List of author's articles

Almirante Grau - The last classic cruiser

The Peruvian cruiser Almirante Grau is currently the last operating representative of classic light cruisers from the Second World War. This veteran has an unusually intricate past, full of various twists.
🕔︎ 08.12.2014 👁︎ 18.500

Anti-missile RAM system

The rapid expansion of anti-ship missiles at the turn of the 60s and 70s forced the US Navy command to look for appropriate counter-weapons. One of them was the RAM missile system, developed in collaboration with Germany and put into service in the early 1990s.
🕔︎ 26.09.2012 👁︎ 14.540

ANZAC: Frigates from Down under

In August 2006, the frigate HMAS Perth was officially put into service. This is the last tenth ANZAC class vessel built for the Australian and New Zealand navies. Frigates of this type are interesting for the application of the modular concept of MEKO and for their numerous continuous modernizations.

🕔︎ 25.08.2008 👁︎ 25.006

ARA Vienticinco de Mayo vs. Task Force 317

The Argentine fleet did not play a major role in the Falklands War in 1982, despite initial bold intentions. Right at the beginning of the conflict, it was planned to attack aircraft from the aircraft carrier ARA Vienticinco de Mayo on Task Force 317, which was to eliminate its British counterparts, and thus air cover. It almost came to the first battle of aircraft carriers since the end of World War II, but everything was ultimately decided by British nuclear submarines.

🕔︎ 12.02.2015 👁︎ 17.706

Baynunah class corvettes

The United Arab Emirates, like other Arab countries in the Middle East, has long had no shipbuilding industry, let alone the ability to build warships. However, this situation is currently radically different. The Abu Dhabi Ship Building, founded in the mid-1990s, is successfully implementing a program to build six modern Baynunah-class corvettes.
🕔︎ 01.02.2015 👁︎ 14.449

Congo and Atago class destroyers - Part 1

The Congo and Atago class destroyers are a response to the need for vessels capable of providing effective air defense to the Japanese Navy's escort fleets even without the support of their own air force. These vessels are clones of American class A Burke destroyers and - like their model - are equipped with the Aegis system.
🕔︎ 08.03.2013 👁︎ 15.145

Congo and Atago class destroyers - Part 2: Against ballistic missiles

In addition to the provision of air defense escort fleets JMSDF, a new role was soon found for Congo-class units. The Japanese decided to use all the possibilities offered by the Aegis system and supplement the equipment of the destroyers so that they could be involved in an anti-missile umbrella protecting the state from possible strikes by ballistic missiles fired from the DPRK and the PRC. At the same time, a pair of units of the improved Atago class was built.
🕔︎ 25.09.2012 👁︎ 13.725

De Grasse and Colbert - long-lived swell (2. part)

After the anti-aircraft cruiser De Grasse, the Marine Nationale command ordered another, visually very similar unit. However, the vessel named "Colbert" differed fundamentally from its predecessor in a number of solutions. In contrast, it also underwent extensive modernization of the missile cruiser and much longer service.
🕔︎ 03.02.2017 👁︎ 8.848

Forgotten Saddam's fleet

The Iraqi Navy may have become one of the strongest in the Middle East in the second half of the 1980s. After suffering heavy losses at the beginning of the Iraq-Iran war, it ordered a number of new units in Italy. Although they were all completed on time and the training of their crews began, the handover of the vessels did not take place in the end for a number of reasons.
🕔︎ 05.09.2019 👁︎ 9.286

French Le Triomphant class

The backbone of the French nuclear deterrent force is currently the Le Triomphant class nuclear submarines. There are 48 M45 and M51 ballistic missiles on board, for which a total of 249 nuclear warheads are available after the reduction in weapons of mass destruction announced in 2006.

🕔︎ 31.01.2015 👁︎ 14.835

Frigates MEKO 200TN and 200HN (1) - Bestseller in Turkish presentation

The modular concept of the construction of MEKO warships was created with the intention of facilitating and reducing the cost of their construction and future modernization. Of the numerous MEKO family of vessels, the MEKO 200 series frigates achieved far the greatest commercial success, with a total of 25 built over two decades.
🕔︎ 30.09.2012 👁︎ 12.942

Frigates MEKO 200TN and 200HN (2) - Greek rivals

During the construction of the Yavuz class frigates, the age-old rival of Turkey - neighboring Greece - also became interested in the MEKO 200 type. In 1989, it ordered four slightly larger and somewhat better equipped Hydra-class units. Shortly afterwards, Turkey decided to acquire the second four improved frigates, completed in the Barbaros and Salihreis subclasses.
🕔︎ 03.10.2012 👁︎ 13.940

Frigates of the Álvaro de Bazán class

In February 2006, the Spanish Navy was joined by the last fourth anti-aircraft frigate of the Álvaro de Bazán class. These in many ways original units represent the first European vessels and at the same time the first frigate-sized vessels equipped with the American Aegis system.
🕔︎ 19.06.2008 👁︎ 33.290

Gotland class submarines - Evolution of the Swedish AIP propulsion

Gotland class submarines represent the last article in the evolution of Swedish post-war submarines. At the same time, these are the first Western series submarines, designed from the beginning to install an AIP drive. Its resulting concept, using the Stirling engine, is the result of decades of development.
🕔︎ 22.05.2011 👁︎ 33.985

Gotland-class submarines - A silent fear of the US Navy

The qualities of the Gotland class submarines were fully confirmed during the two-year internship of the first class unit in the USA. In a series of naval exercises, it became a threat to US Navy vessels and submarines. Work is currently underway on an extensive modernization of the classroom to keep it up to date.
🕔︎ 04.06.2011 👁︎ 36.233

Inhaúma class corvettes

Brazilian Inhaúma-class corvettes are the first modern warships designed by the domestic shipbuilding industry. However, a number of design errors were reflected in their poor nautical properties, stability and other shortcomings. These were removed only at the fifth unit of the Barroso class.
🕔︎ 21.09.2018 👁︎ 6.337

Legend named Tirpitz - Part 1

November 12, 2014 is a commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the sinking of the German battleship Tirpitz . This famous vessel gained great respect from its opponents without ever participating in a regular naval battle. In the introductory part of the series, we describe the first, more active period of his service in the Kriegsmarine.

🕔︎ 04.01.2016 👁︎ 32.523

Legend named Tirpitz - Part 2

The last 14 months of Tirpitz's service have been marked by continuing British efforts to sink him. The vessel spent them in the Norwegian fjords, where in November 1944, after being hit by heavy bombs Tallboy, his fate came true.
🕔︎ 04.01.2016 👁︎ 25.752

Luigi Durand de la Penne - Armament Controversy (Episode 2)

Luigi Durand de la Penne class destroyers were considered somewhat controversial units after enlistment. The reason was mainly the use of obsolete SM-1MR PLCs, which in the first half of the 90s did not meet the needs of the time. Therefore, almost immediately, consideration was given to replacing them with a more modern type, which, however, was only recently realized.
🕔︎ 20.02.2015 👁︎ 11.165

Luigi Durand de la Penne - The pinnacle of the evolution of Italian destroyers (part 1)

Luigi Durand de la Penne class destroyers are the last vessels in this category built for the Italian Navy. At the same time, it is one of the last representatives of Western destroyers designed during the Cold War. In many respects, these unique units inherited from their predecessors unusually strong main armament, which is typical of the Italian post-war design school.
🕔︎ 19.02.2015 👁︎ 12.439

Marte anti-ship missiles

Italian anti-ship missiles Marte were originally developed as an armament for navy helicopters. Although they have been in service for more than three decades, their evolution is far from over and several new versions are currently being developed.
🕔︎ 04.09.2011 👁︎ 18.332

MRK-5: Hurricane with a speed of 60 knots

The Soviet missile boat on the wings MRK-5 was the only built vessel of the Project 1240 Uragan. Its design, consistently subject to the requirement to reach a maximum speed of 60 knots, used a number of advanced solutions. However, despite the fact that MRK-5 fulfilled all VMF assignments, MRK-5 did not have any followers due to its complexity.
🕔︎ 27.02.2015 👁︎ 17.881

Nanuchka class corvettes - Part 1

Small strike warships have always been an important part of the surface forces of the Soviet Navy. After the end of World War II, torpedo boats were built en masse, but over time, due to their declining efficiency, they began to replace rocket boats. The next stage of development became small rocket ships, the first realized representative of which became the units of Project 1234 Ovod, known in the West as Nanuchka class corvettes.
🕔︎ 15.11.2011 👁︎ 44.277

Nanuchka class corvettes - Part 2

Nanuchka class corvettes were very heavily armed vessels for their size. Their entire construction was subject to the installation of the Malachit missile complex and the advanced weapon / combat control system Titanit. A total of 36 of them were built for VMF in the Ovod and Ovod-1 versions.
🕔︎ 22.11.2011 👁︎ 20.796

Nanuchka class corvettes - Part 3

Nanuchka class corvettes intended for VMF also include one lesser-known experimental vessel of Project 1234.7. A corvette named Nakat was built to test the new Oniks anti-ship missiles to replace the aging Malachites.
🕔︎ 28.10.2012 👁︎ 19.385

Nanuchky for export

Nanuchka-class corvettes were undoubtedly an advanced design for their time, and it was no wonder that shortly after their service in the VMF began, other states also showed interest in them. In accordance with the practice in the USSR, therefore, a simplified export version of Project 1234E was developed, in which the most advanced elements of equipment within the framework of secrecy were replaced by older systems.
🕔︎ 05.11.2012 👁︎ 15.065

Naval Avengers

The GAU-8 / A Avenger rotary cannon is known mainly for its use on the American A-10 Thunderbolt II fighter. However, this powerful weapon has also found application in several naval anti-missile systems. In addition to the relatively well-known Goalkeeper system, there were also several structures that have almost been forgotten today.
🕔︎ 11.11.2011 👁︎ 58.480

Otomat and Milas (1)

The Italian-French anti-ship missiles of the Otomat family belong to the relatively little-known types, which, however, have seen considerable expansion. The commercial success was also reflected in the long range of these missiles, which, in combination with sophisticated fire control systems, allowed them to attack targets far beyond the radar horizon.
🕔︎ 11.02.2015 👁︎ 13.027

Otomat and Milas (2)

The development of anti-ship missiles Otomat continued in the 80s and 90s with new variants, such as Otomach 2, Otomat Mk.3 or TESEO 3. However, none of them received serial production, unlike other related weapons. These are Milas missile torpedoes, which together with the latest version of the Otomat Mk.2 Block IV are probably the last members of the family.
🕔︎ 11.02.2015 👁︎ 14.377

Seawolf class submarines - Part 1

US Seawolf-class attack nuclear submarines were designed during the height of the Cold War. Their primary purpose was to destroy Soviet submarines in icy Arctic waters. A number of innovative elements were used in the construction of Seawolf class units, which was to ensure them a great advantage even over the best submarines of the enemy.
🕔︎ 23.02.2013 👁︎ 25.966

Seawolf class submarines - Part 2

Seawolf-class submarines, primarily designed to " sweep away " the Arctic seas from their Soviet counterparts, lost their main purpose after the end of the Cold War.
🕔︎ 25.02.2013 👁︎ 26.506

Seawolf missile system

Seawolf is the first representative of Western naval anti-aircraft systems also designed to destroy anti-ship control systems. The system has achieved considerable expansion in the Royal Navy , but despite the hopes placed in it by its manufacturer, it has not been able to make a significant impact abroad. The exemplary start of an operational career combined with a successful combat deployment in the Falkland conflict did not help.

🕔︎ 22.02.2015 👁︎ 13.871

South Korean Destroyers KDX (Part 1)

The South Korean Navy has recently become the fifth member of the elite club of shipowners equipped with the Aegis system. The KDX-III destroyers that carry it represent the 3rd generation of home-built destroyers developed under the KDX program for more than two decades. The units emerging from the program currently represent the backbone of the surface fleet.
🕔︎ 06.09.2011 👁︎ 16.746

South Korean Destroyers KDX (Part 2)

The KDX-I and KDX-II class destroyers were followed by completely different and significantly larger KDX-III class units. These vessels equipped with the Aegis system are structurally based on American class A Burke destroyers. They are among the largest in the world in their category and are rightly considered the pride of the South Korean navy.
🕔︎ 09.09.2011 👁︎ 15.919

Thai frigates - Made in China

The Royal Thai Navy is the largest user of export frigates of Chinese origin. At the turn of the 1980s and 1990s, a total of six were bought in two classes. However, the low price of the first four vessels was matched by their quality, and the other two units were completed with extensive German technical assistance.
🕔︎ 03.11.2012 👁︎ 15.381

The invisible shield of the Norwegian fjords Skjold

Skjold class rocket boats (translated as "shield") are the result of a long evolution of vessels of this category for the specific needs of the Royal Norwegian Navy. Their design uniquely combines small size, "stealth", strong armament and at the same time excellent nautical properties and the ability to develop very high speeds.
🕔︎ 09.11.2012 👁︎ 17.926

The most powerful naval twenty-fives

The creators of small-caliber anti-missile systems of the CIWS category have always preferred weapons firing ammunition with high ballistic performance. The KBB and KBD cannons from the Swiss company Oerlikon, using 25 x 184 mm ammunition, were among the most powerful. Despite their undeniable qualities, however, the systems that used them did not experience greater sales success.
🕔︎ 04.03.2013 👁︎ 19.631

The Pegasus Saga - Part 1: From Asheville Avenue to hydrofoils

American Pegasus class rocket boats were avant-garde units, built on the basis of hydrofoils during the 70's and 80's. Their final form was the result of many years of development and the formation of US Navy requirements for small fast strike vessels.
🕔︎ 20.02.2011 👁︎ 17.606

The Pegasus Saga - Part 2: Rocket Boat Killers

The pioneering hydrofoil USS High Point was followed by experimental gunboats USS Flagstaff and USS Tucumcari. Based on the positive test results of these vessels, a new multi-purpose hydrofoil was developed for the US Navy in the late 1960s. Similar units, designed mainly for the destruction of Soviet missile boats, at that time were also required by NATO states. Subsequently, another joint development procedure was agreed on the basis of the American project.
🕔︎ 15.05.2011 👁︎ 19.578

The Pegasus Saga - Part 3: The rise and fall of the winged steed

From the beginning, the PHM program was marked by disagreements between the participants and subsequently also by a large excess of the planned costs. This has led all NATO nations to withdraw from the program. In the end, the US Navy alone bought only six units, which had only a short career and were decommissioned in 1993.
🕔︎ 18.05.2011 👁︎ 16.863

US Special Forces in the Tanker War or Secret Operations in Indian country

US involvement in the tanker war - Operation Earnest Will, which was tasked with protecting Kuwaiti tanker convoys, was inherently linked to the participation of US Special Forces. These fought a covert war with the Iranian Revolutionary Guard operating in the northern regions of the Persian Gulf called "Indian country" for almost a year.

🕔︎ 15.02.2015 👁︎ 16.796

White elephant of the post-war Royal Navy

The British missile destroyer HMS Bristol was a prototype of the intended eight-member Type 82 series. However, it never survived its sisters, which earned it the unflattering status of a white elephant in the Royal Navy. Nevertheless, it has survived to the present day in the form of a stationary training ship and will serve until the end of the decade.
🕔︎ 08.02.2017 👁︎ 12.362

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