The Permanent Tribunal of Nations recognized the crime of genocide, in June 1987 the European Parliament recognized the Armenian genocide and declared Turkey's refusal to recognize genocide a serious obstacle to its accession to the European Union.
Diploma thesis, Faculty of Law, Charles University in Prague, 1998
The systematic destruction of numerous masses of the population on the basis of their affiliation to a certain group - national, religious, political, ethnic, cultural or other - has marked the history of mankind since time immemorial.
In its preamble, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide identifies genocide as a crime under international law rejected by the civilized world, which has caused great loss to humanity in all periods of history and the eradication of which requires international cooperation.
Prohibition of genocide as a mandatory norm of international law.
Already at the time of the approval of the Convention, there were voices that the definition of genocide as it appeared in the final text was disproportionately narrow. Among the groups to which the Convention provides protection, in the opinion of many, other groups should have appeared, such as cultural, social, but especially political.
Crime without prosecutor and judge.
The debatable Genocide Convention failed to give a sufficiently precise and authoritative definition of genocide, another lack of the Convention, the absence of institutional and coercive mechanisms for genocide, directly threatened the main purpose of the Convention, ie to prevent and punish this serious crime.
The practical implementation ( or rather non-implementation ) of the Convention on Genocide has become sad evidence of the inability of the international community to deal effectively with violations of even the most basic rules of international law. States have never decided to intervene vigorously, even at a time when genocide could still be prevented, or at a time when tens of thousands of people were already dying in genocidal massacres, and even when the perpetrators of the crime of genocide had already been ousted and captured and punished. . Instead of a real solution to the problem of genocide, the international community has usually been alibi-satisfied in stating " serious concern " and providing humanitarian assistance to the victims.
Prevent, not just punish. The establishment of international criminal tribunals to punish crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda has reopened the question of the creation of a permanent international criminal court and the development of a code of international criminal law.
Chiune Sugihara (1900-1986)
The stories of the Jews during the Second world war come often "completely known" and examined to the smallest detail. The deportation and systematic murder of the Jews were enforced by the Nazis, mostly without resistance, perhaps with the exception of a few brave individuals who tried to help the Jews on their own. Yet there is a country that managed defeat the Nazis in the fight for the lives of its Jews. That country is Denmark.
Rudolf Vrba was not just a man who escaped from the Auschwitz concentration camp and told the world the truth about the extermination of Jews there. He was also a man who had a sharp conflict with Israeli Jews after World War II and whose name is still not well known among Jews.
Introduction The security of international relations was disrupted by three global conflicts during the 20th century. The First and Second World Wars were followed by a bipolar confrontation between the USSR and the USA - the so-called Cold War. Today, these global conflicts have been replaced by problems of an internal nature located in demarcated areas. Unfortunately, Rwanda is not the only case of such conflicts, others are, for example, Darfur, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo in Europe and the Caucasus region.
1. History of the conflict in Rwanda Rwanda is a small inland state in Central Africa, also known as the Land of Thousands of Hills. This densely populated country in Africa, with a total population of 10.5 million, borders Uganda in the north, Burundi in the south, Congo in the west and Tanzania in the east. The population of Rwanda is divided into three ethnic groups - Hutus, Tutsis and Twa. The Hutus have always been the majority group and before the genocide they made up 89% of the population. A minority of Tutsis accounted for 10% and members of the Twa tribe for 1%.
2. The UN as an actor in international relations The most respected and influential actor on international security is undoubtedly the United Nations, which was created by the will of the founding states, which delegated some powers to it and thus gave it international subjectivity without which it could not perform its functions; meet the set objectives.
3. The crime of genocide in international law Genocide is an extreme type of ethnic cleansing. It is a systematic extermination of the masses of the population on the basis of their affiliation to a certain group - national, religious, political, ethnic, cultural or other.
4. UN measures and their effectiveness Genocide is not an outbreak of spontaneous violence, but above all a well-planned action. The executor is not the crowd, but an organized force; most often a political party or army. In Rwanda, it was President Habyarimana's MRND party and the Akazu informal group.
List of used sources
The security of international relations was disrupted by three global conflicts during the 20th century. The First and Second World Wars were followed by a bipolar confrontation between the USSR and the USA - the so-called Cold War. Today, these global conflicts have been replaced by problems of an internal nature located in demarcated areas. Unfortunately, Rwanda is not the only case of such conflicts, others are, for example, Darfur, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo in Europe and the Caucasus region.
Before and during World War II, the Nazis set up a number of ghettos and extermination camps. The largest ghettos were located in Warsaw and Łódz. There were 200,000 Jews in the Łódz ghetto, of whom 45,000 died of starvation, fatigue and exhaustion. The Warsaw ghetto was equally harsh and inhumane, killing 83,000 Jews in less than twenty months. From 1942, the deportation of Polish Jews to death camps began.