mannock was the first to start in a futile attempt
to capture the enemy and his apparent interest brought a slight thaw in relations with other pilots. Finally, they started talking to him and took him on trips to the surrounding bars.

However, he still had no victory over the aircraft. To show his confidence and encourage him, Major Tilney had him patrol. On May 25, Mannock fired at an observation aircraft. He was sure he had shot the crew, but the plane continued to fly, and Mannock preferred not to report the kill because he feared the distrust of his colleagues.

On June 7, Nieuports accompanied the 40th Squadron aircraft F.E. 2d by 25. Squadrons RFC. The formation was attacked by German fighters: "We accompanied our planes to complete the bombing task over Lille and met the Germans. Mine became an easy target for me. I was only ten yards from him and a little higher, so I could not miss him , such a beautifully colored beetle - red, blue, green and yellow. I poured 16 rounds of ammunition into it from a distance, so there couldn't be much left of it. I saw him slipping and twisting down from 14,000 feet. He was unlucky, but it's war and they are Germans. "

Albatros D.III was admitted to Mannock as "knocked down in an uncontrolled fall", victory in cooperation with the crew of one F.E. 2d, which also confirmed his victory.

Five days later, on landing, he felt intense pain in his right eye. As the doctor later treated him, Mannock passed out, and at the hospital the surgeon removed a small stone and a piece of metal from his eye. Mannock immediately returned to flying, but for the next five days he achieved no victory.He was then sent home for a fortnight's leave. But here he found out that his mother had become an alcoholic in the meantime, and he spent the rest of his vacation with the Eyles.

He reported to the squadron on July 2, 1917 and immediately returned to operational flying. Ten days later, on July 12, he attacked a two-seater DFW: "Fortunately, my first few shots killed the pilot and wounded an observer (captain), whom I also shattered a machine gun. The era fell south of Avion. I was able, I hurried there, I found out that the captain was already in charge of the local commanding officer, and I picked up a few souvenirs. I felt quite like a killer ... "

The next day, he shot down another two-seater, and none of his colleagues made any reference to Mannock's reluctance to fight. Although Mick did not have a natural talent for flying and all his victories were severely torn, his score began to rise.

On July 22, he was awarded the Military Cross ( Military Cross), promoted to captain and entrusted with the command of one of the squadrons of the squadron. On August 5, he became an ace when he crashed into an uncontrolled fall Albatros DV and a week later he collided with a machine of the same type, while on August 19 he wrote about this fight in his diary: "Last week a great duel with a single-seat fighter Albatross [sic] on our side of the front. I took it off, it turned out it was Lieutenant von Bertrab, the bearer of the Iron Cross, who had been flying for 18 months, wanted to attack one of our balloons - near Neuville St. Vaast - and I cut his way back, he didn't even get the balloon. she had it perfectly in my eyes. They cheered me. It took me 5 minutes to get him down, I had to shoot him before he was forced to make an emergency landing. I was very pleased that I didn't kill him. His machine - handsome, brand new (manufactured on June 1, 1917), with a Mercedes engine with an output of 228 hp, all black, is n crosses highlighted by white lines - overturned on landing and was damaged. Two machine guns and 1000 rounds against my one lewis and three hundred rounds. I later went to see the era to the trenches and everyone there greeted me with applause. The generals also congratulated me. He didn't hit me once. "[/I]

At the end of August, he had six victories, but as a squadron commander, he has not proved very successful. Squadron pilots began to recognize his individual aviation and shooting skills, but they had doubts about his ability to command. He once conducted a patrol so badly that even his best friend in the 40th Squadron MacLanachan left the patrol in protest and separated from the formation. On August 13, Mannock again led the three Nieuports to attack the enemy airfield, and when they encountered 9 German fighters, he ordered the attack ( apparently so that no one could accuse him again of cowardice). However, the predominance of the Germans was too great, the British not only did not shoot anyone down, but only barely escaped life with severely damaged aircraft. This experience at Mannock led to a really thorough study and development of tactical principles of air combat.

A pilot also arrived in August, who certainly could not complain about Mannock's commanding and teaching skills. His name was George McElroy. He had a similar fate with Mannock - he also grew into a top ace and also had a very unfortunate start to his career. Immediately after joining the 40th Squadron, they managed to break two Nieuports in one day. An angry Tilney wanted to send him back to the training squadron for rehearsal, but Mannock stood up for the young man, promising to take care of him personally and teach him everything. Due to the fact that McElroy took 10th place in the ranking of British aces, he was obviously a good teacher ...

By the end of September, Mannock had increased his number of victories to 15.In the fall, the exhausted pilots finally had a chance to rest, as Tilney wrote home at the time: "Unfortunately, the weather has gone bad. Hope for some rest. My boys are tired to death. Six weeks of hard flying."[/I ]

On October 17, the squadron received a new aircraft - S.E. 5a. The pilots had to get used to a machine powered by an air-cooled in-line eight-cylinder. His behavior was quite different from the Nieuports powered by rotary engines. S.E. 5a, the pilots were welcomed with optimism. Niuports were faster and, more importantly, were armed with two machine guns instead of one. But it turned out that the Hispano-Suiza engines were not very reliable at that time - the 40th Squadron recorded more than 20 emergency landings in two weeks due to engine failures.

Mannock did not win another victory by the end of the year. Over the past nine months at the front, he had thought a lot about tactics and became a good commander. Unlike other aces, jealously guarding their hard-earned experience and competing in the number of victories, Mannock tried to pass on all his knowledge, whether it was tactics, aerial shooting or piloting.

His care for his subordinates was unparalleled. He showed great interest in the man he was leading. His nature and commanding approach is also evidenced by the fact that among the worries about how to teach novices how best to fight and how to defend, he took the time to see the consequences of inexperienced pilots looking at burning planes rushing towards land. At a time when the plane caught fire so easily and when the pilots did not have parachutes, the fire was their worst terror.

For example, during a duel, his friend MacLanachan saw Nieuport ignited by his nineteen-year-old friend. He was convinced that this was because a German fighter was firing at him with incendiary projectiles. This ammunition was banned by the Geneva Convention, with the exception of attacks on observation balloons. In such a case, the pilot had to have a written order to carry out such an attack. If he did not have it, he was shot down, captured, and incendiary ammunition was found in his plane, threatening him with immediate death.

MacLanachan was so outraged and enraged that after landing he ordered his mechanic to also load his machine gun with incendiary projectiles. The mechanic refused because he would expose himself to the threat of a court-martial. So MacLanachan began loading his machine gun himself, but Mannock followed him, talked to him, and talked him out of his actions.

However, Mannock was very sensitive and as such was himself very prone to similar traumas. MacLanachan recalled that on August 22, 1917, Mannock in an air battle tried to rush to the aid of Nieuport, fighting seven enemy fighters, led by his friend Lt. H. A. Kennedy. However, Mannock's efforts came too late, and Mannock could only watch helplessly as the burning Nieuport fell into the depths. That night, MacLanachan heard crying and wailing from Mannock's room. As he stepped in, he saw Mannock sitting on the edge of the bed, swinging back and forth. Mannock practiced "keening" an ancient Irish lament for the dead ...

He achieved 16 victories for the new year of 1918, but it was clear to his friends, especially MacLanachan, that he was exhausted and needed rest. Tilney agreed with this and Mannock was sent to England on vacation.

Mannock left the 40th Squadron as its most successful fighter, with 16 victories to his credit. By the end of the war, he was overtaken by only one other pilot of this unit, the above-mentioned George Edward Henry McElroy ...

When he left, Tilney wrote in the Squadron's diary: "His leadership ability and general skills will never be forgotten by those who were fortunate enough to serve under him."[/I]

U 74. perutě

Before the end of his vacation, Mannock eagerly awaits deportation back to France, but eventually received an order to transfer to the Experimental Device for Wireless Telegraphy at Biggin Hill, where the machines FE 2 tested the use of radios.This was boring work for Mannock, but fortunately he was soon transferred as commander of Squadron "A" to the newly formed 74. peruti at the airport Colney in London.

Mannock reported here on February 2, 1918. The core of the new squadron was formed last July, but the lack of instructors, aircraft ( squadron was also armed with machines SE 5a) and bad weather caused the squadron still not operational. The morale of the staff was very low.

Mannock's arrival changed that. Suddenly there was a pilot with overwhelming zeal and combativeness. A man who was genuinely interested in passing on his experience to them. His frequent lectures on air tactics were recalled by a young pilot who, under Mannock's leadership, was to become a top ace himself in the future, Thomas Ira Jones: "The commander appointed Mannock to give us a lecture on aerial combat, which used to be the perfect feast of the fighting spirit. Mannock was a persuasive and eloquent speaker with the art of attention. When he listened to him for a few minutes, even the worst and least combat pilot was convinced he could wave with Richthofen or any other German ... "

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Illustrative photo showing the instruction of RFC pilots. Notice the number of drawings of the aircraft and the Nieuport model. Mannock's rules No. 6 and 7 stated that the pilot must know perfectly the silhouettes of enemy and own aircraft and, in the case of enemy aircraft, their blind spots ...

The squadron moved to [url=/topic/view/113772] Ayr
in Scotland, where she completed an air combat course. After returning to Colney, they were introduced to a new commanding officer, RFC legend Major Keith Logan Caldwell, a man who served virtually continuously from July 1916 to September 1917 and achieved nine victories so far.

The new commander was a man to Mannock's taste. They both soon became great friends. In the following days, the squadron took over 19 S.E.5a aircraft and on March 25 flew to the airport Goldhanger in Essex. On March 30, the squadron landed at the airport St. Omer in France. After a few days, she was assigned the airport Clairmarais as her place of work, where the squadron moved on April 11, 1918. Mannock was back in the war ...

On April 12, the 74th Squadron sent Squadron "C" on the first patrol at 6:00. The squadron fought a formation of enemy fighters, but did not gain any victory. Mannock led Squadron "A" on another patrol that day, starting at 8:25. Twenty-five minutes later, the squadron struggled with a group of Albatrosses over Merville at 13,000 feet. Mannock shot down one to open the squadron's score, another was shot down by Lieutenant Dolan.

Mannock led another offensive patrol later in the day and shot down another Albatross, while amazing the other pilots of the squadron by insisting in a report that Mannock insisted that the kill be shared by the entire squadron.

This was the first of many examples where Mannock wanted to selflessly share his victories with the squadron, or leave it to the new pilot as his first victory to boost morale. A number of pilots with whom Mannock flew with the 74th and later 85th Squadrons independently confirmed this custom. Major Caldwell also confirmed this donation of victory to others in order to boost self-confidence: "It was often said that Mannock shot down one of his newcomers for shooting down Hun, who was actually hit by himself. I believe it is true, and I really know of others who did the same. The team spirit was very strong in the better squadrons ... "

Lieutenant Henry E. Dolan remembered again how Mannock had shelled a German two-seater, and then "... nodded at me to get him.I fell down behind Hun's tail and saw that Mick had killed the shooter, so I could attack safely. "[/I]

Mannock, not only with this habit but also with his sense of responsibility for his subordinates, immediately gained popularity with his new unit. One of the members of his squadron "A" wrote about him: "... he took care of me like an older brother. Being in his squadron was wonderful ... He thought of each of its members and took care of him. ”[/I]

James Ira Jones recalled that even in the air, Mannock was paying unusual attention to his boys. After the fight "Mannock signaled for re-formation and did not leave the battlefield until he was sure that all machines had noticed his signs."

However, Mannock was also a great tactician, as he realized that the chances of winning lie only in perfect teamwork. He also compiled, similar to Boelcke, rules for air combat. Above all, however, he kept repeating his basic lesson to his pilots: "Always be above the enemy, rarely at the same height and never below him."[/I]

As a thoughtful intellectual with analytical thinking, he prepared for each flight with meticulous care and instructed all his pilots with equal care. His personality has also undergone a major shift. He became the soul of the officer's dining room as he entertained his companions and led them to sing, beating to the beat with timpani mallets consisting of teapots, pots, tins, and pans tied to the back of a chair.

His score began to grow at an astonishing rate, he had 21 victories by the end of April. At that time, the German Spring Offensive culminated. The fighting in the air was tremendous. For all Mannock's successes, perhaps it is enough to mention the duel in which he shot down 3 Pfalzy D.III on the evening of May 21. Ira Jones' memory of the 12,000-foot attack was remembered by Ira Jones: "... there were six Pfalz fighters flying east of Kemmel Hill. into the ground, hit from a hard angle ahead of time, then Mick had a nice duel with another silver bird while his watch watched, it was a wonderful sight. after which he descended a few hundred feet, Mick repeated, shooting every time he caught his opponent in the sights. during the rotation, this shooting seemed like a waste of ammunition. Němčour pulled in at the end. Mick, who was now at 4,000 feet, did the same. wound by grace with a dose of p straight from behind from a distance of about 25 yards. Němčour went down, apparently unmanageable, and crashed into the ground. (...) I felt sorry for Němčour. He showed the best demonstration of defensive combat I've ever seen ... After we landed, I asked Mick why he was shooting during a corkscrew. He replied, 'To suck him out even more.' "[/I]

However, defeats also came. In early May, Lieutenant Dolan, a member of Mannock's squadron, fell. He was one of Mannock's promising students, achieving 7 victories in a month, and Mick was deeply moved by his death. On June 1, Captain Cairns, Squadron Commander "C", was shot down and killed. Mannock's nerves began to quit again. According to witnesses, he was really overwhelmed after Cairo's death.

Maybe that was the reason why his hatred of the Germans broke out again. Squadron Commander Caldwell left the memory of a landing gear that Mannock had struck and forced to make an emergency landing. However, he immediately carried out half a dozen attacks on the plane on the ground, during which he shot the crew. Caldwell, flying beside him, tried to defend himself: "I shouted in a high voice (which was useless) and I wanted to stop him."[/I]

After landing, Caldwell asked Mannock what that meant.Mannock replied: "Those pigs are better dead - I don't take prisoners."

At that time, Mannock began to show all the hallmarks of a severely impaired personality. He was haunted by nightmares about burning planes. Ira Jones remembered seeing him once sitting completely settled with his face in his hands. When asked what was going on, Mannock muttered: "It's the damn German in flames."[/I]

At other times, on the same occasion, unestablished merriment erupted in him, and the constant nearness of death led to morbid humor in his comrades-in-arms.

"Every time he shoots someone down in the flames, he dances into the canteen with shouts and shouts, 'These are fiery boys, squabbling, burning!' and then he tries very desperately to describe how poor Němčour must have felt, going into the smallest details, and when he finishes the devil's triumph, he turns to one of us and says with a laugh, 'And that will happen to you on the next patrol, hochu. ' And we all roar with laughter, " remarked about it Ira Jones.

Despite everything, nothing has changed in his fighting performance. On May 22, he was awarded the DSO and received the Bar on June 8. In just three months of his combat deployment, he achieved 36 confirmed victories with the 74th Squadron and his score on 17.6. there were 52 confirmed victories. At that time he was chosen as the promising commander of his own squadron. Caldwell recalled that Mannock was very touched by the transfer order. During the farewell to the squadron on June 18, 1918, he wept.

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This photo of Mannock is again not dated, but according to the rank of captain and ribbons of the DSO and Military Cross, it is likely that it was taken in June 1918 with the 74th Squadron. Noticed somewhat torn facial features compared to his previous photo

U 85. perutě

Mannock went on holiday to England, which he spent with the Eyles as usual. Jim Eyles recalled that Mannock was someone completely different. His wit and spark were gone; his hands were shaking and once he suddenly cried terribly during the conversation - Eyles later claimed that Mannock understood this holiday as a goodbye to his friends, as he thought he would never return ...

Mannock was promoted to major on June 21, 1918, and on July 5 took over as commander [url=/topic/view/171395] 85. squadrons
. The squadron was based at the airport St. Omer and was also armed with machines S.E. 5a.

The new unit was eagerly awaiting him. Several Americans also served in the 85th Squadron, including Elliot White Springs, who to the book stated: "He is said to be the best commander of the air patrols - he plans his squadron's actions the day before and analyzes them down on the ground. He plans every maneuver as a chess player and wants every man to have place at a certain time to do a certain thing, and not at all happy when someone fails. "

Upon his arrival, Mannock found that the morale of the unit was low. The previous commander, the most successful British ace Billy Bishop, however great a fighter, was not a good commander, as he was a prominent loner and mostly flew alone. So Mannock had to give the unit spirit and enthusiasm.

In addition, Mannock came at a time when the squadron was beginning to face the brand new Fokkery D.VII. Pilots S.E. 5a liked to use vertical maneuvers - the machine was fast and rigid construction, so it was possible to repeatedly attack the dive and gain height again, while most other fighters of the time usually tried to turn the fight into horizontal turns. It was difficult for German fighters S.E.5a in vertical view; they did not have the necessary climb, and in a dive flight, for example, the Albatross could have its wings torn off. However, Fokker D.VII with S.E. 5a leveled in a dive and surpassed it in ascent, especially at high altitudes. Due to the Fokker at that time, the squadron suffered several losses ...

Mannock therefore decided to draw up a plan that would eliminate the benefits of German machines and encourage the team. Springs states: "Mannock came to take command, as a major with a few new ribbons of honors on his blouse, and he's definitely sharp. He invited us all to his office to present his plans and tell everyone what from him. He is going to lead one squadron, which will be bait. Nigger and Randy is supposed to lead the other two. We should be able to repay the Fokker what we owe them. "

Mannock intended to divide the squadron into three height levels, taking on the most dangerous role of bait. Springs continues on July 18, but dating should be taken with a grain of salt: "Mannock showed us his 'show' yesterday and almost caused us a heart attack. He led a lower squadron with three men and found ten Fokker He played with them for fifteen minutes, we thought we'd all be shot down at any moment, but Mannock knew what he wanted and held the top squadron in the sun, dragging Huns where he wanted them and flew right under them. up in the sun is our squadron, so only five of them flew down, then Randy and three men followed just as they got So instead of the Germans easily shooting down his squadron, as expected, Nigger, Mac, /217754] Cal, Inglis and I flew to their top five, while our eight lower squadron aircraft fought with five lower Huns ich and Mac took down one of the upper ones, who were trying to get down to join the fight below. (...) We are probably starting a series of well-done patrols. Mick is a master. "[/I]

The context suggests that this was probably the squadron's first action, under Mannock's leadership. Therefore, it was most likely a fight that took place on July 7, 1918 ( not on July 17,) at 20.15 over Doulieu. In this battle, the 85th Squadron claimed no total of 6 shot down D.VII Fokker ( 4 destroyed, 2 knocked into an uncontrolled fall), and Mick scored two victories in this fight.

It was unbelievable. In just two days, Mannock was able to turn the demoralized unit into a squadron imbued with the team spirit he had known so well from the 74th Squadron. As Squadron Commander, Mannock did not have to fly so often on patrols - in fact, the command of the wing did not recommend such a thing to Squadron Commanders - but it was unacceptable to Mannock; he led his men by personal example, incredibly cementing the unit and raising its morale.

He introduced theoretical instruction in tactics, and as Ira Jones had previously recalled, Springs noted that he was the best speaker he had ever heard.

However, on July 10, he heard that his friend had been killed before McCudden. He was depressed again when "big" McCudden died, how could anyone else survive ?!

In addition, his hatred of the Germans flared up again, to which Springs added: "Mannock is the only person I know who really hates Huns - and he really hates them. (...) He wants to kill every man, He was born in Germany. (...) He considered the Germans to be the culprits of Ireland's traitorous policy during the wars. He certainly had Germans and their supporters in Ireland as villains. He told us that if we ever let a German escape that we could kill, he would shoot us. "

Mannock wanted revenge on McCudden and began flying on more patrols so that he could shoot down as many Germans as possible. At the same time, he began to speak that he was moving toward "something final."

25.On July, Ira stopped behind him Jones, who wrote about it: "I just got back from 85. I had lunch, tea and dinner with Mick I'm not sure if his nerves are okay or not. One moment he's fine and then he becomes morbid and he keeps turning to his favorite topic of 'being shot in flames.' "[/I]

Jones told Mannock that he shot down a two-seater in flames that morning. Mannock replied with a bitter smile: "Did you hear that pig squeal? One day you'll get it that way, too, my boy. You become careless. When it comes, don't forget to drive your bullet through your head. ”[/I] Mannock was still carrying a revolver with himself, saying that " would shoot at the first sight of the flames ".

Jones further noted how impressed he was with the spirit of the 85th Squadron: "The squadron is very well. Everyone tells me how much they prefer Mick to Bishop as commander. Mick leads all the patrols and serves them Huns on
plates. Bishop rarely did it. "[/I]

Mick currently had 60 victories, won a second bar to the DSO, and Jones told him: "After the war, they'll have a red carpet reception for you."
"There will be no more 'post-war' to me," Mannock replied.

Pilots of the 85th Squadron. The photo was taken on June 21, 1918 at St. Omer. At that time, Mannock had not yet joined the squadron. In the crowd of pilots it is possible to get to know some members of the squadron, which were mentioned in this article. Fifth from left, looking into the dog, is Malcolm McGregor, sixth by Lawrence K. Callahan, seventh by Elliott White Springs, ninth by Arthur Clunie Randall. Sixth from right is New Zealander Donald C. Inglis, who accompanied Mick on his last flight

Last start

"Mannock is dead. He was the greatest pilot of the whole war. But his death was good to him. [url=/topic/view/217632] Inglis
had gone through many battles, but had not yet received a Hun. But he tried hard, and Mannock told him to take him with him and get him one. "[/I] wrote in the journal Springs.

What actually happened? The pair headed over the front, where after about 20 minutes they encountered the German DFW C.V. Machine serial number 2216/18 with crew Vzfw. Josef Hein (pilot) and Ltn. Ludwig Schopf (observer) belonged to the unit FA A 292 b. The crew was just heading over the front to focus their own artillery on British positions.

Lieutenant Inglis said in a report: "We saw one enemy aircraft approach the front line. (...) Major Mannock made a turn, fired a long shot at it and stepped aside."[/I ]

Mannock apparently wanted to give Inglis an easy shot down, and eliminated the rear gunner to leave Inglis easier to shoot down. Inglis continues: "Then I hit the enemy plane from a very short distance with a long dose of me. The enemy machine spun into a slow left-handed spiral and flames whipped from its right side. I saw it crash directly into the ground, then a huge cloud shot out. black smoke and flames. Then I turned around and followed Major Mannock home at a height of about two hundred feet. "

Here Mannock made a fatal mistake as he followed the falling machine to the crash site. Two hundred feet, about 70 meters, was not enough, the machines were located practically directly above the front line and immediately fell on them from ground machine guns. Another witness to the tragedy was Private Edward Naulls, a member of the 2nd Battalion of the Essex Regiment, who saw from his trench [a] "A sudden vortex of flames emanates from here, followed by a wad of black smoke ... "

Inglis adds: "I saw Mick start digging into the rudder, and then I saw a flame coming out of his machine, which was getting bigger and bigger. Mick wasn't digging into the rudder now. into a long right turn and hit the ground in a fiery explosion, circling at about twenty feet, but I didn't see him and as it got really hot there, I turned home and managed to get into our positions with a leaky fuel tank. Mick ... Those bloody bastards shot down my major in flames. "[/I]

Naulls confirmed this: "Mannock's machine is rushing helplessly and hitting the ground near his victim. Inglis's engine fails and he manages to land just behind the front line, at the trenches occupied by the Suffolk Regiment company to our left. The end is over. with incredible speed ... "

So in the end, Mick's nightmares really caught up with him. Perhaps he had just reached for his revolver ...

One of its pilots wrote: "When he died, all the men in the squadron cried."[/I]

Confusion with the number of kills

If you look at any older publication on British aces of World War I, then you will usually come across a statement according to which Mannock achieved 73 victories and was thus the most successful British ace of the whole war. However, modern research has shown that Mannock actually achieved 61 proven victories. So where does the number 73 come from?

Probably for the first time, this information appeared in the book King of Airfighters, which he wrote in 1934 about his former commander Ira Jones. His motive was simple - Jones considered Mannock the greatest of the British fighters, so he did not hesitate and in his memoirs "awarded" him one more victory than the other Canadian Billy Bishop. There was no need for more. For this one victory, Mannock became the most successful British ace ...

Mannock's significance, however, was far from the mere number of victories. In addition to his 61 verified victories, I have a number of other victories that were either not recognized to him or did not even try to claim them. The number of victories he "donated" to beginning colleagues is unknown today ...

Probably the most concise commentary was another Mannock's comrade-in-arms and fighter ace Malcolm McGregor: "We lost the squadron commander. over 70 Germans, but then he himself fell into flames, and the RAF lost the best commander and the best destroyer of the Germans it had, another month and more than a hundred kills, but unlike other stars, he left behind all the knowledge he had, and so it is now up to those whom he has instructed to continue his work. "

Mystery of Mannock's grave

There are uncertainties about the last moments of Mick Mannock's life, as well as about the place of his last rest. So he shot himself, as he always promised to do when he saw the first sign of fire? This would be evidenced by both Inglis and Naulls' testimony, according to which the machine was not controlled almost immediately after the intervention. However, he could also be hit directly by machine gun fire.

According to some sources, his body was found 250 meters from the wreckage of his machine ( but it is not clear where this information comes from). If that's true, then he probably jumped out of the plane to escape the fire. It is unlikely that he would just fall out - according to the report, the machine did not tip over. The pop-up version would again be indicated by the fact that Mannock's family was anonymously returned his identification stamps, pocket notebook and revolver from Germany after the war. None of this was fundamentally damaged by the fire, only the notebook had a slightly browned edge. So apparently he didn't really stay in the cockpit until he crashed.

Faithful friend Jim Eyles, of course, tried to find the exact final resting place of his friend after the war.According to the German Red Cross, Mannock was identified by German troops and buried 300 meters northwest of La Pierre-au-Beure on the way to Pacaut. However, the British War Graves Commission was unable to find the grave at that location. In addition, researcher Andy Saunders obtained and examined both British and German fortification plans in the area and found that the site was located between the two trench lines in no man's land. This is, of course, nonsense, no one would bother to bury a fallen enemy under fire and risk their lives.

In 1923, however, Jim Eyles received a letter from the War Graves Commission informing him that the search was still unsuccessful. However, the letter further stated that approximately 1,000 yards southeast of the original German-notified location of Mannock's grave, the body of an unknown British pilot was exhumed in 1920 without identification marks and documents. This pilot was subsequently buried in the German military cemetery in Laventie. Saunders is convinced that the German report was wrong and that this is where the most important British pilot of the First World War is buried. Saunders tried to put pressure on the British War Graves Commission to re-examine the case, but rejected his findings as too weak. The place of the last rest of the famous fighter thus remains shrouded in mystery to this day ...

Mannnock's name is therefore engraved in the monument to the missing British airmen of the 1st st. war, which stands on the premises of the British War Memorial in Arras.

Last tribute

After the war, Mannock's closest friends launched a campaign to recognize Major Mannock's merits by awarding the Victoria Cross - Britain's highest award for bravery. Their efforts have gained attention
Winston Churchill, then Secretary of Aviation. Churchill had Mannock's case reviewed, and on July 11, 1919, Mannock was actually awarded the honor. Although Mick explicitly stated in his will that his father should not receive anything from his property, it was this troubled person from Mick's past who received this honor from the king for his fallen son Jiřího V.

Mannock's honors, specifically Victoria's Cross, Order for Outstanding Service with two Bars and The Military Cross with one Bar were in private hands until September 1992, when they were sold at the Sotheby's auction house for £ 132,000. Philanthropist Michael Ashcroft has become the proud owner, and now these awards are on display in Ashcroft's Gallery at the British Imperial War Museum.

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Mannock's honors at Ashcroft Gallery. Lord Ashcroft has amassed the largest collection of Victorian cross holders, with over 250 in the gallery. It cost £ 5 million to build and Ashcroft paid all the costs. Access to the gallery is free


Some aces of the 1st vol. Wars are also widely known to those who are not very interested in aviation, such as [url=/topic/view/9105] Richthofen
. Mannock is not one of them, his name almost fell into oblivion, but completely undeservedly, because he was for the RAF what Richthofen was for the German Air Force in terms of morality, and what Boelcke in terms of tactical. It doesn't matter how many victories he actually achieved does not change his significance.

Mannock was undoubtedly a complex personality, but a personality of iron will - a man who managed to overcome his fears and horrors and who remained a charismatic leader for his men until the end. We can only agree with the conclusion of the citation for the award of the Victoria Cross, as it was published on July 18.1919 in the London Gazette:

"Throughout his career in the Royal Air Force, this extremely important officer has been an outstanding example of fearlessness, courage, remarkable skill, devotion to his duties and self-sacrifice that have never been surpassed."

Alex Revell: Victoria Cross, WWI Airmen and Their Aircraft, Stratford, ed. Flying Machines Press, 1997, ISBN: 9781891268007
Christopher Shores, Norman Franks, Russell Guest: Above the Trenches, ed. Grub Street, London, 1996, ISBN: 9780948817199
Norman Franks: SE 5/5a Aces of World War I, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 2007, ISBN: 9781846031809
Richard Townshend Bickers: Von Richthofen, ed. Jota, Brno, ISBN 80-7217-014-7
Eric and Jane Lawson: The First Air War, ed. Jota, Brno, ISBN 80-7217-035-X
Nigel Steel, Peter Hart: Rattle in the Clouds, ed. Pavel Dobrovský - BETA and Jiří Ševčík, Prague-Pilsen, ISBN 80-73-06-074-4
Elliott White Springs: Birds of Prey above the front, published. Toužimský and Moravec, Prague, ISBN 978-80-7264-093-5
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Fotografie nejúspěšnějšího britského esa - "Micka" Mannocka.
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Table kills E. Mannocka:[/heading]
Ord. noDateTimethe Type of the destroyed aircraftCustom machineUnitInstead ofClassification of the killOpponentNote 9:35BalloonNieuport 23 s. no A673340. squadronQuierry la Mottedestroyed D.IIINieuport 23 s. no B155240. squadronnorth Lilleknocked down to a disorderly fall of theMaybe Vzfw. Franz Eberlein from Jasta 33, who was injured, In cooperation with the crew F.E.2d s. no A6417 in the composition of the 2/Lt. C.J.Lally and 2/Lt. L.F.Williams from 25. squadron C. InNieuport 23 s. no B168240. squadronAvioncapturedVzfw. Reubelt killed Ltn. Hermann Johann Individual captured; Schlasta 12 C. In theNieuport 23 s. no B168240. squadronSallauminesknocked down to a disorderly fall of theMaybe the machine from the FA AND 240; observer Ltn. Heinz Walkermann was zraněn D.InNieuport 23 s. no B355440. squadronAvoinknocked down to a disorderly fall of theRFC communiqué no. 100 of 6.8.1918: "2. Lt. Mannock, 40. squadron, attacked five fighters Albatros near Henin-Lietard. Shot one into a disorderly fall, but was unable to confirm the accident due to the presence of other NL." D.In theNieuport 23 s. no B355440. squadronto the southeast of Petit-VimycapturedLt. J. von Bertrabwounded and taken prisoner; Jasta 30 D.In theNieuport 23 s. no B355440. squadronLensknocked down to a disorderly fall of the D.In theNieuport 23 s. no B355440. squadronnorth Lensknocked down to a disorderly fall of theMaybe Lt. Brugmannn from Jasta 30 who fell C. In theNieuport 23 s. no B355440. squadronto the northeast Sallaumineszničen C.In theNieuport 24 s. no B360740. squadronto the east of Lens-Lievin knocked down to a disorderly fall of the probably Vzfw. Eddelbuttel (injured), Lt. Kuhn from the FA AND 240in cooperation; pilot Sgt. L. And. Herbert (the Nieuport 17 s. no A6646), 40. squadron C. In theNieuport 24 s. no B360740. squadronPetit-Vimy capturedVzfw. G. Frischkorn (fell), Lt. F. Frech (fell), FA 235 C. In theNieuport 24 s. no B360740. squadronThelus-Oppyknocked down to a disorderly fall of the C. In theNieuport 24 s. no B360740. squadronHullochknocked down to a disorderly fall of themaybe Uffz. Halbreiter, Lt. Beauchamp from the FA AND 240 seater CNieuport 23 s. no
40. squadronOppydestroyed in fire CNieuport 24 s. no B360740. squadronSallauminesknocked down to a disorderly fall of themaybe Vzfw. Meckes (injured), Lt. H. Otto (injured) from the FA AND 224 C. In the.E.5a s. no B66540. squadronFampouxcapturedVzfw F. Korbacher (fell), Lt. W. Klein (fell)from the FA AND 258in the cooperation; F/Cdr. R.J.About. Compston (Sopwith Camel s. no B634o), FSL G.To. Cooper (Sopwith Camel s. no B6321) both from 8. squadron RNAS D.In the.E.5a p. no D27874. squadroneast Mervillezničen D.In the.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronBois de Phalempindestroyedin collaboration: Lt. H.E. Dolan, Lt. B. Roxburgh-Smith, Lt. P.F.C. Howe, Lt. H.C. Clements D.III.E.5a p. no D27874. squadroneast of Mervilledestroyed in fireCommuniqué of the RAF no. 4: "Capt. E. Mannock, 74. squadron, attacked the rear machine of a formation of fighter NL; on the seat of the pilot NL appeared the explosion, the machine is turned upside wheels and vertically declined, dragged behind the smoke and was seen crashed into the earth just east of Merville." D.VI (?).E.5a p. no D27874. squadronsouth lake Dickebuschdestroyed in fireLt. L. Vortmann (fell), Jasta 2Report 2. brigade: "a Patrol attacked by 10 fighters Albatross south of the lake Dickebusch. Capt. Mannock fired 40 shots at the last NL. NL exploded in flames and disintegrated in the air. Confirmed two other pilots of the formation." CL.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronto the southeast of the lake DickebuschcapturedFlgr. Anton Zimmermann (captured;1.5.1918 died of his wounds), Vzfw. Speer (captured) Schlachsta 28b*in collaboration: Lt. H.E. Dolan (With.E.5a B173) C.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronsouth MervilledestroyedUffz. Fritz Schoning (fell), Lt. Fritz Beuttler (fell), FA 32in collaboration: Lt. H.E. Dolan, Lt. H.G. Clements, Lt. And.C. Kiddie all 74. squadron. RAF Communique no. 5: "Patrol 74. the squadron attacked a two-seater NL and everyone at him for a short distance, the NL went down in a spin and was seen as havaroval." Dr. I.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronGheluveltdestroyedLt. Günther Derlin (fell), Jasta 20 (?);Communiqué of the RAF no. 6: "Capt. E. Mannock, 74. a squadron, he attacked an enemy triplane and knocked him into a tailspin. Watching the NL down, shoot short bursts and NL is finally turned on his back and crashed." Report 2. brigade: "GHELUVELT 9.20 pm Attack formation 4 trojplošníků and 1 Albatross over the lake DICKEBUSCH. Dive-bombing on 1 triplane, shot short bursts. NL is turned over on his back and crashed into the earth." D.III.E.5a p. no C111274. squadronnortheast of Armentieresdestroyed in fireLt. Oskar Aeckerle (fell), Jasta 47 D.In the.E.5a p. no C111274. squadronnorth Wulverghemzničen D.In the.E.5a p. no C111274. squadronnorth Wulverghemzničen D.III.E.5a p. no C111274. squadronnorth of WulverghemdestroyedRAF Communique no. 6 (related to kills no 25-27): "Capt. E. Mannock, 74. squadron, with his patrol he attacked a formation of eight fighter-NL; he attacked the last machine for a short distance and at a right angle, NL slid over the wing and collided with another enemy fighter, both enemy machines fell apart in the air. Capt. Mannock then attacked another fighter NL from behind and fired into him from both arms long dose; NL fell vertically and was seen crashed into the earth." Report 2. brigade: "WULVERGHEM 6.20 pm. Attacked by formation 8 NL, shot down one fighter, the Albatross, which laterally slid and collided with another NL both NL fell apart in the air. Fired 200 rounds into the fighter Pfalz, which is vertically crashed and crashed." D.III.E.5a p. no C111274. squadronsouthwest Housthultského lesazničen D.III.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronsouth Bailleuldestroyed in fireCommunique RAF no. 7: "Capt. E. Mannock, 74. squadron, attacked the last machine of a formation of fighter NL and fired a long shot from both weapons, NL fell into an uncontrolled tailspin. Capt. Mannock was then attacked by the other NL and is forced to break away, but 210. squadron confirmed that the first AD, which attacked Capt. Mannock, crashed in flames." C.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronto the northeast of Ypresdestroyed in fireCommunique RAF no. 7: "Later the same day Capt. Mannock noticed the AD, which flew over our lines near Ypres. Ascended to the north and then to the east and approached to the NL, which fired approximately 200 rounds of ammunition for a short distance during the fight, which lasted about one minute, while the NL alternately fell and spun in the corkscrew. At about 4000 feet NL flared and was seen to hit and burned to the ground." C.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronSteenwerckdestroyed in fireLt. Karl Fischer (fell), Lt. Georg Pitz (fell) from the FA 19 CL.III.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronLa CourennedestroyedGfr. Walter Menzel (fell), Lt. Hermann Steinmeyer (fell) from the FA 9 D.III.E.5a p. no D27874. peruťHollebekezničen D.III.E.5a p. no D27874.
Hollebekezničen D.III.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronsouth of Hollebekedestroyedthe only known loss of the Vfw. Hans Schorn (fell), Jasta 16 D.III.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronFromellesknocked down to a disorderly fall of the D.III.E.5a p. no D27874.squadronsouth Bailleuldestroyed in fire D.In the.E.5a p. no D27874. squadronsouth Bailleulknocked down to a disorderly fall of the D.In the.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronnortheast of Armentieresdestroyed in fire D.In the.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronnortheast of Armentieresknocked down to a disorderly fall of the D.III.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronnorth Wytschaeteknocked down to a disorderly fall of the D.III.E.5a p. no C646874. peruťEstaireszničen D.III.E.5a p. no C646874. peruťEstaireszničen D.III.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronEstairesknocked down to a disorderly fall of thethe only known loss of Lt. Saint Mont (fell) from the Jasta 52 D.III.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronto the south of mount Kemmelknocked down to a disorderly fall of themaybe Lt. Dunkelberg (fell) from the Jasta 58 D.VII.E.5a p. no C646874. squadroneast Ypreszničen D.III.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronwest of RoulersdestroyedIn collaboration: Lt. H.G. Clements, Capt. W.E. Young, Lt. And.C. Kiddie C.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronto the south of mount Kemmelknocked down to a disorderly fall of theIn collaboration: Lt. H.G. Clements, Lt. And.C. Kiddie C.E.5a p. no C646874. squadronto the south of mount KemmeldestroyedIn cooperation: Capt. W.E. Young D.III.E.5a p. no C884574. squadronsouth lake Zillebekedestroyed D.III.E.5a p. no C884574. squadronsouth lake Zillebekeknocked down to a disorderly fall of the C.E.5a p. no C884574. squadronArmentieresdestroyed D.VII.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronDoulieudestroyed D.VII.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronDoulieuknocked down to a disorderly fall of the D.VII.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronnorth Mervilledestroyed C.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronnorth MervilledestroyedUffz. And. Hartmann (fell), Lt. E. von Sydow (fell) from the FA 7 seater.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronto the northeast of La BasseedestroyedUffz. Rath (killed), Lt. Gros (fell) from FA 7 D.VII.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronsouth of Steenwerckknocked down to a disorderly fall of the D.VII.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronsouth of Steenwerckknocked down to a disorderly fall of theIn my edition Above the Trenches, this line is completely absent, processed according to Dr. I.E.5a p. no E129585. peruťArmentiereszničen DFW C. In. p. s. no 2216/18.E.5a p. no E129585. squadronArmentieresdestroyedVzfw. Josef Hein (fell) and Lt. Ludwig Schopf (fell) from the FA AND 292 bIn collaboration: Lt. Donald C.... Inglis

*according to the and In Above The Trenches of a given aircraft as the Albatros C and the unit as a Schlachsta 10.

Christopher Shores, Norman Franks, Russell Guest: Above the Trenches, nakl. Grub Street, London, 1996, ISBN: 9780948817199
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Fifteen of the rules of air combat Mick Mannocka:

1. The pilots must run headlong into the attack with determination and are not allowed to shoot until they get to a distance of 100 meters from the target.
2 Get surprise by approaching from the east. (From the German side of the queue.)
3. Take advantage of the sun glare and clouds to achieve surprise.
4. Pilots must maintain in the form of exercise and moderate use of stimulants.
5. Pilots must adjust the sights of their weapons and practice with them as much as possible, because the focus of the targets typically have only a fleeting moment.
6. Pilots must practice the detection of aircraft in the air, their recognition at a great distance, and every aircraft must be considered the enemy until it is certain that it is not so.
7. Pilots must learn where the enemy planes blind angles.
8. Fighters must be attacked from the top and two-seater from under their tail.
9. Pilots must be able to make quick turns, as this maneuver is in the fight used more than any other.
10. The Pilot must learn to estimate distances in the air, because her destination is often very deceptive.
11. It is necessary to pay attention to the bait - the lonely enemy is often vnadidlem - therefore, it is necessary before the attack to search the space above him.
12. If the day is sunny, it is necessary to carry out the manoeuvres with the least inclination, lest the glint of the sun on the wings of a giveaway of our presence at a great distance.
13. Pilots must fight to constantly spin and never nelétat straight, up to the moment when they shoot.
14. The pilots, under any circumstances, must not attempt to escape headlong directly from the enemy, because it gives him the option of shooting without the hanging indent and the bullets are faster than planes.
15. Pilots must during patrols watch the clock, wind direction and strength..
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July 1918 was for the newly formed RAF probably the most difficult month of the war.
7. July died in an air accident at that time the leading ace of the RAF, James McCudden (57 kills),
26. July died in combat leading the irish ace George McElroy (47 kills)
and about 5 days later, 31. July died and his mentor, the leading ace of the RAF, Edward "Mick" Mannock (61 victories).
Britain in the course of one month lost 3 of my best pilots.
A month earlier, had the australian air sky other increments, when during 5 days into it they left the two biggest australian aces.
27. may, died in the night prosecution of the most successful australian ace Robert And. Little (47 victories) and about 5 days later in the order of a second behind him, Roderic a "Tent" of Dallas (32-39 kills), who was killed in aerial combat 1. June..
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