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Salm, Niklas I. zu

Nicholas of Salm

ze Salmu
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Niklas zu Salm
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DD.MM.1459 Vielsalm
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04.05.1530 Marchegg
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Velitel obrany Vídně během prvního tureckého obležení v roce 1529
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Adolf Schinzl: Salm, Niclas I. Graf zu. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 30, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890
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Nicholas of Salma was born in 1459 in the ardennes Vielsalmu as a younger son of John In. the count for Salma, the baron of Viviers. In 1483 he entered the austrian service, and already in July of the same year he participated in the crusade of the saxon duke Albrecht Srdnatého to Austria, which was to liberate the Vienna New Town. The count had to very quickly demonstrate great war skills, because already in the year 1491 he stood at the head of the troops, which were deployed at the Stoličného Belgrade. In war with Switzerland the year 1499 he was in the army, which led the count Wolfgang from Fürstenberku, supreme commander of the swabian league. With him 11. April participated in the the battle of Schwaderlohu near Constance, which is initially developed victoriously, but because of the indiscipline swabian troops ended in defeat. In war of the heritage landshutské, during which it occupied in the year 1504 Trostberg, it belonged to the Salm, among the most prominent warlord. In 1506 he headed the troops of the emperor Maximilian., which blew out the order in Hungary. The emperor but failed of its results to capitalize. In the year 1509 collected Salm military experience in Italy in the army of Georg von Frundsberg, one of the greatest commanders of the time. In the year 1511 the Salm was at the head of the imperial troops, which dlelo in the Inner Austria. Of the still unclear causes but on himself he brought the emperor's displeasure. He went therefore for the emperor to Trento to smooth things over, which to him, with the kind assistance of the chancellor Sernsteina managed. Although offered to the next military service was the command of the troops commissioned until the spring of 1514, when already there was a danger that the development of the situation in the Littoral takes a very negative direction. Already the tidings of it, that is the area approaching Salm, enough Benátčanům to have decided to end the siege Marana. The count here left to deliver food and ammunition, after which he dragged to the Gradišce, where he gathered a new army. Subsequently tried to expel the Venetians from the Furlánska and connect with the army, which was coming with the Tyrol. 12. July 1514 attacked at Castiglione army of the venetian military leader Giovanni Bittuciho. Dealt him a defeat, and in addition captured him. Adverse developments in the war and the plague forced the Venetians to conclude in October 1514 truce. In the autumn of 1515 he set off with his army to the South Tyrol, where he was wounded and headed to the besieged Verona.

In June 1522 was in the framework of the fight against the Turks named the supreme field commander in the Lower Styria. However, even in this year, nor in following the combat activities on the battlefield occurred. The war however was already a few years in Italy. And in 1524 crossed the Alps with an army even the French king pope Francis I. Archduke Ferdinand sent two thousand lancknechtů and two hundred horsemen. The commander of these riders was named just the count of Salm, who is then led into the winning the battle of Pavia. Salm during the battle showed a great deal of military and command talents. His riders first suffered large losses and had to quickly retreat, however, the earl could re-form and go back into turmoil. He was directly involved in the captivity of the French king. He was then Salm appointed a senior field commander in the Alpine countries and delivered to Upper Styria. Stumbled here on the revolt of the peasants in Enžském the valley, the lack of money and a small number of soldiers. The situation was very bad, but Salm managed to quickly solve. Increased the number of lancknechtů for more than two thousand and uprising then suppressed, while the Schladming he was plundered and largely burned down. Similar measures Salm used in other places, and thus achieved the attenuation of these storms. Salmova reputation as an experienced and capable warrior, so was again a little more pronounced.

In August 1526, he was appointed supreme commander of the troops sent to Hungary against the Turks. If then in the following year he fell ill and died brandenbursko-kulmbašský margrave Kazimir, replaced him as commander in chief of the troops just Salm. In this role, he chased Jan Zápolského in his retreat from the Buda to Upper Hungary, occupied the Jager and scattered the enemy grouping in the Sajóládu. After the u Tarcalu despite the initial unfavorable course battle dealt Zápolskému heavy defeat. Salm subsequently occupied Tokaj, the fort at Bodrogu or castle Boldogkö. Made Ferdinand control over crucial parts of Hungary, which allowed him to leave in Stoličném Belgrade to crown the Hungarian king. Salm is this coronation also attended, indeed, it was largely his merit and Ferdinand he did not forget to show gratitude.

Most notably, the earl of Salma entered the history in connection with the the first siege of Vienna by the Turks. An ailing old man at that time was in Baden, where was treated for his ailments, especially about gout. The supreme commander for the lower austrian country was established already in march 1528, but for his bad health with taking over the features lingered. When I but I couldn't doubt the reality of threats of invasion by the armies of the sultan Suleiman Also., let go of the Salm with all the verve to work. Oversaw the preparation of the defense work and the collection of troops. If 27. September 1529 the siege began, drove the count, the defensive struggle personally on the spot. This allowed him to have a good overview of the situation and improve the morale of the defenders, which was significantly less than the attackers. The count was but during the decisive attack 14. October 1529 badly wounded piece of odlétnutého stone in the leg. However, the following day they started the Turks from the Vienna download. In their rapid pursuit but could the commanders forget, because the soldiers began to rebel because of the pay. Finally managed to liberate Mosonmagyaróvár, Proposal, Pannonhalmu and eventually Esztergom. Due to lack of money to pay, but Salm with his army had to withdraw back to the Bratislava.

Due to the closed the truce and the ill-health he asked the count of Salm to the end of march 1530 the king, to deprive him of the functions of the commander in chief. The him in mid-April upheld, although the extremely difficult saying good-bye to the services of this warrior, who was always faithful and could suddenly reverse the very unfavourable state. Even if he failed, he'd be too valid, since the count is already 4. in may 1530, he died. He left behind two sons. Nicholas II. became his successor in the ancestral dominions, while Wolfgang became pasovským bishop. In total he had with his wife Elizabeth, nee von Rogendorf, four sons and four daughters.

Emperor Charles In. left him on a mark of thanks to build in Vienna a monument. In 1790, his body was transferred to the salmovské estate to Rájce nad Svitavou, today's components Rájce-Jestřebí.

Adolf Schinzl: Salm, If You Would Even. Chart zu. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 30, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890
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